Federalism and International Conferences on Education, Supplement to Federalism and International Relations

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FEDERALISM AND
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES
ON EDUCATION

A Supplement to

FEDERALISM AND
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

Honourable Mitchell Sharp
Secretary of State for External Affairs


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Table of Contents

Chapter Page
I INTRODUCTION 4
II THE INDIVISIBILITY OF FOREIGN POLICY 8
III INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES—THE COMMONWEALTH AND GENERAL INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 14
(A) General 14
(B) The Commonwealth 16
(C) International Organizations 18
(i) United Nations Educational, Social and Cultural Organization 18
(ii) International Conference on Public Education 22
IV INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES—LA FRANCOPHONIE 26
(A) General 26
(B) Canadian attitude toward la Francophonie 28
(C) Intergovernmental Conferences On Education 32
(D) Consultations with Other States 38
V EDUCATION AND INTERNATIONAL AID 42
VI THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONFERENCE AND PROPOSALS FOR THE FUTURE 48
VII CONCLUSIONS 56
ANNEXES 60


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CHAPTER I

Introduction

At the conclusion of the Federal Provincial Conference on the Constitution, in February 1968, the Government issued a study entitled Federalism and International Relations, in which full consideration was given to the ways in which Canadian foreign policy is being developed so as to reflect the bilingual character of Canada and take account of the growing interest of the provinces in international matters relating to Subjects falling within their jurisdiction. That document makes it clear that the purpose of Canada’s foreign policy is to serve all Canadians in a wide Variety of areas which extend from diplomatic representation and collective security to economic development and the strengthening of cultural ties and to measures to protect and promote the welfare of the individual Canadian. It also makes clear that, far from wishing to ignore or oppose provincial aspirations to benefit from contacts with the world community, the Federal Government is anxious to ensure that Canada’s foreign policy meets provincial needs and wishes, and the requirements of the two major linguistic communities in Canada.

Recent events have given rise to widespread interest in this problem. The fact of the participation of the Province of Quebec at the ministerial level in a conference of ministers of education of French-speaking states in Libreville and then in Paris has centred attention on Quebec, but these are matters which concern all the provinces and all the people of Canada.

The paper Federalism and International Relations examines the broad question of foreign policy as an expression of the national interest. It deals with a wide range of subjects which include Canadian representation at international conferences and in international organizations. The purpose of the present study is to expand on these areas of the earlier paper, by exploring

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the issues involved as they relate to intergovernmental conferences as well as to Canadian participation in bodies such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Conference on Public Education, and the Commonwealth. To this end, this study sets out the procedures followed in the past by the Federal Government, which have been developed in conjunction with the provinces, with regard to ensuring adequate provincial, linguistic and regional representation at conferences and in international organizations. Further, the present study examines the proposals made by the Federal Government with respect to representation at conferences of la Francophonie, in order to ensure that the interests of both the federal and provincial governments are protected. The study also explores possible courses designed to open the way to a solution to this important problem.

From the document that follows, the Government is confident that it will emerge clearly that its attitude has been flexible and receptive. The Government remains prepared to give careful consideration to any proposals which are consistent with the continued existence of Canada as a single, united country.

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CHAPTER II

The Indivisibility of Foreign Policy

The issues raised by the question of provincial attendance at intergovernmental conferences are not related merely to form or protocol, as has sometimes been suggested. In fact, they raise two fundamental policy questions, which go to the heart of our Canadian federal system:

First—can Canadian foreign policy and foreign relations be divided?

Second—if foreign policy is indivisible, and Canada must speak with one voice, is the Federal Government willing to promote the interests of all Canadians, of both major linguistic groups?

The answer to the first question is “no”.

The answer to the second is “yes”.

The central problem at issue concerns the very nature of foreign policy in the modern world. What precisely are external relations and foreign policy? Can some relations with states he considered to be part of the foreign policy of a country while others can be considered to be outside this sphere?

The question involved is one of principle: who is responsible for Canadian representation abroad, whether in matters of education or any other matters within provincial jurisdiction?

It has sometimes been suggested that the provinces have this right in matters over which they have domestic legislative competence, and that this has been shown by court decisions, for example in the celebrated Labour Conventions Case of 1937. This interpretation is not well-founded. The question at issue in that case was whether the Parliament of Canada could, in order to implement a treaty entered into by the Canadian Government, legislate in fields of domestic provincial jurisdiction under the British North

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America Act. The case decided that the Parliament of Canada could not legislate in areas of provincial jurisdiction simply as a result of the Canadian Government’s entering into international agreements. However, the judges of the Supreme Court of Canada explicitly recognized that the Canadian Government could enter into treaties on all subjects, and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, which was the final court in that case, did not challenge this opinion. Thus, in no respect did the judges question the external affairs power of the Canadian Government as such or support the view that provincial competence extended abroad.

In light of this decision, both federal and provincial governments have worked on a co-operative basis toward the implementation of international agreements. The principles underlying this co-operation are described in Federalism and International Relations, where proposals are also made for strengthening procedures for federal-provincial collaboration.

There would be obvious problems involved in accepting the view that, in a federal state, a member or part can be responsible for international relations in respect of subjects concerning which it has, or shares, competence domestically. If this were the case, a province would be free to pursue an independent foreign policy in certain fields to the exclusion of the Federal Government. It would have to be accepted, in particular, that a province would be free to pursue its own foreign policy or external relations, not only in respect of education but in fields such as labour, health and welfare, and agriculture, and other areas where the provinces share jurisdiction with the Federal Government. Because so large a part of contemporary international relations concerns matters of this nature, the members or parts of a federal state would then be responsible for a major proportion of the country’s foreign policy.

Acceptance of the above proposition would have further serious international consequences. In the case of Canada, ten or eleven voices could speak for the country on various questions. Some might not agree with others, which would exacerbate conflicts of interest within the country, and could in turn be exploited by foreign countries. Moreover, although a province might reflect adequately its own separate interest, it would not be likely to take full account of the larger Canadian interest. Neither the Government of Canada, nor that of any other country, could accept such a state of affairs. And, in fact, none has.

Furthermore, if a province were free to conduct its own foreign policy in areas under its domestic jurisdiction, it would thereby be at liberty to conduct relations with all countries without regard to national policy considerations. Thus, for example, a province could attempt to establish or maintain

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relations with a country with which Canada did not have diplomatic relations. Common sense indicates that, at the very least, this would place very serious strains on national unity.

The additional argument that intergovernmental conferences of a “technical” nature do not raise problems having foreign policy implications fails to take account of the realities of international relations in the modern world.

Educational matters, when they involve participants from other governments at an international conference, cease to be purely technical and domestic questions and take on a new dimension, involving foreign policy. And foreign policy deals with the outside world in matters which involve the whole country and all its parts.

The very nature of international affairs is such that it is not possible to divide external relations into one category that relates to “technical” or “provincial” matters and another which deals with “foreign policy”. The work of various UN agencies, such as UNESCO, the ILO, WHO and FAQ, all of which deal in part with matters of provincial interest and concern, affords ample proof of the political character of international co-operation in technical fields.

Foreign policy is the external expression of a country’s sovereignty and it must harmonize various. domestic policies which have external ramifications. That a country should have several separate votes at an intergovernmental conference can mean that it would have more than one foreign policy. Foreign policy cannot be fragmented. If it is, internal divisions are immediately exported and compounded.

Moreover, if countries deal with a government other than the national one, without prior agreement, questions will arise whether such acts constitute recognition of another entity at the international level. In these conditions, if a dialogue is sustained by one country with a state or province of another country, rather than with the national government, harmonious relations become very difficult to maintain. As a result, countries have accepted as law among themselves that in their relations with each other they will use only one channel with regard to matters of official business or policy. Over the years, cases have arisen which have required the Government to draw to the attention of various provinces and foreign governments concerned that the conduct of external relations is the concern of the Government of Canada. No state, no matter how powerful internally its component parts may be, has ever been in a position to divide external sovereignty.

In the international world, there may be large and small units. There are and can be no half units.

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CHAPTER III

Intergovernmental Conferences—The Commonwealth and
General International Organizations

(A) GENERAL

The second question posed at the outset remains to be considered: if foreign policy is indivisible, is the Government of Canada willing to promote all Canadian interests—the interests of Canadians of both major linguistic groups, and of all provinces and regions?

The answer is “yes”.

It is, in fact, because the Government is fully conscious of its responsibilities to all of Canada and to all Canadians that it has given a bilingual and bicultural character to its foreign policy. The Government’s policy in this respect has been described in some detail in the paper Federalism and International Relations.

In order to provide a better understanding of how a federal state such as Canada deals with the problem of representation at international conferences in a variety of areas of interest and concern to Canadians as a whole, including both major linguistic groups, it is useful to examine Canadian practice in connection with various international meetings. The problems raised recently in connection with participation at international meetings of ministers from French-speaking states are not unique. They are similar to those which the Canadian federal and provincial governments have dealt with in the past in connection with a variety of meetings relating to education. Although the experience in arranging for Canadian delegations to international and technical meetings is, of course, not limited to the field of education, the account provided in this study deals mainly with education, because this is an important area of provincial concern.

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This chapter, accordingly, analyzes recent Canadian practice in arranging for delegations to (i) education meetings held within the Commonwealth, (ii) meetings of the Specialized Agency of the United Nations which deals with education, i.e. UNESCO, and (iii) the International Conference on Public Education (held under the auspices of the International Bureau of Education and UNESCO).

It will be seen that attendance at international meetings on education must be examined in two contexts. First, the broad international context, which relates to meetings of international organizations in which all members of the United Nations can participate. Second, meetings of special interest to Canada, in the light of our bilingual heritage.

A survey of this experience demonstrates that the federal and provincial governments have Worked closely together, and successfully, to achieve balanced delegations to international conferences on education which take full account of both federal jurisdiction in external affairs and provincial jurisdiction in relation to education in Canada.

(B) THE COMMONWEALTH

As part of our cultural heritage, Canada has consistently taken an active part in Commonwealth meetings on education.

Commonwealth Education Conferences are held every three or four years, and bring together the principal educational authorities of the member states of the Commonwealth. These states are both federal and unitary. But regardless of their constitutional structure, and regardless of the assignment of jurisdiction for education within their constitutions, Commonwealth Education Conferences bring together unified national delegations. Invitations are issued to the central authority in each case.

When, in accordance with normal international usage, the Canadian Government receives its invitation to such conferences, consultations regarding Canadian participation are initiated with the provincial governments and other interested authorities. Canadian delegations attending these conferences include a number of provincial education authorities.

Thus, for example, Quebec’s first Minister of Education was a member of the Canadian delegation to the Third Commonwealth Education Conference held in Ottawa in 1964 and was elected Chairman of the Conference.

As a further example, the most recent Commonwealth Conference on Education, held in Lagos in February of this year, included deputy

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ministers of education from Saskatchewan, New Brunswick and Alberta, as well as an associate deputy minister of education from Quebec. Prior to the Conference, the Federal Government accepted the nominations put forward by the Council of Ministers of Education, a body comprising ministers of education from all provinces.

The Council of Ministers of Education, its predecessor, the Standing Committee of Ministers of Education, and, in earlier years, the Canadian Education Association, acting as a liaison office for the provincial departments of education, have played a significant role in establishing the composition of Canadian delegations to Commonwealth education meetings. It is also worth noting, in connection with the composition of the delegation to the Lagos Conference, that, as in the case of earlier conferences, the delegation represented Canada as a whole. The delegation was chaired by the president of a Canadian university, and included prominent university figures, the provincial deputy ministers mentioned above, and federal officials as advisers on matters having foreign policy implications.

Further, with respect to the guidance provided to such delegations, the Federal Government has not concerned itself with educational issues, recognizing that these are matters of provincial responsibility. Instead, the Federal Government, in the exercise of its obligations respecting foreign relations, has provided briefings and guidance on questions relating to Canadian budgetary contributions and broader issues in the foreign policy field which frequently arise.

As a matter of policy, Canadian delegations to these meetings regularly include French-speaking officials, as well as French-speaking persons from universities. This practice reflects the Government’s recognition that the Commonwealth heritage commands the interest of Canadians of both major linguistic groups.

Thus, the interests of the provinces in matters of provincial jurisdiction arising in the Commonwealth context have been and will continue to be fully safeguarded without at the same time eroding in any way the unity of Canada. Full co-operation between the provinces and the federal authorities has been notable in this field and it is the hope of the Federal Government that consultative procedures which have proved satisfactory can be further developed in the future.

(C) INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

(i) United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

Since the end of the Second World War, several international organizations have been established for the achievement of international co-operation in relation to a number of matters falling in whole or in part within provincial jurisdiction in Canada. As these organizations have increased in

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number and importance, the Federal Government has strengthened the role played by the provinces in Canada’s relationship with them.

The Specialized Agency with particular responsibilities in the field of education is the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). As a general rule, membership in the Specialized Agencies, including UNESCO, is open only to sovereign states. The constitutions of these agencies normally qualify the type of “state” which is eligible for membership by specifying that it must be able to accept the obligations which flow from membership in the organizations. For this reason, such states must have capacity to enter into agreements legally binding in international law.

In federal states, only the federation as a whole meets these criteria and, for this reason, only the Federal Government can qualify as the representative of the state which is eligible for membership in such Organizations. If constituent parts of federal states could qualify for membership, this would amount to recognizing that each of the parts had independent status in the world. No member of a federal union has, since the inception of the United Nations system in 1945, been considered eligible for membership in international organizations except for the Ukraine and Byelorussia, which are universally recognized as special cases, the circumstances of whose admission to the United Nations is of very little relevance from the standpoint of other federal states.

In Federalism and International Relations, a detailed description is provided of the ways in which the Federal Government, in arranging for representation of this country in the Specialized Agencies, takes account of both provincial interests and the bilingual character of our country. In recent years, the Government has given special emphasis to working out arrangements designed to strengthen the role played by the provinces in Canada’s participation in these organizations.

In the case of UNESCO meetings, the following is a summary of the main guidelines which the Federal Government now follows in arranging for Canadian representation:

(a) Provincial ministers of education are invited, on a regular basis, to attend sessions of the UNESCO General Conference as observers attached to the Canadian delegation.

(b) The Federal Government invites provincial officials to form part of the Canadian delegation to each session of the General Conference in the capacity of delegates or special advisers.

(c) In addition, a provincial minister or ministers may be invited to act as Canadian delegates to General Conferences.

(d) In respect of General Conferences and other meetings of UNESCO in the educational field, the Federal Government will consult the Council of Ministers of Education on all matters relating to the

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provincial component of the Canadian delegation. It will also continue to seek advice from the Canadian National Commission for UNESCO, which maintains liaison with provincial educational interests and also those of non-governmental organizations concerned with various aspects of education.

(e) The Federal Government is developing procedures designed to ensure that the provinces are provided, on a regular basis, with documentation published on various questions falling within their fields of interest.

(f) General guidance provided by the Federal Government to Canadian delegations to international meetings on education takes full account, as in the case of Commonwealth meetings, of the fact that education is a provincial matter; accordingly, such guidance is directed toward issues which have foreign policy implications or which relate to other matters which fall wholly or partly within federal jurisdiction.

(g) It is the policy of the Canadian Government that representation at UNESCO meetings should reflect Canada’s bilingual character. This requirement is being met with respect to the numbers of English- and French-speaking Canadians serving on Canadian delegations to such meetings. It is being increasingly taken into account in terms of the use of the two official languages.

As an illustration of the above guide-lines, delegations to recent UNESCO conferences and meetings have included deputy ministers (or assistant or associate deputy ministers) from various provinces—for example, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Two provincial ministers attended the last UNESCO General Conference in 1966 as observers attached to the Canadian delegation. In addition, that delegation included provincial representatives from Saskatchewan and Quebec at the deputy minister level. The mother tongue of a substantial proportion of the delegation to the conference was French.

As a further illustration of the application of these guide-lines, the Council of Ministers of Education was consulted by the Federal Government in connection with the selection of a Canadian delegation of observers to a regional conference of European ministers of education held in Vienna in 1967 under the auspices of UNESCO.

(ii) International Conference on Public Education

Each year, the International Conference on Public Education is convened jointly by UNESCO and the International Bureau of Education (IBE), an intergovernmental body with headquarters in Geneva. All members of UNESCO are invited to attend these conferences.

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For a number of years following the Second World War, Canada did not participate officially in these conferences. Representatives of various interested bodies in Canada, including the Canadian Education Association and such professional bodies as l’Association canadienne des Educateurs de Langue française (ACELF) and the Canadian Teachers Federation (CTF), sent observers who attended in a private capacity. In 1966, and again in 1967, however, arrangements were made to enable Canada to participate officially.

As an illustration of the type of arrangement worked out by the federal and provincial governments and the Council of Ministers of Education, the Canadian delegation to the International Conference on Education in 1967 was composed of:

Head of Delegation: Deputy Minister of Education,
Saskatchewan;

Delegates: Deputy Minister of Education,
British Columbia;

Assistant Deputy Minister of Education,
Quebec;

Vice-president of l’Association canadienne des
Educateurs de Langue française
and Special
Adviser to Ontario Minister of
Education.

The 1966 delegation to the Conference was composed along similar lines.

In addition to provincial delegates, the Canadian Government has also appointed to these delegations an adviser from the staff of the Canadian Permanent Mission to the United Nations in Geneva, to assist the members in respect of matters having foreign policy implications. A number of such issues have arisen in recent years at annual conferences, particularly with regard to African colonial questions, seating of delegations and similar political matters.

Thus, as in the case of Commonwealth and UNESCO meetings on education, the Canadian Government follows the same general approach in connection with conferences held under the auspices of the IBE. The Federal Government takes full account of and respects provincial jurisdiction in the field of education. The specific guide-lines that the Federal Government employs are similar to those set out in the preceding section on UNESCO.

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CHAPTER IV

International Conferences—la Francophonie

(A) GENERAL

The principles developed in connection with attendance at, and participation in, Commonwealth education meetings and international organizations such as UNESCO are also applicable, in the Government’s view, to Canadian representation in la Francophonie. The establishment of specific procedures for federal-provincial co-operation in the latter field, particularly in respect of educational conferences, will require further consultation between the Federal Government and the provinces, but there can be no doubt that Canada’s bilingual character entails a lasting interest on the part of all Canadians in close and harmonious relations with the French-speaking world.

Thus far, there have been no general conferences of all French-speaking states in respect of educational matters. However, for several years there have been meetings of the Conference of African and Malagasy Ministers of National Education which have brought together representatives from France and a number of French-speaking African states. These conferences are essentially regional in nature and deal with questions relating to educational exchanges between France and countries of the area. Thus, countries from outside the area which use French as an official or working language, for example in North Africa, Asia and Europe, are not participants. However, Quebec received an invitation to attend, and was present at, the session held in Libreville in February 1968 and was also present at the resumed session held in Paris in April 1968. Canada’s attempts to obtain an invitation to these sessions, which would have allowed all of Canada to be represented, were not acted upon.

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As will be seen below, the Federal Government has put forward certain proposals, of both a general and specific nature, concerning Canadian participation in intergovernmental meetings of la Francophonie. The Government considers that, although these proposals may require further elaboration, they provide in broad outline for procedures which take full account of the interests of Quebec, as the province in which the great majority of French-speaking Canadians live, as well as provinces with large French-speaking minorities such as New Brunswick and Ontario, and which at the same time respect the requirements of Canadian unity.

The attitude of the Government toward la Francophonie and the nature of proposals which it has put forward are set out below.

(B) CANADIAN ATTITUDE TOWARD la Francophonie

Canada’s bicultural approach in foreign affairs has led to a vigorous policy for the expansion of our relations with French-speaking states.

This policy applies first and foremost to France. There are few countries with which we have had such a long and harmonious history of partnership; few with which it is more natural and beneficial that we should have the closest possible relationship. This is and will remain the policy of the Canadian Government.

An important element in this policy has been the desire on the part of the Canadian Government to facilitate contacts between France, on the one hand, and, on the other, Quebec and provinces with large French-speaking minorities. The Canadian Government accordingly entered into a Cultural Agreement with France in 1965 which authorized all provinces to enter into ententes or arrangements with France in the field of culture, education and related matters within the framework of the Canada-France Cultural Agreement. It was pursuant to this same policy that Canada took steps to facilitate the functioning of the Quebec Délégation Générale in Paris. The Canadian Government will continue to favour the maintenance of the closest possible contacts between France and the provinces of Canada, with a view to strengthening the cultural bonds that link our two countries.

Well before the idea of la Francophonie as such was broached, Canada was also keenly interested in developing and strengthening relations with other states in which French is an official language. Our traditional ties with Belgium and Switzerland are being strengthened by a new cultural programme. A cultural agreement was concluded with Belgium in May 1967 and substantial funds are being devoted to the development of cultural exchanges with these countries. Our first diplomatic missions and our aid programme in francophone Africa were established during the early years of this decade, shortly after the emergence of the new African states on the international plane.

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Our aid programme to francophone countries in that area has increased very substantially every year since then—indeed, at an average rate of about 50 per cent annually. It will total almost $20 million in the next year and will continue to expand rapidly.

The development of la Francophonie as the expression of a cultural and linguistic inheritance common to the French-speaking world has been given particular priority by the Government and has taken many forms. The Secretary of State for External Affairs said in the House of Commons in October 1966 that:

. . . the Canadian Government fully supports the idea of developing closer links and more exchanges, particularly in the cultural and related fields, with those countries which, like Canada, share the heritage of the French language and culture. It is the policy of the Canadian Government to give full expression, in its international relations, to the bilingual and bicultural character of our country. The development of our ties with the francophone countries, which we have pressed vigorously over the last few years, represents a new and valuable dimension of Canadian diplomacy. . . . we are anxious to use our powers in the foreign affairs field to promote and further the interests of all Canadians, including, of course, those relating to our unique French-speaking heritage. . . . The Canadian Government is, accordingly, anxious to enlist the support and active participation of interested provinces, and the Province of Quebec in particular, in such an endeavour.

It is natural that Canada should show a special interest in la Francophonie. Canadians have something of special value to offer in this field and also have much to learn. There are more than 6,000,000 people who speak French in Canada, and the Canadian Government is responsible for representing the interests of all of them abroad. In Ontario alone there are more French-speaking persons than in some independent francophone states. There are large groups in various parts of Canada which have a legitimate interest in events affecting the French-speaking world.

The Canadian Government has undertaken practical steps to give substance to that interest. Canada agrees with the definition of la Francophonie given by President Senghor of Senegal as an intellectual or spiritual community of all countries having French as a national or official language. This idea has been developing through associations of francophone jurists, broadcasters, journalists, doctors and parliamentarians. To give further concrete evidence of Canada’s interest, the Federal Government has decided to give one of these associations (Association des Universités partiellement ou entièrement de langue française) an annual grant and to make a yearly contribution over the next five years to the Fonds international de Coopération universitaire.

Canada is also a founding member of the Association internationale des Parlementaires de langue française and participates in the Association parlementaire France-Canada. Canada has in addition played an active role

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in the United Nations committee for the defence of the French language, known as Le Comité de Coordination des Délégations d’Expression française, and in the Communauté radiophonique de langue française. And the Canadian Government has given its support to such new French-speaking associations as the Institut international de Droit des Pays d’Expression française (IDEF) and the Association internationale des Journalistes de langue française.

In this policy toward la Francophonie and the development of our bilateral ties with French-speaking states, the Federal Government has attempted to secure the maximum support of the Quebec government and to facilitate its participation in every way. Our aim is to work hand in hand with Quebec and with all the provinces in this matter.

(C) INTERGOVERNMENTAL CONFERENCES ON EDUCATION

In accordance with the Government’s policy toward la Francophonie, and its desire to ensure that Canada should play a significant role in this movement, consultations were begun with the Province of Quebec in the late autumn of last year with a view to determining the nature of Canadian participation. Following initial indications that Quebec might be invited to attend the next session of the Conference of African and Malagasy Ministers of National Education, to be held early in 1968, and that a general conference of la Francophonie might be held later in the year, the Prime Minister wrote to the Prime Minister of Quebec on December 1, 1967, to suggest that arrangements be agreed upon between the two governments with respect to la Francophonie generally, which would allow for full Quebec participation in Canadian representation. The Government’s proposals were based upon an extension of the principles underlying arrangements worked out between the Federal Government and the provinces for attendance at Commonwealth and UNESCO conferences on education. The Prime Minister’s letter read as follows with respect to delegations to conferences of la Francophonie:

The composition of the Canadian delegation will, of course, be dependent on the subject matter of the meeting. If such a meeting, for instance, should deal with questions of a general character, or with external aid, it would then seem desirable for the Secretary of State for External Affairs to lead the Canadian delegation, which I would hope would also include strong representation from Quebec. If, on the other hand, the purpose of the conference was, for example, to deal exclusively with education, it would then be appropriate for the Minister of Education of Quebec to be a member of the Canadian delegation, if such was your wish. Needless to say, he should occupy within this delegation a place appropriate to his position, taking into account the nature of the conference. In certain cases, the Quebec Minister might well be the head of the Canadian delegation.

Discussions were subsequently arranged between senior federal officials —acting under the Prime Minister’s instructions—and the Quebec authorities. During these discussions, the Federal Government proposed that the federal

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and Quebec governments should agree that the Quebec Minister of Education should head any Canadian delegation to the meeting of education ministers to be held in Libreville, Gabon, and that this arrangement should be communicated by the Canadian Government to the organizers of the conference with a view to an invitation being issued to Canada. The reaction of the Quebec authorities was non-committal, and no agreement was reached on the composition of a Canadian delegation.

The conference took place in Libreville from February 5 to 10, and was attended by France, Quebec and 15 independent francophone African states. Delegations were represented at the ministerial level. The Minister of Education of Quebec was accompanied by a delegation of three officials from the Quebec government.

Following the failure to reach agreement on the composition of a Canadian delegation to attend the Libreville conference, the Government again communicated with the Quebec authorities with a view to arriving at an understanding on future meetings. In a letter of March 8 to the Prime Minister of Quebec, Prime Minister Pearson re-emphasized that the Federal Government’s purpose was to find arrangements which “would allow the Province of Quebec to make a full contribution to the development of la Francophonie and to be represented in discussions concerning various matters of interest to the French-speaking world in a manner which would be compatible with the continued existence of a sovereign and independent Canada”.

With regard to education meetings, the Prime Minister summarized the Federal Government’s position as follows:

I would envisage that at meetings of ministers of education held within the context of la Francophonie, the Minister of Education of Quebec would, as a general practice, represent Canada as chairman of the Canadian delegation, a possibility to which I referred in my earlier letter and which was followed up in subsequent discussions. At such times, I think it would be desirable and compatible with their responsibilities that ministers or officials from other provinces, particularly those with large French-speaking populations, should be added as appropriate to the delegation. I refer in particular to Ontario and New Brunswick. There would be occasions, no doubt, when it would be appropriate for a minister from another province to be chairman of the delegation. If there were advisers from the Federal Government on the Canadian delegation, they would not, of course, involve themselves with questions of education but rather with aspects of these conferences which relate to the federal responsibility for international relations.

In view of the effective role which the Council of Ministers of Education played in providing provincial nominations for Canadian delegations to Commonwealth, UNESCO and IBE meetings, the Prime Minister also made the suggestion in the letter that one way to work out suitable arrangements in

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respect of la Francophonie would be to request the Council “to recommend the general composition of the delegation for each education conference”.

The Prime Minister went on to underline the Government’s conviction that:

we can find a way to work out among ourselves and without aid or interference of outside powers an acceptable method of representation in la Francophonie which would give your government and others concerned the opportunity of playing a full and active role without weakening the structure of Canada or its presence in the world.

He concluded by again emphasizing that Canada’s structure and its presence abroad:

would certainly be weakened—and ultimately destroyed—if other countries invite Canadian provinces to international conferences of states, if those provinces accept the invitation, and if the provincial delegates are treated formally as representatives of states while the Government of Canada is ignored.

A sovereign state—and Canada is one—must maintain responsibility for foreign policy, and for representation abroad, or it ceases to be sovereign. I know you do not wish this fragmentation of our country before the world to happen. That is why I am writing to you again on this matter and why I earnestly hope that discussions between our two governments may lead to arrangements in the conduct of international affairs which will be satisfactory to both.

As the Libreville ministerial meeting was soon to resume in Paris, and as no reply had yet been received to these letters, the Prime Minister, in view of the gravity and increasing urgency of the situation, wrote a further letter (dated April 5, 1968) to Prime Minister Johnson in order to emphasize to the Quebec authorities the importance of finding a mutually acceptable solution. Prime Minister Pearson suggested that the proposal put forward earlier, that Canada as a whole should be represented at Francophonie education conferences, would be particularly appropriate in the case of the Paris meeting. He continued as follows:

Other provinces, the population of which comprises a very large number of francophones, New Brunswick for example, would, I believe, be interested in participating, within a Canadian delegation, at conferences such as the one which is expected to take place in Paris. Would this not be an occasion to seek a solution which completely respects the internal jurisdiction of provinces while permitting Canada to be and remain a single country on the international plane? This problem other federations have had to solve and I cannot believe that it would be insoluble for us. I cannot, nevertheless, hide my extreme anxiety in seeing it being resolved gradually in a way which is hard to reconcile with the survival of our country as an international entity.

It seems to me essential, therefore, to establish a dialogue between us as soon as possible on this question as a matter of great importance. You will understand that my greatest wish is to avoid finding ourselves in a situation which would force the Canadian Government to react in a way which would cause a controversy which could do nobody any good. Indeed, it is evident that a new confrontation would have consequences which would be damaging to us all. I am writing you in the profound conviction that with goodwill we could find a solution which would be compatible with the interests and the responsibilities of our two governments.

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During the period of consultation with the Province of Quebec, the Government was also in touch with the Province of New Brunswick regarding the development of cultural links with France and participation in meetings of la Francophonie. In recent statements the New Brunswick authorities have made clear that they hope to take full advantage of opportunities open to them in this field and to be represented in Canadian delegations to international conferences on education which are held by French-speaking states. The Province of Ontario has also expressed an interest in developing exchanges with France and discussions have been held between the federal and provincial authorities, and between Ontario and French officials, with this end in view.

On April 9, 1968, Prime Minister Johnson sent a personal letter to Prime Minister Pearson which constituted the only reply received to the three letters cited above. This reply was received the day before the Minister of Education of Quebec publicly announced his government’s decision to attend the conference. The meeting was held from April 22 to April 26.

The Canadian Government was never officially informed of the status of the Quebec delegation at the Paris meeting. While there had been indications in connection with the earlier session at Libreville that the Quebec Minister of Education had been invited in a strictly personal capacity, it appears from the proceedings of the conference that he participated on the same basis as other delegates. In the case of the Paris session, the Quebec Minister stated after the conference that Quebec had participated on the same basis as other delegations.

(D) CONSULTATIONS WITH OTHER STATES

In view of the Canadian interest in participating in meetings of la Francophonie and the Government’s positive attitude toward the establishment of new institutions to strengthen ties among French-speaking peoples, Canadian ambassadors have been carrying on discussions on a regular basis during the past two years with the authorities in French-speaking states in Europe and Africa concerning the development of la Francophonie. In the course of discussions that often took place at the highest level, particular emphasis was given to the importance Canada attached to developing arrangements leading to the widest possible participation of governments, groups and individuals which could contribute to and benefit from programmes of scientific, technical and cultural exchanges. The Canadian approach to participation in la Francophonie has thus been closely linked to our programme of technical co-operation with French-speaking Africa, new cultural programmes with French-speaking states, and the Government’s policy of giving expression to the Canadian bilingual character

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in such a way as to give maximum benefit to the individual in relation to his cultural environment.

In addition, it was considered important to explain to other governments the range of activities undertaken by the Canadian Government to strengthen the French language and culture in Canada, as well as the responsibilities of the federal and provincial governments in Canada in relation to matters of interest to our respective countries.

In connection with the convening of intergovernmental conferences of French-speaking states, Canadian representatives, in explaining the views of the Canadian Government, have proceeded on the basis of three important principles underlying the Canadian attitude:

(a) mutual respect for the sovereignty and constitutions of all participating states;

(b) the essentially cultural and linguistic character of la Francophonie;

(c) full participation, in a federal state such as Canada, of those parts with responsibilities in the domestic sphere for education and with special interests in the strengthening of linguistic and cultural ties.

Most governments with which these discussions were held were in full sympathy with this approach, which was similar to their own in broad outline.

In view of the city chosen as the site for the meeting of last February, the Government made a particular effort to set out the Canadian view, along the above lines, to the Gabonese authorities.

It is the Government’s hope that, despite past misunderstandings, relations between Canada and Gabon will be developed in a constructive and favourable manner consistent with the desires of both countries.

In accordance with the policy of the Canadian Government to maintain the closest possible ties with France and the French people, our Ambassador in Paris has been in contact with the French authorities on a continuing basis, so as to achieve the greatest possible understanding of the two countries’ views on la Francophonie.

Canada has always recognized that the role of France, as the mother country of the French language, is of primary importance in relation to the harmonious development of la Francophonie.

Unfortunately, there has been considerable misunderstanding about the responsibilities of the Canadian Government in representing Canada at such intergovernmental meetings. Nevertheless, it is the Government’s hope that a fuller appreciation of the determination of Canadians to maintain and reinforce national unity in a bilingual federation will help to remove any further difficulties.

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CHAPTER V

Education and International Aid

The question of external aid deserves special mention in any discussion of international conferences in the educational field, whether at UNESCO or in the Commonwealth or la Francophonie. In meetings of this nature, which bring together the representatives of economically-developed states as well as those from countries in the process of economic development, technical co-operation frequently has a prominent place on the agenda and is inevitably the subject of informal discussion.

This emphasis is entirely understandable. For many of the world’s poorer countries the problem surpassing all others is to achieve a rate of economic development sufficient to bring about, without undue delay, a significant improvement in the standard of living of their peoples. That they should be successful in this effort is, indeed, a matter of vital importance for us all, including those living in more favourable circumstances. A critical element in the development process is the help which can be provided by the more developed countries. Naturally, the matter of aid is very much in the minds of representatives of the developing countries, both in their bilateral contacts with other governments and in international organizations and conferences having a bearing on economic development. Those representing economically-developed countries frequently find that participation in such activities may carry with it the obligation to accept aid commitments.

As development aid is an important aspect of the international relations of developing countries and international activities in which they participate, it is useful to consider the role of development aid in greater detail.

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Such aid may take many forms. Broadly speaking, it can be considered under two main categories: capital and technical assistance.

Capital aid includes the supply of facilities and equipment—power and irrigation installations, industrial plants, agricultural and other machinery—and also of commodities, such as fertilizers, industrial raw materials, and often foodstuffs.

Technical assistance includes the supply of advisers, technicians, teachers and others with special skills needed in the developing country, and also the provision of education and other forms of training for the people of the country.

Most developing countries require both technical and capital aid. It is important that this aid in its various forms should be carefully co-ordinated Within the framework of the overall development plan of the recipient country. It is no kindness, for example, for a donor country to build an industrial plant in an agricultural area, however much its products may be needed, without ensuring that the necessary supply of skilled labour will be available to maintain and operate it. Similarly, advanced training to create special skills serves only to create frustration, disorientation and conflict in cases in which the industrial and other economic activity needed to utilize those skills have not been developed.

Effective assistance for economic development is thus a complex process. On the donor side, the necessary planning and co-ordination can best be carried out by a governmental agency which can draw on all the country’s resources, capital or technical as the case may be, which the country is in a position to contribute. Private and other endeavours in this field should, so far as possible, be related by that central agency to the overall programme for the recipient country. It is also important that the recipient government participate directly in the planning, so that the aid activities may be constructively related to the country’s development programme as a whole.

Such joint planning and negotiation of aid programmes is an important aspect—in some cases the most important aspect—of the relations between developed and developing countries, and hence of their foreign policies. For programmes of any size or complexity, it has generally been found best, to avoid possible misunderstanding and recrimination, that the results of such negotiations be spelled out in some detail in intergovernmental arrangements.

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Canada is well equipped to provide valuable assistance to many countries. It has highly-developed capabilities in certain sectors of importance to many developing countries, such as hydro and irrigation facilities and agricultural and construction machinery; it is also a major exporter of food and of a wide range of industrial materials, including metals and forest products. In terms of skills, it has much to offer in a number of fields—for example, in the basic extractive and food-producing industries, and in areas involving advanced technology. By drawing upon the resources and capabilities of its several economic regions and the varied talents of its people, as well as the benefits of two linguistic traditions, Canada is able to undertake a wide range of substantial and balanced development aid programmes.

The Canadian Government, through the External Aid Office, has operated a substantial foreign aid programme for a number of years, and that programme continues to expand rapidly. It has benefited from the co-operation and support of all parts of the country, expressed through) provincial governments as well as non-governmental organizations and private businesses of various kinds. In this general effort, the Government has provided the bulk of the financing as well as the co-ordination necessary to ensure that the aid provided is fully effective. While it must continue to carry these responsibilities, the Government is anxious to do so in as flexible a manner as possible in order that initiatives originating elsewhere in Canada, having demonstrated their worth, may be related to other Canadian aid activities, in such a way as to achieve the most effective mutual reinforcement. Conversely, aid efforts undertaken in a manner unrelated to the Government’s programme are likely to suffer from lack of balance and depth, and to fail, in consequence, to provide maximum benefit to the recipient country.

Proposals of the Canadian Government to strengthen co-ordination in the field of external aid, particularly in respect of provincial interests, are reviewed in Chapter VI.

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CHAPTER VI

The Constitutional Conference and Proposals for the Future

At the Federal-Provincial Conference held in Ottawa from February 5 to 7, 1968, it was decided to establish a Continuing Constitutional Conference composed of the prime ministers and premiers, or their delegates, to supervise a process of constitutional review. It was also decided to set up a Continuing Committee of Officials to assist the Constitutional Conference in its task. It was agreed that among the questions to be examined by the Constitutional Conference and the Continuing, Committee of Officials would be the distribution of powers. v

The Canadian Government considers that, in connection with a discussion of the distribution of powers between the federal and provincial governments, the Constitutional Conference should give attention, at an early date and together with other constitutional problems of an important character, to questions in the field of foreign affairs. The Prime Minister of Canada has recently sent letters to the prime ministers and premiers of the provinces in order to propose an initial meeting of the Continuing Committee of Officials.

In the expectation that the foreign affairs question would receive attention in the process of constitutional review, the Government made available to the Constitutional Conference in February the document Federalism and International Relations. As noted above, this paper outlines both the general principles relating to Canada’s participation in international affairs, which the Canadian Government believes to be of fundamental importance in maintaining the unity of the country, and proposals and procedures designed to facilitate federal-provincial co-operation in the foreign affairs field. The present document—Federalism and International Conferences on Education —is intended as a companion volume to the earlier paper. As such, it is

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designed to elaborate upon procedures and arrangements for federal-provincial co-operation in devising representative Canadian delegations to international conferences in fields of provincial interest, particularly education.


The Government considers that the proposals which it has put forward to the Province of Quebec in connection with representation at international meetings of French-speaking states concerning education, together with procedures established in the past for participation in meetings of the Commonwealth, UNESCO and the IBE in this field, represent a sound foundation on which a basis for arrangements acceptable to the federal and provincial governments might be found.

In summary, the Federal Government’s proposals for attendance at international conferences which deal with matters of interest and concern to the provinces, particularly those in the educational field, are based on the following principles:

(1) Delegations to be sent to such conferences should be Canadian delegations. They should speak, act and vote on behalf of Canada.

(2) There should be a substantial provincial component in all such delegations.

(3) In international conferences on education, a subject concerning which provinces have domestic jurisdiction, Canadian delegations should normally be headed by provincial ministers or, as appropriate, by other persons acceptable to all concerned, for example, leading university figures, and should include ministers of education or officials of interested provinces.

(4) Where the meeting is one of ministers from French-speaking countries With responsibilities in the educational field, the head of the delegation should normally be a Quebec minister or, where appropriate, a minister of another province with a large French-speaking population. The delegation should, in any case, include, in the capacity of delegate or adviser, persons from provinces with substantial francophone populations.

(5) In meetings on educational matters, the Council of Ministers of Education should be consulted in order to obtain agreement on a satisfactory delegation; in the case of UNESCO meetings, liaison should also be continued with the Canadian National Commission for UNESCO.

(6) The role of the Council of Ministers of Education in the process of selecting delegations should be strengthened.

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(7) Federal officials should normally be attached to Canadian delegations to international meetings on education to advise on foreign policy and other issues of concern to the Federal Government.

(8) The general guidance provided by the Government to Canadian delegations attending international meetings on education should not deal with education matters as such but be limited to questions with foreign policy implications, Canadian budgetary contributions, and any other matters of federal concern which may be under consideration. The position to be followed on educational matters as such should be for decision by provincial governments, or, as appropriate, by the Council of Ministers of Education.

(9) Canadian delegations to international meetings on education should take into account in an appropriate manner the bilingual character of Canada. At the same time the interests of Canadians whose mother tongue is neither English nor French should also be given appropriate recognition.

(10) Canadian delegations to international meetings on technical matters concerning which both the federal and provincial governments share domestic jurisdiction should follow, in taking account of both federal and provincial interests, the general principles outlined in Federalism and International Relations.


In the field of external co-operation and aid, the Canadian Government made known in Federalism and International Relations the proposals which it has made to the provinces for establishing improved methods of co-operation in respect of external aid. These proposals can be summarized as follows:

(1) The Federal Government will consult with the provincial authorities on the development of programmes which could have a substantial impact on the personnel requirements of the provinces.

(2) Recruitment of teaching personnel in particular will be carried out in consultation and collaboration with interested provinces.

(3) Appropriate arrangements will be made with respect to the payment of provincial personnel and the retention of their seniority, pension and related rights.

(4) Where possible, a decision as to termination of employment will be made in consultation with the provinces.

(5) The provincial authorities will be kept informed as to federal administrative arrangements, and provision will be made for inspec-

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tion visits which should include provincial officials in the Canadian team.

(6) Arrangements will be made for effective communications through Canadian diplomatic missions.

(7) In order to ensure coherent policies and programmes, procedures a should be established to provide for federal-provincial consultation with regard to aid projects financed or supported by the provinces.

(8) In connection with aid projects financed or supported by the provinces, it should be understood that formal liaison with foreign states and any formal agreements which might be required with them should be undertaken by, or with the agreement of, the federal authorities.

(9) Clear recognition should be given to the provincial role.


In putting forward the above suggestions with respect to participation in international conferences and programmes of external aid and co-operation, the Government wishes to emphasize that they are intended as a basis for discussion.

The Government hopes that they will be given careful consideration by all concerned.

It will welcome additional comments and suggestions which may be put forward, and it will adopt a flexible attitude toward all aspects of the problem.

It is not committed to any particular solution and is ready to consider all proposals which recognize Canada as one country and provide opportunities for Canadians from all provinces to share, as part of a united Canada, in the benefits of international co-operation.

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CHAPTER VII

Conclusions

The main considerations of this study may be restated as follows:

First—Foreign policy and foreign relations are by their nature indivisible, since no state can divide its external sovereignty.

Second—Within the framework of Canadian foreign policy, the Federal Government seeks to protect and actively promote the interests of the provinces and of all Canadians of both major linguistic groups. The Canadian Government will vigorously pursue this policy.

Third—The policy of the Federal Government in arranging for Canadian representation in international organizations and at international meetings on education is to work closely with provincial governments to achieve balanced delegations which take full account of both federal jurisdiction in external affairs and provincial jurisdiction in relation to education. The composition of Canadian delegations to international conferences held under the auspices of the Commonwealth, UNESCO and the IBE reflects provincial interests and responsibilities. The Council of Ministers of Education should play an important part in arrangements for Canadian delegations to such meetings and its role should be strengthened.

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Fourth—The Federal Government will work actively for the expansion of our relations with French-speaking states and for arrangements which will facilitate the participation of Canada in organizations of French-speaking states. To this end, and recognizing the special interests of the Province of Quebec, as well as the interests of provinces with large French-speaking minorities, the Government has put forward certain) general and specific proposals concerning provincial participation in intergovernmental meetings of la Francophonie which take account of these interests and at the same time respect the requirements of Canadian unity.

Fifth—The Federal Government favours an early discussion of the foreign affairs question, along with other important matters, at the Continuing Constitutional Conference. The federal proposals concerning provincial participation in international conferences on education and in programmes of external aid, which are described in Chapter VI, are advanced as a basis for discussion in this context.

Sixth—The Canadian Government will welcome any additional suggestions and proposals on this subject, provided only that their implementation would not have a prejudicial effect on the unity of Canada.

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ANNEXES

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(Translation)

(A)

Text of letter of December 1, 1967,
from Prime Minister L. B. Pearson
to Prime Minister Daniel Johnson

Dear Prime Minister,

I have noted the interest shown by the Province of Quebec in being represented on the Canadian delegation to international conferences. I have also been pleased to note that a fruitful co-operation is in the process of being established between the Department of External Affairs and the Ministry of Intergovernmental Affairs in this respect, and that on many recent occasions we have derived benefit from the presence and the co-operation of Quebec representatives as members of Canadian delegations. I refer particularly to the Canadian delegation which was sent in the capacity of an observer to the Conference of European Ministers of Education which has just been held in Vienna. I also have in mind the Canadian delegations to the Stockholm Conference on Intellectual Property and the Geneva Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names.

Needless to say, such co-operation corresponds to the wishes of the Federal Government and the latter will make every effort to develop and intensify it. Moreover, I wish to stress the fact that the Federal Government has already taken measures to facilitate the participation of provincial representatives on Canadian delegations to those international conferences dealing with matters of provincial jurisdiction. Such is the case, for instance, in respect of UNESCO Conferences.

In this context, la Francophonie appears to me as an area in which our two governments would find reciprocal advantages in developing their co-operation for the greater benefit of all Canadians. The Federal Government has drawn public attention on many occasions to the efforts it has undertaken in the past to develop its links with French-speaking countries. It is for that reason that it manifested immediate interest in the concept of la Francophonie, as it has been developed by Presidents Senghor and Bourguiba.

If, from the federal point of view, the development of la Francophonie is becoming one of the most important elements of Canada’s foreign policy, it should be obvious that this policy could not possibly yield all desirable results without the active participation of Quebec, which is called upon for obvious reasons to play a part of prime importance in this field. I also know that you have manifested a great interest in this major undertaking, the

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dimensions of which are human as well as cultural and one which requires the co-operation of all concerned and at all levels—private, provincial and federal.

The concept of la Francophonie has made some progress within interested countries and it appears probable that, in the months to come, it will be the theme of one or even many international conferences at the governmental level. The Federal Government intends to reiterate to the countries concerned its desire to participate in such conferences, and it would wish to be in a position to count on your co-operation.

The composition of the Canadian delegation will, of course, be dependent on the subject matter of the meeting. If such a meeting, for instance, should deal with questions of a general character, or with external aid, it would then seem to me to be desirable for the Secretary of State for External Affairs to lead the Canadian delegation, which I would hope would also include a strong representation from Quebec. If, on the other hand, the purpose of the conference was, for example, to deal exclusively with education, it would then be appropriate for the Minister of Education of Quebec to be a member of the Canadian delegation, if such was your wish. Needless to say he should occupy within this delegation a place appropriate to his functions, taking into account the nature of the conference. In certain cases the Quebec Minister might well be the head of the Canadian delegation.

I would very much appreciate receiving any comments you might wish to make on these questions. For my part, I shall communicate with you again as soon as the details of the proposed conferences which are now being discussed are known.

Yours sincerely,

(signed) L. B. PEARSON.

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(Translation)

(B)

Text of letter of March 8, 1968,
from Prime Minister L. B. Pearson
to Prime Minister Daniel Johnson

My dear Prime Minister,

You will recall that I wrote to you on December 1, 1967, about Canada and la Francophonie. I also spoke to you by telephone about this matter, and representatives of the Federal Government were in touch with the Quebec authorities about it. In my letter, and in these subsequent discussions, it was suggested that it should be possible to work out arrangements concerning representation for Canada in la Francophonie which would be satisfactory to Quebec, to the Federal Government, and to all other provinces. What I had in mind was that we should agree on arrangements which would allow the Province of Quebec to make a full contribution to the development of la Francophonie and to be represented in discussions concerning. various matters of interest to the French-speaking world in a manner which would be compatible with the continued existence of a sovereign and independent Canada.

Even though you have not yet answered my letter, I would like to take this opportunity to describe in further detail the type of approach which, I hope, would be satisfactory to all concerned and would avoid misunderstanding and differences.

I would envisage that at meetings of ministers of education held within the context of la Francophonie, the Minister of Education of Quebec would, as a general practice, represent Canada as chairman of the Canadian delegation, a possibility to which I referred in my earlier letter and which was followed up in subsequent discussions. At such times, I think, it would be desirable and compatible with their responsibilities that ministers or officials from other provinces, particularly those with large French-speaking populations, should be added as appropriate to the delegation. I refer in particular to Ontario and New Brunswick. There would be occasions no doubt when it would be appropriate for a minister from another province to be chairman of the delegation. If there were advisers from the Federal Government on the Canadian delegation, they would, of course, not involve themselves with questions of education but rather with aspects of these conferences which relate to the federal responsibility for international relations.

One way of working out formal arrangements of this kind would be to request the Council of Ministers of Education to recommend the general composition of the delegation for each education conference.

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As you know, it is not yet entirely clear what further developments will take place in respect of la Francophonie. Assuming, however, that a formal structure of a general character is created to facilitate co-operation among French-speaking states, the question will arise how Canada should be represented in this general organization. If for example, conferences of a general nature were to be held under the auspices of such institutions, such as those concerned with economic assistance, with co-operation or with other related topics, it would be necessary to ,work out arrangements which would ensure. an equitable representation of the whole of Canada. Thus, I would envisage that, at such a conference, a federal Cabinet Minister, an ambassador or a federal Official, such as a member of the External Aid Office, would normally head a delegation that would include Quebec representatives and perhaps representatives of other provinces as well. I think it would be appropriate if a Quebec minister or Official served as vice-chairman of such a delegation and, when appropriate, as chairman. The same provisions could be put into effect in the case of conferences called by the countries concerned.

I earnestly hope that you will be able to give early and serious consideration to these suggestions and to let me have your views on them. The confidence and belief which we share in the future of Canada must make you as anxious as I am to do all that can be done to prevent Canada from being divided on the international plane. I am convinced that we can find a way to work out among ourselves and without aid or interference Of outside powers an acceptable method of representation in la Francophonie which would give your government and others concerned the opportunity of playing a full and active role without weakening the structure of Canada or its presence in the world.

That structure and that presence would certainly be weakened—and ultimately destroyed—if other countries invited Canadian provinces to international conferences Of states, if those provinces accepted the invitation, and if the provincial delegates were treated formally as representatives of states while the Government of Canada was ignored.

A sovereign state—and Canada is one—must maintain responsibility for foreign policy, and for representation abroad, or it ceases to be sovereign. I know you do not wish this fragmentation of our country before the world to happen. That is why I am writing you again on this matter and why I earnestly hope that discussions between our two governments may lead to arrangements in the conduct of international affairs which will be satisfactory to both.

Yours sincerely,

(signed) L. B. PEARSON.

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(Translation)

(C)

Text of letter of April 5, 1968,
from Prime Minister L. B. Pearson
to Prime Minister Daniel Johnson

My dear Prime Minister:

May I begin by thanking you very sincerely for your warm and friendly references to me in your legislature yesterday. I appreciated them more than I can say. I shall always be grateful for our happy personal relations during our work together in our respective offices.

This is one of the last times that I will be writing to you as Prime Minister of Canada. I am doing it concerning a very important matter and one of the few regarding which we have still not been able to agree, you and I, despite many efforts and démarches. It is, nevertheless, a matter on which it is so necessary that we should agree; and on which I feel that we can. I wish to refer to our relations with la Francophonie in general and, more particularly, to this international conference of ministers of education which took place at Libreville last February and which should meet again in Paris in a few weeks.

I hope very much that before the Paris conference we can arrive at some agreement about this in order to avoid a new confrontation which would be more serious than the first. I have already written you on December 1, 1967, to propose an agreement concerning la Francophonie and Quebec’s participation in a Canadian delegation. Since the Libreville conference I have sent you another letter on March 8. I have not heard from you on these two letters.

I assure you once again, that it is our policy to develop the closest relations between Canada and the French-speaking world. In my letters I proposed to you arrangements tending to favour co-operation within la Francophonie and I have suggested that normally the head of the Canadian delegation to conferences of ministers of education of la Francophonie should represent Canada, as head of a delegation, and not a single province of Canada. Such an arrangement seems to me particularly appropriate for the conference which should take place in Paris at the end of this month.

Other provinces, the population of which comprises a very large number of francophones, New Brunswick for example, would I believe be interested in participating, within a Canadian delegation, at conferences

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such as the one which is expected to take place in Paris. Would this not be an Occasion to seek a solution which completely respects the internal jurisdiction of provinces while permitting Canada to be and remain a single country on the international plane? This problem other federations have had to solve and I cannot believe that it would be insoluble for us. I cannot, nevertheless, hide my extreme anxiety in seeing it being resolved gradually in a way which is hard to reconcile with the survival of our country as an international entity.

It seems to me essential, therefore, to establish a dialogue between us as soon as possible on this question as a matter of great importance. You will understand that my greatest wish is to avoid finding ourselves in a situation which would force the Canadian Government to react in a way which would cause a controversy which could do nobody any good. Indeed, it is evident that a new confrontation would have consequences which would be damaging to us all. I am writing you in the profound conviction that with goodwill we could find a solution which would be compatible with the interests and the responsibilities of our two governments.

I am encouraged to do this because of what I know to be your feelings for Canada. I would very much appreciate receiving your views as soon as possible so that It may be aware of your thinking when I discuss this matter with my successor.

Yours sincerely,

(signed) B. PEARSON.


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