The Elgin-Grey Papers 1846-1852: Volume I (Edited by Sir Arthur G. Doughty)


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Date: 1937
By: Earl of Elgin (James Bruce), Earl Grey (Albert Grey), Arthur Doughty
Citation: The Elgin-Grey Papers 1846-1852: Volume I (Edited by Sir Arthur G. Doughty) Ottawa, Public Archives of Canada.
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THE ELGIN – GREY PAPERS
1846-1852

EDITED
WITH NOTES AND APPENDICES

BY

SIR ARTHUR G. DOUGHTY, K.B.E., C.M.G., LL.D.

Late Dominion Archivist Emeritus

IN FOUR VOLUMES

VOLUME I

Published by authority of the Secretary of State under the direction of the
Acting Dominion Archivist

‘n – OTTAWA
J. 0. PATENAUDE. x.s.o.
rammn TO THE xmcvs MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY
1937

LA
COLLECTION ELGIN-GREY
1846-1852

EDXTEE

AVEC NOTES ET APPENDICES

PAR

SIR ARTHUR G. DOUGHTY, C.E.B., C.M.G., LL.D.

ancien archiviste honoraire du Dominion

EN QUATRE TOMES

TOME PREMIER

Publié avec l’autorisa/cion du Secrétaire d’Etat sous la direction de l’a.rc11iViste
intérimaire du Dominion

OTTAWA
J’.-O. PATENAUDE. 0.S.I.
IMPRIMEUR DE SA. TEES EXCELLENTE MAJESTE LE ROI
IDS7

THE ELGIN- GREY PAPERS
1846-1852

EDITED

WITH NOTES AND APPENDICES

BY

SIR ARTHUR G. DOUGHTY, K.B.E., C.M.G., LL.D.

Late Dominion Archivist Emeritus

IN FOUR VOLUMES

VOLUME I

Published by:authority of the Secretary of State under the direction of the
Acting Dominion Archivist

OTTAWA
J. 0. PATENAUDE, I.S.0.
PRINTER TO THE RINGS MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY
I937

9337-—n)

av 205078

, F :4 \
‘.’ :H’1_CilY

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INTRODUCTION

La collection Eigin-Grey se compose de lettres personnclles éehangées de
1846 a 1852 entre James Bruce, huitieme corntc d’Elgin et douzierne comte dc
Kincardine, eb I-Ienry George, troisieme comte Grey, alors que le comte d’Elgin
était gouverneur général du Canada et le comte Grey secrétaire d’Etat pour les
colonies; elle cornprend, en out-re, divers papiers ayanb trait a des sujets qui
intéressent le Canada. Le eomte Grey était l’oncle de eelle qui était alors lady
Eigin, deuxiéme épouse de lord Elgin et fille du comte dc Durham. Quoiqu’elle
présente un caractere personnel et familier, cette correspondance touohe exclusi-
vement ou peu s’en faut les aifaires publiques du Canada. A peu d’exeeption
pres, les lettres de lord Elgin sent des originaux; celles de lord Grey sont des
copies manuscrites faites par lady Grey.

Son Excellence Albert; Henry George, quatrieme comte Grey, gouverneur
général du Canada, confis. ces papiers an Dr Arthur G. Doughty (subséquem~
ment sir Arthur Doughty) a la condition d’en faire un ouvrage qui serait publié
sous la direction du Dr Doughty. On étudia suceessivement au moins trois
different projets de publication, mais aucune de ces entreprises ne fut menée a
home fin. Elles oecasionneiienb toutefois beaucoup de travail ‘cant pour le dé-
ehiifrement des manuscrits que pour la redaction des eornrnentaires et des notes
explicatives. Il convient ici de signaler tout particulierement les services rendus
par MM. les professcurs W. Ross Livingstone, de l’Université de l’Iowa, et
George W. Brown, (is l’Universit~é de Toronto.

Lorsqu’iI eut eessé d’exeree1~ ses fonctions d’archiviste du Dominion, sir
Arthur Doughty céda définitivemenb ces papicrs aux Archives publiques du
Canada a la condition qu’i1s soient publiés sous sa direction et qu’ainsi se reali-
sent enfin les voeux du quatrieme cornte Grey. On apporta alors des modifica—
tions essentielles aux travaux en eours: on renonga a l’introduction et les notes
au bas cles pages furent réduites a leur plus simple expression. 11 fut boutefois
déeidé de publier en appendice quelques documents dent la lecture semble
néeessaire pour 1’in’ocl1igencc des textes originaux ou auxquels ceux—ci se réierent.
Sauf indication contraire, cette documentation publiée dans Pappendice est tirée
des collections des Archives publiques.

A peine avait-on commence a remettre les premiers textes a Pimprimeur
que la maladie contraignit sir Arthur Doughty a renoncer a sa tache; sa colla-
boratrice, mademoiselle Norah Story, membre du personnel des Archives, pour-
suivit 1e travail selon le plan qu’il avait arrété. Elle mit sous presse Pouvrage
entier et en dressa l’index.

Ohaque document est ici Ieproduit en anglais ou en frangais selon le texte
original. On a, selon 1e eas, place cheque iettre sous l’une des rubriques sui-
vantes: manuscript original, double de la copie manuserite, eopie, copie dacty-
lographiée. Chaque texte est reproduit tel qu’i1 fut rédigé; ici et la un “ [sic] ”
fut inséré aprés certains mots dent Yambiguité pourrait susciter quelque difiicuité.

JAMES F. KENNEY,
Archirriste intérimaire du Dominion.

iv

INTRODUCTION

The Elgin-Grey Papers consist of private letters that passed between James
Bruce, eighth Earl of Elgin and twelfth Earl of Kincardinc, and Henry George,
third Earl Grey, during the years 1846 to 1852, When the Earl of Elgin was
Governor General of Canada and Earl Grey was Secretary of State for the
Colonies, and also of miscellaneous papers relating to subjects of Canadian
interest. Earl Grey was the uncle of the then Lady Elgin, Lord Elgin’s second
wife, who was a daughter of the Earl of Durham, The correspondence, although
personal and intimate, deals almost entirely with the public aifairs of Canada.
With a. few exceptions, the letters of Lord Elgin are originals, While those of
Lord Grey are manuscript copies made by Lady Grey.

These papers were presented to Dr. Arthur G. Doughty (later Sir Arthur
Doughty) by His Excellency Albert Henry George, fourth Earl Grey, Governor
General of Canada, on the condition that they be published as a whole under
Dr. Doughty’s editorship. Three or more different plans for publication were
successively considered, but none of these earlier proposals ever came to a final
stage. Nevertheless they produced a large amount of editorial work, both in
the determination of the text and in the preparation of commentary and illustra-
tive material. In particular, mention should be made of the work done at this
time by Professor W. Ross Livingstone, of the State University of Iowa, and
Professor George W. Brown, of the University of Toronto.

After his retirement from the position of Dominion Archivist, Sir Arthur
Doughty definitively presented the papers to the Public Archives of Canada on
the understanding that they should be published under his editorship by the
Department, whereby the wishes of the fourth Earl Grey would finally be made
effective. The form of publication was now changed radically: introductory and
explanatory matter was abandoned and foot—notes were reduced to a minimum.
It was decided, however, to publish in appendices a number of documents that
are referred to in the original texts or the insertion of which seemed required for
the clear understanding of those texts. Unless otherwise indicated, these added
documents are drawn from the collections of the Public Archives.

The work of publication was only well begun when ill—l1ealth compelled
Sir Arthur Doughty to relinquish the editorial task. Miss Norah Story, of the
staff of the Public Archives, who had collaborated with him, continued the
editorial work along the lines he had laid down. She has seen the entire text
through the press, and has prepared the index.

Each document is here published in the language of the original, English
or French. According as the case may be with respect to each, the letters have
been marked “Original Manuscript”, “Duplicate Manuscript Copy”, “Copy”, or
“Tps Copy” (Typescript Copy). Each text is reproduced as it stands: a “ [sic] ”
is inserted only in passages Where the peculiarities are of such nature as might
cause confusion.

JAMES F. KENNEY,
Acting Dominion Arcliivist.

CONTENTS

VOLUME I

Elgin to Grey, Private, London, 16 July, 1846.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
Elgin to Grey, Private, London, 18 July, 1846. . . .
Grey to Elgin, Belgrave Square, 4 August, 1846.. .. . .
Elgin to Grey, Mivarts Hotel, 6 August, 1846. . . . . . . . . .
Elglnto Grey, Mivarta,3September, 1846.. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, DunfermIine,8 December, 1846.. .. .. .. .. .. .- .. .- .- — — —
Elgin to Grey, Dunfermline, 10 December, 1846.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Monk.lands,2February, 1847.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
Grey to Elgin, Private, Belgrave Square, 2 February, 1847.. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgiu to Grey, Secret, Monklands, 24 February, 1847.. .. .
Secret Memorandum. Ministerial Negotiations ..
Confidential Memorandum. Ministerial Negotietions.. .
Confidential Memorandum. Ministeria1Neg0ti:1tions.. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Private and Confidential, Government House, 23 February, 1847.
A Morin 21 Elgin, 24 février, 1847.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgm to Grey, Secret, Montreal, 27 March, 1847. . . . . .
Mémoire secret. Negotiations ministérielles. . . .
Grey to Elgin, Private, Downing Street, 19 April, 1847..
Grey to Elgin, Private, Downing Street, 3 May, 1847
Elgin to Grey, Secret, Montreal, 26 April, 1847. . . .
Mémoire secret. Négociations ministérielles
Elgin to Grey, Montreal, 26 April, 1847. . .. . .
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 7 May, 184
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Ofiice, 2 Jun
Elgin to Grey, Secret, 18 May, 1847.. .
_ Mémoire secret. Négociations tn
Elgxn to Grey, Private, 27 May, 1847.. .. .
Grey to Elgin, Private, Belgrave Square 16
Elgin to Grey, Montreal, 13 June, 1847.. . . .. .. .. .. .. .
Elgin to Grey, Private & Confidential, Montreal, 28 June, 184
Clipping: The Globe. Conduct of Elgin.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
Extrait de la, Rem/.e Camzdienne: reception a Monk1ande.. .. . . . . . . ..
GPEY to Elgin, Private, Colonial Offiee, 3 July, 1847.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Grey to Elgiu, Private, Colonial Office, 19 July, 1847.. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Private & Confidential Montreal, 13 July, 1847. . .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Confidential, Montreal, 27 July, 1847.. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Speaker’s Address on presenting Supply Bill. . . . . . . . . .
Grey to Elgin, Datchet, 3 August, 1847.. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .
Elgin to Grey, Confidential, Montreal, 13 August, 1847.. .
Elgin to Grey, Montreal, 13 August, 1847.. .. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Montreal, 29 August, 1847.. .. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 14 September, 1847. .
Elgin to Grey, Private, Quebec, 27 September, 1847.. .. .. .. .. _., .. .. .. .. .. .
Clipping: The Montreal Pilot. Canada—its present position.. .. . . .. .
Grey to Elgin, Private, Howiek, 30 September, 1847. . . . . . . . . . .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Falls of Niagara, 13 October, 1847.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Private and Confidential, Montreal, 29 October, 1847. . .. .. .. .. ..
Clipping: TheHerald,290otober, 1847.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
GN3)’ to Elgin, (Extract) 3November,1847.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .-
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 18 November, 1847.. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 12 November, 1847.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Clipping: Quebec, 11 November, 1847, Flagrant Inhurnamty .. .. .. .. ..
Clipping: Montreal, Summary for the Mail. Immigratron .. .. . . .. .. . .
Clipping: Hamilton. Immigration. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
lxtrait de La Minerve do Quebec, 15 novembre, 1847. Manxfeste addressé au
Peuple du Canada.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 3 December, 1847.. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 9 December, 1847. . . . . . . . . .
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 24 December, 1847.. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. ,. ..
Discours de L.-J. Papineau aux électeurs de Huntingdon et du St-Maurice . .
vu

>-A>—’)-‘)4!-4
<o=rn&l\’>o<DaOx€7I»b¢a1-H-3 103 viii ELGIN—GREY PAPERS Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oflice 28 Jauuary,1848.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 7 January,1848.. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 22 January, 1848.. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. Grey to Elgin, Private, Belgrave Square, 22 February, 1848. . .. .. . . .. .. Elgin to Grey, Montreal,5I*‘ebruary, 1848.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. … Elgin to Grey, I’r’vate, Montreal,1 5; gelgruaiy, 1848.. e ruary, 1848.. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Memorandum of Sums due by the Provincial Government to the Imperial ’I‘reasury.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Grey to Elgin, Private, Belgrave Square 22 March, 1848.. . . .. . . Elgin to Grey, Private, Monklands, 2 March, 1848.. .. .. .. .. .. Anonymous1ettertoElgin (n.d.).. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Grey to Elgin, Private, Belgrave Gquare, 7 April, 1848 Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 17 March, 1848.. .. . Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oflice, 14 April, 1848.. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Monklands, 27 March, 1848.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 27 March, 1848.. .. .. .. .. .. . Clipping: The Globe, Change of Ministry. . .. .. . Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 9 April, 1848.. . . .. .. Grey to Elgin, Belgrave Square, 4 May, 1848. . . . Elgin toDGrey,Asl§r1veatte, 1\:I1on¢;§‘eal, 216 Aprili 1848.. . ‘ – 1 Elgin to é’i’ey, i7iE‘§c§§.§i, 2°?A,?J-1”s12%f§i. .‘.”‘.”T‘*?‘. .. . Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Cflice, 18 May, 1848.. . Elgiu to Grey, Private, Montreal, 4 May, 1848.. .. .. .. .. .. .. Holloway to D’Urban Confidential, Montreal, 22 April, 1848. Clipping: The Herald. Distinctions of Race.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. Translations of articles from: L’Avem‘r, Union and Nationality. . .. Revue Canadienne. Union and Nationality.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal 10 May, 1848.. .. .. .. .. List of Members of the danadian Adminismation. . . . . Telegraphicreportofthenews…. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. Extrait: Assemblée Irlandaise en faveur du rappel de l’Union de l’Angleterre etdel’Irlande.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. Grey to Elgin, Private, Belgrave Square, 1 June, 1848,. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 18 May 1848. .. .. .. .. . . Extrait de_ L’A’uamZr, 15 mai, 134$ (suippiémem). L.lJ. 1>}£pi}{eaR1.I’ If
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 8 June, 1848.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 23 May, 1848.. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 1 June, 1848.. .. .. .. .. .. .. ,, .. .. .. ,, ,,
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 23 June, 1848 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgin. to Grey, Private, Montreal, 6 June, 1848 . . .. .. . . .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 15 June. 1818 .. ..
Grey to Elgin, Colonial Office, 30 June, 1848 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 7 July, 1848 .. .. .. ., .. .. .. .. ,_ ,.
M“?2§l€fr§‘“o§Z%p§%§§ iiuiili ‘3§i‘m§l%§”. .by..L.°.’d. .D?‘.”‘i‘?“5‘id’. .1 .J.”‘.‘7′ 384.8.‘
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 21 June, 1848 .. .. .
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 29 June.1848 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Lett(1?ieatl;’§:t<éir:sle,£laeb filig:1sei%neur l’dE_lv§q1g2 41%‘ Monfireal, 17 juin. 18-48. Asso-
e enscanazens es ownsi .. .. .. .. .. .. ,.
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Ofiice, 14 July, 1848 .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. ..
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 21 July, 1848 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 5 July, 1848 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Placard. Public Meeting of Friends of Ireland, Montreal, 4 July, 1848 .. ..
Grey to Elgin, Private, Belgrave Square, 27 July, 1848 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 13 July, 1848 . . . . . . .
Elgiu to Grey, Montreal, 18 July, 1848 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 18 July, 1848 .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. ..
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oflioe, 10 August, 1848 .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Confidential. Montreal H H H H H H H H ”
Elgin to Campbell, Montreal, ’27 May,’1848 .. .. .. .. .. ..
Campbell to Elgin, Prince Edward Island, 16 June, 1848 . . ..
_ Elgin to Campbell, Private, Montreal, 30 June, 1848.. .. .. .. .
Elgm to Grey, Montreal, 2 August, 1848 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
é1ire$e z‘3.J]5.‘Igin,ZS£-IE]?-.;l‘yacintheiI19‘iuin, 1%S§8_.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
_ ippmg: ouma vxpre mit n. eeiprocity .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgm to Grey, Private, Beaumont fiear lIQueb(ee, 10 August, 1848 .. .. .. .. . . .. ..

ELGI N -GRE Y PAPERS

Grey to Elgin, Private, Belgrave Square, 22 Algust, 1848 .. .. .. .. . . .. ., .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 16 August, 1848 .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, I’rivs.te,_ Montreal, 24 August, 1848 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgm mVé.r£:3.’M1;LG_1‘<,e1?z1e1\:oIo Fzlgirysasoezietaryt. llglgate, not ofificial. 14 February, 1848. _ rrae onrea ugus .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elgm toC(I}}’ey: Prgvate: Montreal: 7_Septembl2r, 1848 . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. E1§>D{7;S% IE}; a Coéxservatlve paper, Quebec. Rumoured recall of Elgm.
Elgin to éré? P(.l’ivatevefibntgeglfilgséibterrgbzl pl’§gé8§ Elgm U H H H U H H N
, _: , .. .. ..
. Clipping: fine Globe, 9 September, 1848. ‘Colonization . .
E13171 t0 QFEY: Private, Montreal, 21 September. 1848 .. .. .. .
Gm tDC11a11I)Ii3!l1T1€1; NZI1t9aT&1:laql,I6 Sefptember, 1848. Progressio
Elgin to Grim’ Piilvztz, M°oxT€1E:a1,O1fcgcglacgclgjlgrl 1848 H l ‘
Grev t°E]§fré1}‘11tgL‘1)1g7qnL1Id(7/:’e‘%, 271%epI\tIembrel,)1848. Léglslatxon projetee, .. .. .. .
Elgin to Griy,lPri_\’a!lil2z,lMonl1e‘eaI, 19
Elgm to Grey, Private, Montreal, 25 October, 1848 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Gfey ’50 Ifllgrn, Private, Bclgrave Square, 16 November, 1848 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Grey to hlgln, Prrvute, Colomal Olfice. 24 November, 1848 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
-glgln to grey, Iljrivate, giolntrealbéjfi November. 1848 .. .. . ,. .. .. .. .. .,
my 0 gm rgvae oonia ’ce, 1 Dec‘ b 1848 .. .. .. .. .. .
“gm “°c3%;:y.i.1’1;>;::*3l-%“:n;:%%= 22 %1°ve;2*:§? €838 -, ~ ~ — -~
, _u- to ovem er. . sury Jaw
Gm toC]l:1n71?1ng1; _1\/Iotntreal’ Gazette, 17 November, 1848. Rumoured recall of Elgin,
Elglll to Grill,’ Billing’ l‘l4v::illxr1ell1lA£§J(l)eI¥bxI14gn]l?eo19ell]3l1)§r, 1848 ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ”
C‘1’eY ’50 E1853: Private,’ Colonial ’Ofl’lce 26 December H U N N H N H
Elgl“ to Gmyv P“.1’VBte. MOINZYG31, 6 December, 1848 ..
Gr tC§§1fident1al Memoranelum on Distribution of Troops in Canada” .. ..
.2 air i:::::::’ i,r‘°2*“1°€%°%29D:°°mr;:: ~ –
on re
Grey to Elgirl, Private: Colonial blfice, lgeflnfilfry, 18′
Elgm to Grey, Prxvate, Montreal, 4 January, 1849. . ,,
Hmcks to Qrovernor_Genex-al,_Inspector’s Oflice, 4 ,
éfizlilfiuogf Bgatisb ll/Ilz)t1lt:3 toREl)g1nt,sBostou, 26 December, 1848.
: ea eer oer………..
Clipping: The Pilot 3 January 1849 Protecti
GTGIY t0 E-lgin Private Colonial Offi ,,25J ‘ l849.
Elgiu to Grey: Private: Montreal. 18c§anua1:a,y!’:,lu1a8r‘l,9’.. ..
($79? t0 E18111, Private, Colonial Ofiice, 9 February, 184
Elgm -to Grey, Private, Montreal, 2? jgaxguary, 18:39, . .
1
Extrait de L’AUem’~r do Montreal 3lejzi:%i§r 1849… . .’ H
Grey tocxlgl ginngfirigafzte 1l’é07i«tre_alI g1eT§ahi,2§5I‘Jz;)xiuary, Speech from the Th
. , S. 001313 (:6 4e ruary,
glgm to Grey,’ Prgvate, Montreal, 14 Illebruary, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. . . ..
my to Elgxn, Private, Colomal Office, 9 March, 1849.. ., ,, .. ., ,,
Elem to Grey, Prrvate, Montreal, 1‘Marcl1, 1849.. .. .l .. .. .. ,, .. ,. .. ,. ., ,_
Clipggigz Open Letter of Hxncks on Rebellion Losses, Monti-cal, 10 February,
Hincks ¢o_E1gin, 1 Mar’ch’,’1s49.’ ‘rinicéligistiris i3’i1i.’.‘I.”..”. II
glrey to Elgm, Prrvate, Colonial Office, 23 March, 1849. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Km to Gfrey, Private, Montreal, 14 March, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
glrppingf Montreal Herald, 13 March, 1849. Rebellion Losses.. .. .. . .
hpglclégéslilgeiéofgorfiggs Contvnerctal Advertiser, 7 March, 1849, The Closing
ginning: €13/Ezelafec and dfieiglifatx 1%‘%:1‘1r’¢1ali¢31,c;1′<)‘1{/I3i£c1i,’rékef ‘.’. ” ” ” ”
rppmgz on.rea an oson iroe
Grey to Elgin Private Datcbet 5 April 1849
Elgin to Grey ’ Private’ Montreal}, 29 Mslrch, .’ i. .’ . . l ‘ l ‘ . .
Clippibg: The’Gazette, Montreal, 28 March,‘ 1849. Rebellion Losses” .. ..
C1IP§t1!1fz€; pgzggn Ifietterbof Clay1%nrEgnanc1pa%§o;3, from the Lexington Observer
7‘ ew reams, Grey to Elgin .Private’Colonial Office 20 A ri1rls49
Elgin 150 Grey,’ Private: Montreal, 11 Aipril, 1§49’._. . . ‘
Clippmg: N615: York C’pm7rze7’cu1l Advemser, 5 April,
expressed in Canadian Newspapers.. .. .. . . .. ..
GT9)’ to Elgm, Belgrave Square, 2 May, 1849.. .. ,. .. .. .. .. ..

X ELGIN-GREY PAPERS

Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 12 April, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 338
Clipping: Montreal Gazette. Rebellion ‘Losses. 340
Grey to =Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 11 May, -1849. . . 345
Elgin to i-G-rey, Private, Montreal, 23 April, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 346
Manifesto of British American League, 20 April, 1849. . . . . . . . . . . . 34771
Elgin to Grey, Private, -Montreal, 30 April, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 350
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oifice, 18 May, 1849. . 350
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 5 May, 1849,. .. 352
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oflioe, 25 May, 1849. 353
Elgin to Grey, Private, Monklands, 13 May, 1849.. . . .. 354
Grey to Elgin, Colonial Ofice, 1 June, 1849. . . . . . .. . . 855
Elgin to ‘Grey, Montreal, 21 May, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. 356
Elgin’s reply to address from County of Hastings. 357
Grey to Elgin, Colonial Ofifice,8June, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 358
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 28 May, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 358
Grey to Elgin, Belgrave Square, 14 June, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 359
Elgln to Grey, Private,-.Mon1<lands,3Ju.ne, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 361
Clipping: Montreal Herald. Details of News by the Steamer Caledonia.. .. 363
Elgin to G-rey, Private, Montreal, 11 June, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 368
Jennings to Bruce, Toronto, 4 June, 1849. . .. .. . . 370
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oflice, 22 June, 1849.. 372
Elgiu «to Grey, Private, Monklands, 17 June, 1849.. 374
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 29 June, 1849. . .. . . .. .. .. 376
Grey -to Elgin, Private, Colonial Ofiice, 5 July, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 378
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 25 June, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 378
Merritt to Elgin, Private, New York, 20 June, 1849. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 379
Elgin to Grey, Private, Monklands, 2 July, 1849.. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ., .. .. 381
Clipping: Morning Courier, Montreal, 26 June, 1849. Rebellion Losses.. .. 382
Clipping: New York Tribune. Rebellion Losses. British American League.. 383
Prospectus ofaJournal on Annexation. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 384
Clipping: Shipping Rates.. .. .. .. . 386
Table of Ofiices andSalaries.. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 387
Clipping: (United States) Death of James Polk. . . . 390
Grey to Elgin, Private, Belgrave Square, 20 July, 1849.. .. 391
Elgin to Grey, Monldands,5 July, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 392
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal,9July,1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 393
Clipping: Montreal Gazette, 7 July, 1849. Rebellion Losses. Annexation.. 394
Clipping: Montreal Herald, 7 July, 1849. Rebellion Losses. Annexation… 397

Clipping: Montreal Transc7t’pt db Commercial Advertiser, 7 July, 1849.
Rebellion Losses.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 400
Elgin -to Grey, Private, Montreal, 16 July, 1849.. .. .. 407
Letter from a Lawyer, Toronto, 5 July, 1849. . .. . . .. 409
PenciINotebyLord John Russell.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 412
Letter from a Minister to Col. Bruce, Woodstock, 9 July, 1849.. .. 412
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 23 July, 1849. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . 413
Letter from Toronto, Private, 14 July, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 414
Clipping: New Yorlc Evening Post.. Annexation. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 417

Clipping: The Pilot. Annexation. Open letters of a merchant (John Young),
3&16July,1849……………. ………. .. .. 420
Clipping: Montreal, Meeting of British American League. . 430
Clipping: Stability of the United States. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 432
Clipping: LordBrougl1am.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. … 433
Clipping: Copy of letter from The New York Sun, 22 July, 1849. . . . 433
Elgin to Grey, Montreal, 16 July, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. … 434
Grey to Elgin, Belgrave Square, 31 July, 1849. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 435
Jones to Elgin, 22 June, 1849.. .. 4357:
Grey to Elgin, Howick, 8 August, 1849.. . . 437
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 30 July, 18 .. .. . . .. .. .. 438
Clipping: The Gazette, 23 June, 1849, Gift of Pr0pl1ecy.. .. 489
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 6 August, 1849. . . . . . . . .. . . . . 440
Clipping: Address of British American League. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 4417»
Clipping: Montreal Gazette, 28 July, 1849. British American League.. . . . . 445
Grey to Elgin, Howiek, 22August, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 448

ELGIN-GREY PAPERS Xi

VOLUME 11

Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 20 August, 1849.. .. .. .. .. 449
Grey to Elgin, Copy, Balmoral, 12 September, 1849. 451
Elgin to Grey, Private, Montreal, 27 August, 1849. . . 452
Proclamation to Citizens of -Montreal, 21 Augu , .. 464
Clipping: The Pilot, 23 August, 1849. Order in Montrea 455

Leslie to Mayor of Montreal, 20 August, 1849. . . . .. .. .. .. . . 456

Sexton to Leslie, Montreal, 21 August, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 456

Sexton to Leslie, Montreal, 22 August, 1849.. .. ,. .. .. .. .. .. 457

Clipping: The Pilot, 25 August, 1849. Order in Montreal. . 459
Clipping: Verdict of Jury on death of Wm. 13. ‘Mason.. .. .. .. . .. .. 462
Placard: Canadian Toryism unveiling itself, Toronto, August, 1849.. . . .. . . 462
Elgin to Grey, (Private, Montreal, 3 September, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 463
Letter from Toronto to Col. Bruce, 20 August, 1849. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Elgin to Grey, Private, Niagara Falls, 9 September, 1849.. .. . 469
Grey to Elgm, Copy, Balmoral, 22 September, 1849.. .. .. .. .. 470
Elgin to Grey, Private, Niagara Falls, 17 September, 1849.. .. . . . . . . .. . 471

Clipping from a Conservative paper, Niagara Dist1‘ict.. ., .. .. .. 472

Grey to Elgin, Belgrave Square, 4 October, 1849. . . . . . . . 473
Elgin to Grey, Private, Niagara Falls, 23 September, 1849. . . . .. . . . . . 474
Clipping: Montreal Gazette. Placard, Toronto, 10 September, 184 . 475
Elgin to Grey, Niagara Falls, 24 September, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. 476
Clipping: The Statesman, 19 September, 1849. Leeds and Grenville Demon-
stration.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 476
Elgin to Grey, Private, Brantford, 27 September, 1849.. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 483
Farewell address from inhabitants of Brantford.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 483
Clipping: Long Point Advocate, 27 September, 1849. Tour of Elgin, Ad-
dresses,etc.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 484
Elgin to Grey, Private, Guelph, 30 September, 1849.. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 501
Clipping: Ottawa Advocate, 19 September, 1849.. .. .. 502
Address to ‘Elgin from the inhabitants of Paris.. , 508
Elgin to Grey, Private, London, 4 October, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 509
Clipping: Journal and Express, Hamilton, 28 September, 1849. Tour of
Governor-,Addresses,etc.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 510
Grey to Elgin, LP‘I’lVD.l7S, Howick, 24 October, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ,. 517
Elgin to Grey, Private, Niagara Falls, 7 October, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 517
Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 11 October, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 519
Baldwin to Perry, (Open Letter) Montreal, 4 O ober, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. 520
Grey to Elgin, Private, Howick, 30 October, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 521
Elgin to Grey, (Private, Toronto, 14 October, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 522
Telegram, Protest against annexation in course of signature. . . . .. . . . . .. . . 523
Elgin to Grey, Niagara, 19 October, 1849. . .. .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. 523
Young to Elgin, Copy, Montreal, 10 October, 1849. . .. .. .. .. . 524
Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 25 October, 1849. . . . . . . . .. .. . . 525 V
Elgin to Grey, Private, Niagara, 28 October, 1849. . .. . . . . .. . . . 526
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oifice, 16 November, 1849..

Elgin to Grey, Private, Niagara, 1 November, 1849.. .. .. .. . .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Private, Niagara, 4 November,1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 530
Clipping: The Daily British Whig, 26 October, 1849. Seat of Government.. 531

Clipping: British American League Convention. .. .. . 531
Elgin to Grey, Private, Niagara, 8 November, 1849. . . . 534
Merritt to Elgin, St. Catlierines, 24 October, 1849. . 534
Merritt to Elgin, St. Catherines, 5 November, 1849. . . . _. . . . . . – . . .. – . « ~ 535
Clipping: The Globe, 6 November, 1849, The A.nnexation1sts.. .. 536

Clipping: The Globe, 8 November, 1849. Seat of Government. Tlielieague. 541

Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 23 November, 1849.. .. .. 543
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oflice, 30 November, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 545
Elgin to Grey, Private, Niagara, 15 November, 184-9. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 547
Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 21 November, 1849. . – ~ 548
Grey to Elg-in, Private, Colonial Ofiice, 13 December, . 549
Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto,_27 November, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. . — — :- 550

Clipping: The Daily Brttish Whig, 23 November, 1849. Condi ions at 010:9 550

of1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 2 December, 1849. . .. . . .. .. . . . . .. . . .. .. . . .. 55531

Clipping: The Police Force.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ‘rt

xii ELGIN-GREY PAPERS

Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 10 December, 1849. . . . . . . . . . .. ._. . .. . . . . . . . .
Extrait du Canada de Québec, 1er décembre, 1849. Les annexxonnistes et l’ex—
communication… .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Cau . M. Caseau, Quebec, ler décembre 1849.
Caseau a Cauchon Quebec, décembre, 1849
Toronto, 17 December, 1849. . ,. . . . .
Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 17 December,
Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 19 December, 1849. . .
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 10 January, 185
Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 24 December, 1840. . . .
Elgin to Grey, Toronto, 31 December, 1849.. . . . . . . . .
Wilson to Bruce, London, 26 December, 1849. . . . .
Clipping: W1lson’s address to the Electors of London._. . . . . .. .. . . ,
Clipping: Comparison between Canadian and American efforts at 1 p
me .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Grey to Elgin, Private, Carlton Terrace, 23 January, 1850. . .
Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 14 January, 1850.. .. .. . ..
Elgin to Grey, Toronto, 18January,1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Telegram, Daniell to Hincks, Toronto, 17 January, 1850. Wilson rcturned..
Clipping: The Canada Question, 29 December, 1849. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. —
Clipping: Latest from Europe, 18 January, 1850.. .. .. .. .. ..
Grey to Elgin, Carlton Terrace, 8 February, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Toronto, 28 January, 1850.. .. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 28 January, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Clipping: The Mirror, Toronto 25 January, 1850. Cobden‘s Speech.. .. ..
Clippin ‘ The Montreal Heml , 22 January, 1850. Cobden’s Speech.. .. ..
Clipping. London Election. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. …
Rapport télégraphique de Pélection 5. Quebec. . .. .
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Ofiice, 18 February, 1850. .
Grey to Elgin, Colonial Ofiice. 1 March, 1850,. .. .. .. .. .
Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 11 February, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
Extract from letter to Elgin. Political activities of military ofl‘icers.. ..
Copy of a Despatch from Grey 420 Elgin, 9 January, 1850, Annexation. . ..
Clipping: The Montreal Courier. Cobden and Annexation. .. .. .. .. ..
Extrait _du Canada de Quebec, 2 février, 1850. L’éIection de Québec et l’an-
nex1on……. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ., .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 8 March, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 25 February, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Duke of Argyll to Elgin, Copy, Roseneatli, 18 January, 1850.. .. ..
Elgin to Duke of Argyll, Copy, Toronto, 25 February, 1850. . .. .. .. . .
Gray to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oflice, 22 March, 1850.. .. .. .. .. l. .. .. ..
Elgm to Grey, Private, Toronto, 11 March, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oifice, 12 April, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
Elgin-to Grey, Toronto,23 March, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. …
_ Turner to Elgin, Toronto, 18 March, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ,.
Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 23 March, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .
Clipping: The Montreal Herald, 12 March, 1850. Colonial System. Speech
of Lord John Russell.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Clipping: 16 March, 1850. Speech of Lord John Russell,. .. ..
Clipping: Resolutions, Clear Grit Party.. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oflice, 19 April, 1850.. .. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 7 April, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
. Clipping: The Church. King’s College” .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgm to Grey, Private, Toronto, 23 April. 1850.. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .
Clipping: Merritt to Electors of the County of Lincoln. . . . . . ..
Clipping: Comment on The Independent… .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Clipping: Petition of Col. Prince to the Legislative Council and Assembly.
Independence.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Clipping: The Hamillon Spectator, London, 8 April, 1850. Influence of

clion au

Elgin to Grey,

Relinionon Politics .. ,. .. .. ., .. .. …

Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oilice. 14 May, 1850
Elgm to Grey, Toronto, 25 April. 1850 .. .. .. .. ..
Edxyard Jordan to Elgin, Kin_.to . amaic , 1 Marc
. Elgin to Jordan. Toronto. 24 April. 1850 . ..
Elgm to Grey. Private, Toronto. 3 May, 1850 .. .. .. ..
Gorham to Baldwin. Private. San Franci . 25 Febi-in
R. Bruce to J. B. Robinson, Toronto. 2 April, 1850
Robinson to Bruce, Toronto. 3 April. 1850 . .
Clipping: Scene in United States Senate. ..
Clipping’ New York Commercial Arlvcrlfser.

Clippiiig: The Globe, Toronto, 2 May, 1850. Retrenchment .. .. .. .. ..

ELGIN-GEE Y PAPERS

Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oflfice 24 May, 1850 .. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 10 ay, 1850 .. .. .. .. .. ..
Clipping: Annexation vs. Independence .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Clipping: The Pilot, 2 May, 1850. Comparative cost of Government . . . . . . . .
Clippizig. Ad1d8r:0ss of the Central Committee of the British American League,

ay, ..

Petition of British American League to Assembly .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Clipping: The Spectator and Jam”/ml of Commerce, 8 May, 1850. The English

Nervs.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
EIg,intoGrey, Private, Toronto, 17 May, 1850 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ,.
Elgin to Grey, Toronto, 17 May, 1850 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Elgiu to Grey, Private, Toronto, 17 May, 1850 . . .. .
Grey to Elgin, Colonial Office, 7 June, 1850.. .. . . .

Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 23 May, 1850 .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Clippilgg: Cornronnications to Editor of Bramtjord Herald. Open Letter by
rogress .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Clipping: Clergy Reserves and. Reetories .. .. .. .. ..
Votensafig Proceedings of Legislative Axembly 23-24 May, 1
ir ay.. …. .. .. .. .. .. .. . ..
Elgin to Grey Private Toronto, 31 May 1850 .. .
Cori-eeipondance’ Parlementaire chi Cana
_(Extrait)………. …. ..
Clipping: Halifax pa_ , 15 May, i850, Arrival of _ in Mill .. .. . ..
Clipping: The Calomst. Installation of Chancellor, University of Toronto. ..
Chpiiing: ifhe North Amerwan. Installation of Chancellor, University of
mono .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . ..
I Clipping: The Globe. Installation of Chancellor, University of Toronto. .. ..
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 21 June, 1850.. _, ,_ ., ,, .. ,, ., ,, ..
Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Ofliee, 28 June, 1850 .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. ..
Elgin toClG1~ey, T%roInto, 618.;1(1)ne,§850 ..
rp mg: une, . ova co ra arr . ec ive egisa 1v ounor . ..
Grey to Eléjin, Carlton Terrace, 12 July, 1850 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .e. .. .. ..
Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 28 June. 1850 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Clipping: The Montreal H erald, 21 June, 1850. Clergy Reserves . . .
glipping: ¥inisterial1P§per. 1Clei-gy éteseéves. . . . . . .
‘ ‘ng: o t 2 one. 850. n ‘ ‘ . s. ..
Clipjiliing: Reply? fa Address from ll/esl<‘eiy:i”nmCronferleLiliro9e of 33%’: Btillteaiiiii. . . Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 5 July 1850 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oflice, 26 July, 1850.. Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 19 July, 1850 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 2 August, 1850 .. .. .. .. .. .. ,. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 26 July, 1850 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . Clipping: Quarrel between the Assembly and the Press .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Clipping: The M (mtreal Transcript, 23 July, 1850, House of Assembly and the Grey to Eigrlfi-?,;aeg, boa;,so‘oe’w;‘1s’rar:a;’1sso‘:.’:.”.:’.:’.:’ ” ” ” Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 2 August, 1850 . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Grey to Elgin, Private, Howick, 21 August, 1850.. .. ,, ,. ,, .. _. . Elgin to Grey, Private, 16 August, 1850 .. .. .. Memoranda,Agent at Washington.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 4. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, New York, 17 September, 1850 Grey to Elgin, Private, Howick, 2 October, 1850. . , . Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 27 September, 1850. . .. léfturn f;oA1risseI}r/x_bl%CMi1itary Zgfifipjnditurew ., .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ipping: em or ommeraia vertiser, 6 August, 1850. H’gh Olfce inRe bl’ .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey: Privalte,sNiagar:uFall:, 6 October, 1850.. Grey to Elgin, Private Colonial Office, 25 October, 1850. Elgin to Grey. Private, Toronto, 11 October, 1850. . .. . . Elginto Grey, Toronto, 12 October, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ., .. .. .. .. Grey to Elgin, Private, Carlton Terrace, 1 November, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elgm toC(1‘z_rey, Private, Toronto, 25 October, 1850.. .. .. .. . ._ .. .. .. .. .. Elzin to g:&r.-’5s.”tZ‘ifliiie‘i”’1§.ir§’,§%Zi§e’is§’?f‘?’ .i“.°°”“.”’?‘.’ ..”‘.”.”’1: 1. Grey to Elgin, Private: Colonial‘ Ofiice, 22 November, 18 . Gray to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oflice, 15 November, 1350. . E181!-I to Grey, Private, Toronto, 8 November, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. GT9)’ to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oifice, 28 I\’ovember, 1850.. .. .. .. . xiv ELGIN-GRE Y PAPERS Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 15 November, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. »C1_ipping: Quebec, 4 November, 1850. State of Polifiioal I’arties.. . Clipping: Montreal Gazette, 6 November, 1850. Relations between speaking and English-speaking Canadians.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Grey to Elgin, Private, Carlton Terrace, 5 December, 1850 Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 22 November, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 13 December, 1850. ,. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 27 November, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Clipping: The Norlh American, Toronto, 22 November, 1850. Platform of ClearGrit1’arby……………………………….. Clipping: The Balhurst Courier, Perth, 15 November, 1850. Elective Governor. . Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 4 December, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. Confidential Memorandum on Rcciproci’cy.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Clipping: The New York Commercial Aduerliser. Open letter on United States consular service, Washington, 21 November, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. “As we are~As we might; be ” by W L. Mackenzie, Toronto, 12 November, Clipping: Montreal Transcript, 23 November, 18 . Mackenzie and Canadian Reio1’In.. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elign to Grey, Private, Toronto, 11 December, 1850.. .. .. .. .. . Draft Report of Council, 10 December, 1850. Retrenchment .. Grey to Elgin Private, Colonial Ofiice, 20 December, 1850.. .. .. .. . . .. .. Grey to Elgin, Colonial Office, 3 January, 1851.. .. .. .. . Elign to Grey, Private, Toronto, 17 December, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Confidential Communication on Reciprocity, New York, 10 November, 1850.. Extract from letter of Sir Henry L. Bulwer. Reciprocity. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oflice, 10 January, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 24 December, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 17 January, 1851 Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 31 December, 1850.. . . Confidential Despatch (Cancelled), Toronto, 31 Govornor.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Clipping: Commercial Aliairs in the United States. . .. Clipping: The Montreal Transcript 19 December, 1850. Clipping: Post; Ofice.. .. .. .. ,. .. .. . Clipping: A Bow for the Presidency.. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Toronto, 7 January, 1851.. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 7 January, 1851.. .. .. . Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 31 January, 1851.. Elgin to Grey, Toronto, 17 January, 1851.. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 21 January, 1851.. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 21 January, 1851.. .. .. .. .. . . Leslie to Bishop of Toronto, Toronto, 11 January, 1851,. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Bishop of Toronto to Leslie.. .. .. .. .. .. .. . to Grey, Private, Toronto, 24 January, 1851.. .. .. .. Leslie to Bishop of Toronto, Toronto, 24 January, 1851. . . December, ‘1’s5‘o‘. “sii.u-‘y’ Ls P1-egress” .. .. . Elgin Grey to Elgin, l.’riva.te, Carlton Terrace, 15 February, 1851.. .. .. . Elgin to Grey, Toronto, 4 February, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 4 February, 1851.. .. . . .. . Elgin to Grey, Toronto, 18 February, 1851. . . Campbell and Coifin to Bruce, Montreal, 24 January, 1851. to Elgin, Private Colonial Office, 28 February, 1851.. .. .. .. . . .. .. to Elgin, Private, Carlton Terrace, 13 March, 1851. . .. .. .. .. to Grey, Toronto, 4 March, 1851. . . . Cauchon to Bruce, 21 February, 1851.. .. Grey Grey Elgin Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 4 March, 1851.. .. .. . . Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 18 March, 1851.. .. . .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 1 April, 1851. . . .. Grey to Elgin, Colonial Office, 5 April, 1851.. .. . . Elgin Grey Elgin Grey Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 16 April, 1851 . .. .. to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oflice, 9 May, 1851 to Grey, Private, Toronto, 23 April, 1851.. .. .. . to Elgin, Private, Carlton Terrace, 15 May, 1851. . . to Grey, Toronto, 7 May, 1851.. .. . Hervey to Elgin, Halifax, 27th April, ‘1séi.I’..’.. .. ELGIN-GREY PAPERS XV Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 17 May, 1851. . . 823 Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 24 May, 1851. . . 824 Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Ofiice 13 June, 18 824 Elgin to G-ray, Private, Toronto, 31 ay, 1851.. .. .. 825 Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Olfice, 20 June, 1851. . 826 Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 14 June, 1851.. .. .. .. .. . 827 Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 4 July, 1851.. .. 829 Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 21 June, 1851.. .. .. .. 830 Grey to Elgin, Colonial Oifice, 11 July, 1851.: .. 831 Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 28 June, 1831. . . 832 Elgln to Grey, Private, Toronto, 5 July, 1851. . .. . 833 Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oflfice, 25 July, 1851 834 Elgin to Grey, Toronto, 11 July, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. 835 Elgiu to Grey, Private, Toronto, 12 July, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 835 Paper on Clergy Reserves, by Egerton Ryerson.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 837 Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 1 August, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 850 Elgin vto Grey, Private, Toronto, 19 July, 1851.. .. .. .. .. 851 Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 26 July, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 851 Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Ofiice, 11 August, 1851. . . . . . 852 Elgin to Grey, Toronto, 29 July, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 853 Clipping: Constitutional Government, At Home.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 853 Clipping: _The Government, In -the Colonies.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 854 Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 2 August, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 854 Cl1p%}ig: Qulegfct Gazette, 28 July, 1851. Speech of the Hon. Francis Hincks. 85*’ inancia ncment.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .i Clipping: The Toronto Daily Patriot &: Express, 22 July, 1851. Protestantism and Conservatism. . 862 Clipping: The Montreal ‘i1e’r’az21′, it ‘July, ‘1’s5’1′. “T£éd’e’ cl’ I’I§1i£é¢i’st’s£te’s’..’.’. 863 Young to Bruce. Pi’ivo.te and Confidential, Montreal, 11 October, 1851… .. 867 Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 9 August, 1851. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 868 _ Clipping: _Gowan’s address to the Electors of Leeds, 23 July, 1851. . .. 868 Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 16 August 1861.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 869 Memorondum of letter written to ‘lgin.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8697» ROS0lUl}lODS of Assembly on the Construction of :3. Trunk Line of Railway _ through the Province, 12 August, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 870 Minutes of Assembly on foregoing Resolutions. . . . . . . . .. . . 874 Clipping: The Globe. Grand Provincial Railroad.. .. .. .. .. .. .. 379 Clipping: Mayor of Boston to Citizens of Boston.. .. .. .. . . .. . 882 Clipping: The Examiner Toronto, 13 August, 1851. Reform Party.. .. 884 Open Letter of Joseph Ilume to William Lyon Mackenzie, 21 April, 1851…. 887 Resolutions moved by Hincks on amending the Emigrant Aet.. .. 888 _ Clipping: _TheTrun_kRiiilWa.y.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 889 Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 22 August, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. 890 Elgin to Grey, Private, Toronto, 30 August 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 892 1313111 to Grey, Private, Drummondville, 5 8eptember, 1851.. . . .. 893 Elgin to Grey, Private, Drummondville, 11 September, 1851. . .. .. .. .. .. 893 _ Louis F. Allen to Elgin, Black Rock, N.Y., 9 August, 1851.. 4. .. .. . 894 Elgin to Grey, Private, Niagara Falls, 26 September, 1851. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 894 Clipping: _The Boston Celebration. Railways. . 895 Grey to Elgin, Private, Carlton Terrace, 16 October, 185 896 E18171 to G_1‘9Y, Private, Driinimondvillc, 2 October, 1851. . 397 Clipping: New York Paper. Brag is 21 good do , 898 Clipping: Lord Elgin at the Jubilee. Webstet’s Speech.. .. .. .. .. . 899 VOLUME III Grey to Elgin, Colonial Officc, 21 October, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 900 E18111 to Grey, Private, Toronto, 9 October, 1851 .. .. .. .. ., .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 900 Clipping: Montreal Gazette, 6 October, 1851. Public Dinner to Hon. L, H. La.Fontnine.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 901 Clipping: Montreal Gazeitc, L. J. Papineau . . .. 915 GT6)’ 10 Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 30 October, 1851 . 916 Elgiuto Grey, Toronto, 17 October, 1851 ,. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 917 Clipping: New York Commercial Advertiser, 6 October, 1851. News California. Execuiions.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 918 Elgln to Grey, 011‘ Montreal, 19 October. 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 930 De Blaquiere to Hineks, Copy, Woodstock, 11 October, 1851 .. .. .. . 930 Grey ‘co Elgin, Private, Colonial Office, 6 November, 1851 .. .. .. . 932 E18111 ‘to Grey, Private, Quebec, 25 October, 1851 .. .. .. .. .. .. 932 xvi ELGIN—GItEY PAPERS Elgin to Grey, Private, Quebec, 1 November, 1851 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Clipping: Correspondence of New York Commercial Advertiser, 17 October, 1851 Hincks-—Morin Ministry .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Clipping: Reciprocity with Canada .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Clipping: _The Daily _Britz’sh Whig, 22 October, 1851. The Ministry .. Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Ofiice, 20 November, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. . Elgin to Grey, Private, Quebec, 15 November, 1851 .. .. .. .. . Roebuck to Elgin, Milton, Lymington, 19 October, 1851 . . .. . . Elgin to Roebuck, Quebcc,_ 15 November, 1851 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Clipping: The Globe, Toronto, 4 November, 1851. The New Government. PoliticalQuestions.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . Open Letter of Francis Hincks to the Freeliolders of the County of Oxford. Clipping: The Globe, 11 November. 1851. The Elections. Political Questions. Clipping: Wholesale Divorces in the United States .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Clipping: Scenes of Violence at New York Elections. . .. .. .. .. Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Olfioe, 4 December, 1851.. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Quebec, 22 November, 1851 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Clipping: Corruption among United States Oificials .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Quebec, 28 November, 1851 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Clipping: Address of Brown to the Electors of Kent and Lambton, Toronto, .14I\lovembcr,1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Clipping: Norfolk Messenger, 20 November, 1851. Addres to John Itolpli .. Rolph to the Electors of Norfolk .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private.Quebcc, 5 December, 1851 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Clipping: Thomas Wilson to Editor of Cabourg Star, 17 November, 1851. Railway Resolutions .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Ofiice, 30 December, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. _ Memorandum of Sir Charles Wood on Currency Act .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . Elgin to Grey, Private, Quebec, 19 December, 1851 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Ofiicc, 9 January, 1852 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Quebec, 2 January, 1852 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . Clipping: Montreal Gazette. The Elections .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Clipping: Baldwin’: Speech on Defeat… .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Quebec, 16 January, 1852 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ,. .. Clipping: Extract from Speech of Governor Hunt of the State of New York. Corruption among United States Olficials .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Grey to Elgin, Private, Colonial Oflice, 6 February, 1852 .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Quebec, 30 January, 1852 .. .. .. .. .. .. Extrait dc L’Ai)em’r, 21 janvier, 1852. Dernicre déclaration .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Clipping: New York Paper. Presentinent of the Grand Jury. Immigrants. Grey to Elgin. Private, Colonial Office, 20 February, 1852 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Private, Quebec, 6 February, 1852 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Clipping: The Buflalo Commercial Advertiser. Canadian Reciprocity .. .. Clipping: English Correspondence of The Spectator, London, 1 January, 1852. Grea.tE>:hibition. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Clipping: Letter to the Editor of the Hamilton Spectator, 26 January, 1852
Transportation of the Mails .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Elgin to Grey, Pi-“vote, Quebec, 16 April, 1852..
Traité sur la Tenue Générale d’une tetra
(Brochure).. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Manuscript Chapter on Canada. “ The Colonial Policy of Lord John Russell’s

_ Administration,” by Earl Grey.. : .. . , . . . , . . .. . .
Elgin to Grey, Quebec, 8 October, 1852 Criticism of foreg
Elgin to Grey, Quebec, 9 October, 1852.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
Clipping: The Buffalo Commercial Advertiser. Recall of Lord Elg
William Lyon Mackenzie to Earl Grey, Albany, 28 November, 1846.

Copy of Colonial Advocate & Journal of Agriculture, Manufacture

mcrce, No. 1,18 May, 1824.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

dans. le ‘Ea.S:C.8..I13:d.€J.,. loixjaliivier,

MEMORANDA ON EMIGRATION

Experimental Emigrations in 1823 and 1825.~—-Also the Lanark Settlement.

Abstract of Emigrant Bill in Canada.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Extract of a Letter from Lord Gray to Sir George Grey, 16 November, 1846..

Lorne to Grey, Stafford House, 6 December, 1846.. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Meinoranda on the District of Gaspé—its advantages to poor settlers. By Dr. G. M.
Douglas.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..

Colonization in North America. T. F. Elliott, 15 December, 1846. . . . . . . . . .

Emigration. Grey, 15 December, 1846. . . . .

ELGIN-GREY PAPERS
MEMORANDA ON EMIGRATION—C’o1wluded

Return, Canada (Emigration) Colonial Land Emigration Office, 17 December, 1846.
T.F.ElliotandC.AlexanderWood.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Inf orémation extracted from the weekly returns of the Government Erni
uebec.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. ..
Extract from letter of C‘omini=sru’i:1t Clerk Hugxlios, Skibliereo , 18 December, 1846..
Crawford to Grey, 24 Abbey St., Paisley, 27 December, 1846.. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. ..
Memorandum on letter of Crawford, T, F. Elliot, 6 January, 1847.. .. .. .. .. ..
Memorandum. T. F. Elliot to Lord Lansdowne, 23 January, 1847. A Jstnnce to
Emigrants. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. …
Emigration Hawes to Grey. 18 December. Remarks on Plan of Grey..
Memorandum in Grey’s writing. Scheme of Settlement in Villages.
Memorandum on Colonization. (Bullor).. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. ..
T. F. Ellsiofi. Confidential Memorandum. 15 January, 1847. Remarhs on Colonization
c cmes.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Return of Shipping and Emigration. T. F. Elliot, 23 January. 1817 .. .. .. ..
Memorandum on Villages. T. )3’. Elliot, 23 January, 1847.. .. .. . . .. .. ..
Memorandum on Eznigrant Tax.. .. .. .. .. ., .. .. .. .. .. .
Memorandum on Emigration to Cana(la.. .. .. .. . ,, .. .. .. ..
Memorandum. T. F. Elliot, 27 January, 1847. Slip] ng and Emigration .. ..
Question of a Highland and Irish llmigration to Australia by means of funds paid b

“rel; Aigeift ii

Proprietors. Office of Colonial Lands and Emigration. 23 February, 1847.. ..
Appendix 1, David MacLaren, South Australia Company to Elliot, 15 February,
Appendix 11. Jas. Allen to Elliot, Horsham, 16 February, 1847.. .. .. . . ..

Appendix 111. Caroline Chisholm to (Elliot), London, 19 February, 1847..
Pocock to Grey, Hobart Town, Van Dicman’s Land. 18 M-.xrch, 1847.. .
Expense of Settlement, estimated by Moxon and Per1ey.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Extract from Sir William Colebrooke” Despatch, Fredericton, l\’.B., 27 April, 1847.

Settlementoftl1eProvince.. .. .. .. .. .. .. … … … ..
Extract from Elgin’s Letter, 7 May, 1847.. . . .. .. ..
Memorandum. A. B. Huwko, Chief Emigrant Agent, Cnnarli W
Former Enquiries on Emigration, 31 May, 1847..
T.F.Elliot,5July,1847. PassengersBi1l.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ,. ..
Extract of a. letter from Mr. Herd, Magistrate, County Co , to Capt. Stanch, relative

to distress in Ireland and necessity for Emigration. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Extract from the Second Annual Report of the Commissioners of Emigration to the

Legislature of the State of New York. 1 January. 1849. . .. .. .. .. ..
Report respecting Surgeons appointed by Emigration Commissioners.

” ” ” iioia’tz»é.&1,’%Lx’1a35,

MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS

Imprimé: L’Honor:ible Juge James Kerr.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Memorandum on Rylund’s Case, Colonial Oflice, 11 May, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Extract from Despstch, Grey to Elgin, Confidential, 29 December, 1818. Reduction

of Military Force. .. .. .. ..
Distribution of the Brit

Army,1January,l852……..
Memorandum for Mr. 11 ood. Cr.1nul.1 C1l1l1’Ill’1l.‘(3@(1 Loan, 24 Ju 1840.. . . . . ,. ., ..
Memorandum. Canadian Currency. 21 January, 1851. (Grey .. .. ,. .. .. .. .
Draft. Despateh on Responsible Government, (Grey to Harvey)
Draft Despatch on Responsible Government, as amended. ..
Clipping: Anti-Slavery Excitement… .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Clipping: Length and Cost of Telegrapli Line: all-r=a Memorandum Relative to the Great Western Railway of Canada as a means of em-

ploying Irish Labour, 23 January, 1847.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Tabular Statement of Projected Railways in British North America, 1845-6, prepared

for Mr. Gln<1stone.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ,. , . .
Speech on the Navigation Laws. James Wilson, 9 March, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Canada. Commercial and Agricultural Distress—-Political Disatfection and Annexation.

James Wilson, 14 August. 1849. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9337-4)

1132

1135
1136
1136

1137

1138
1139

1140
1141

1141
1142
1147
1149
1151
1155
1158
1159

1159

1163
1168

1193

Xviii ELG’IN—G’REY PAPERS

NAVIGATION LAWS

Observations on the Registrr and _\ vigation Acts. 1’ri\’-.110 and Confidential, 16

September, 1847.. .. .. . .. .. . . 1202
Memorandum to Lord Stanley, y, .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1210
Bancroft to Grey, 8 May. 1849. ’.\’avigation La and Independence. . 1210

1211

British Shipping to United States after repeal of Navigation Laws.. .. .. . . ..
Memoranda: Entries Inwards and Outwurds. 1840-51. French. Bri eh and United
States…………………… . 1213
Memorandum on Edward Randolph.. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .
Memoranda on I\’avigation Laws and American Colonic ..
Law of United States on foreign shipping.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .
M. Chevalier :1 Grey, 13 juin, 1851. Exportation‘ {rang-aises.. .. .. .. .. ..
FrenchshipsofFirstClass……
Increase of Total Tonnage of Shipping. 1848-50. .
Increased employment of British Ships, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .
Average measurement of French and British Ships, 1839-49.. .. .. .. .. ..
Statement of Number and Tonnage of Merchant Vessels, 1839-1849. . . . ..

Difierence between Tonnage, Outwards and Inwards, 1849, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Circular of Tonge,Curry&Co,, 1January,1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
List ofShips now on sale at Liverpool“ .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1224
I-Iincks to McLane, Washington. 6 January, 1851. Reciprocity.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1225
Fonblanque to Lord Stanley of Alderly. Working of the new Navigation Law. Board
ofTrnde,May,1851………. 1230
Memorandum of J. L. Ricardo. ‘igaticn Laws.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1233
The Navigation Laws, and the Commercial Relations of Great Britain with Foreign
States. Foreign Office, 12 July, 1847.. .. .. ., .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1240
Abstract; of an Act for the Encouragement of British Shipping and Navigation. 4
August, 1845.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1251
Memorandum for Stephen. Infor ‘ n collected on representations against the incon-
venient operation of the ion Lav:=z in the Colonies” .. .. .. .. .. . . 1256
Canada………. .. . . . .. 1258
Gambia.. .. . . . .. . .. 1266
Hong Kong. . 1267

Sout.l\Aust1’aha.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1267
The Observations of the Attorney General, Mr. Smith, on the Address of the Canadian
Legislature for the Repeal of the Navigation Laws. Montreal. 26 April, 1845.. .. 1268
Copy of a Despatch from Z\Iz=tr-alfe to Stanley, .\’o. 29. Iiingrston, 3 I<“ebruary, 1844. , .. 1270 Richardson to Higginson, Toronto. 24 January, 1844. Shipping.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Names of Schooners upon Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, their Tonnage and Cos .. .. Copyiggé a Despatch from Gladstone to Cathcart, No. 43. Downing Street, 1 April, 276 Copy of a Despateh from Gladstone to Cathcart. No. 62. 4 May, 1846.. .. .. .. .. 1277 Board of Trade. Report of Committee Appointed to Enquire into the State of the Trade of the Province of Canada, particularly with reference to the new Com- mercial Policy of England. J. Glass, Chairman.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. An Act for the Encouragement of British Shipping and a\ ation: 8 & 9 Vie. cap LXXXVIII,4August. 1845.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. … .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1285 An Act to enable the Legislatures of Certain Br sh Possessions to reduce or repeal certain Duties of Customs: 9 6; 10 Vic. cap. XCIV, 28 August, 1846.. .. . .. 1292 Letter dealing with the affairs of Mauritius. Baylv to Hawcs. P. Louis, 17 October, VOLUME IV APPEXDICES Arrezvnxx I. Education. Brief Practical Suggestions on the mode of organizing and conducting Day-Schools of Industry. Model Farm Schools. and Xcrmal Schools, as part of a System of Education for the Coloured Races of the British Colonies. By Sir James P. Kay-Shuttleworlh, 6 January, 1847. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. APPENDIX II. Immigration. Account of the Founding of the Emigrant Settlement Association, Toronto. The Church, 16 and 23 April, 1847 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1309 1296 ELGIN -GRE Y PAPERS APPENDIX III. Disinfectant. ReportofLedoyen’sDisinfectant .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. … .. . .. .. Copy of Letter from Ledoycn to Grey, 6 May, 1846 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. APPENDIX IV. Emigration. Grey to Elg‘En,’No. 142, Downing Street, 1 December, 1847 .. .. ., .. .. .. .. Enclosure: ‘lliot and Rogers to Hawes, Colonial Land & Emigration Oflice, 20 November, 1847 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. … . A1’PENl)IX V. Emigration. Grey to Elgin, Downing Street, 27 January, 1848 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Enclosure: De Vere to Elliot, London, Canada West, 30 Noveinbei‘, 1847. . . . . . APPENDIX VI. Emigration and Responsible Government. Quebec Gazette, 9 February, 1848. Papers relative to Emigration, No. 93. lvlontrenl, 29 October, 1847 .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. Grey to Elgin, No 143, Downing Street, 2 December, 1847 Grey to Elgin, No. 142. (See above 72. 1318) _, .. .. .. Quebec Gazette, 14 February, 1848. Important Despatch Harvey to Grey, Copy l\o. 17, Halifax, 2 February, 1847.. .. .. .. .. .. .. Members of Council to Harvey, 30 January, 1847.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Johnston to Harvey, Halifax, 5 September, 1846.. ,. ,, .. ., , Grey to Harvey, Copy, Downing Street, 2 March, 47., .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Grey to Harvey, Copy, No, 25, Downing Street, 31 Marcli. 1817.. .. .. .. .. APPENDIX VII. Settlement in Townships. Quebec Grzzette, 27, 28 and 30 June, 184.8. Sullivan to the Bishop of Montreal, Seeretary’s Ofiice, 10 June, 1848. . .. .. . . APPENDIX VIII. Grosse Isle. Elgin to Grey, No. 85, Montreal, 28 June, 1848.. .. .. .. .. .. APPENDIX IX. Administration of Affair.» in Prince Edward Island. Elgin to Grey, No. 88, Montreal. 25 September, 1847. . . . .. .. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . APPENDIX X. Quebec and Halifax Railway. Grey to Elgin, No. 299, Downing Street, 17 November, 1848. . .. .. . . . . . . _ Report on the proposed Trunk Line of Railway from an Eastern Port in 1\ov:1 Scotic througli New Brunswick to Quebec. Halifax, N. ., 31 August, 1848. Capt. W. Robinson, R.E.. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. APPENDIX XI. Quebec and Halifax Railway _ Memorandum of Inspector General on the Projected Halifax and Quebec Railroad, 18 December, 1848.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. APPENDIX XII. lznmigration and Public Works. Memorandum of Council on Immigration and on Public Works as Connected Therewith. 20 December, 1848.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . APPENDIX XIII. Military Labourers. Sullivan. Memorandum on Colonel Tulloch’s Plan for the formation_of Corps of Military Labourers in the Colonies, for the purpose of_ considering how far the Scheme might be made applicable to Canada. Printed at the Foreign Ofifice, October, 1848.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. i. .. .. .. APPENDIX XIV. Rebellion Losses. Elgin to Grey, Montreal, 30April, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, Montreal,5 May, 1849.. ,. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. Elgin to Grey, No. 45, Montreal, 14 May, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, No. 50, Montreal, 21 May, 1849.. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, No. 56, Montreal, 80 May, 1849.. . . Elgin to Grey, No.59, Montreal, 2 June, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Grey to Elgin, No. 372, Downing Street, 13 June, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Grey to Elgin, No. 417, Downing Street, 14 September, 1819.. .. It .. .. .. .. APPENDIX XV. Irish Agitators, Elgin to Grey, Confidential, Montreal, 7 September, 1849., .. .. .. .. .. . . APPENDIX XVI. Reciprocity. Grey to Elgin, Confidential, Colonial Office, 17 November, 18-19.. .. .._ .. .. .. Palznerston to Sir Henry Buliver, Copy, No, 3, Foreign Ofifice, 1 kovember, APP’y::\’DIx XVII. Disturbance at Lake Superior. Elgin to Grey, No. 118, Toronto, 23 November, 1849,. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. APPENDDC XVIII. Annexation. _ Minute of Council, 1 December, 1849. Dismissnlsu .. .. . Montreal Annexation MaDifesto.. .. .. .. .. .. .. APPENDIX XIX. Reciprocity , _ Grey to Elgin, No. 449, Downing Street, 9 January, 18:10. . .. .. . Elgin to Grey, xix 1381 1425 1427 1485 1486 1487 1495 XX ELGIN-GREY PAPERS APPENDIX XX. Seat of Government. _ _ Minute of Council, 18 October, 1849. On the Subject of the Provincial Parliament being convened alternately at Toronto and Quebec.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. APPENDIX XXI. Military. Elgin to Grey, No. 150, Toronto, 9 February, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, No. 151, Toronto, 9 February, 1849.. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. Elgin to Grey, Confidential, Toronto, 9 February, 1849,. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. APPENDIX XXII. Clergy Reserves and Constitution. Resolution oi Boulton 21 June, 1850. Clergy Rescrves,. .. .. Address of Assembly, 28 June, 1850. Constitution. . APPENDIX XXIII. Clergy Reserves. Address ofAssernb1y, 28 June, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, No. 198, Toronto, 19 July, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. . Thomson to Russell, No. 36, Toronto, 22 January, 1840. . . Thomson to Russell, No. 37, Toronto, 22 January, 1840.. . .. . Thomson to Russell, Private, Toronto, 24 January, 1840.. . Arrnunrx XXIV. Anglican University. Grey to Ellggin, No. 514, Downing Street, 29 July, 1850. . . . .1 . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . Bishop of oronto to Grey, London, 29 l\{Iay,1849.. .. ._. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Memorandum of 21 Scheme for Establishing :1 Church University in Upper Canada. Petition of Clergy and Laity oi‘ United Church of England and Ireland to the Queen Petition of the Members of the United Church of England and Ireland to the Queen Grey to the Bishop of Toronto, Downing Street, 13 June, 1850. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bishop of Toronto to Grey, London, 18 June, 1850.. .. .. . . .. .. .. Draft Charter.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . Bishop of Toronto to Hawes, 19 Bury Street, London, 20 July, 1850.. .. .. .. .. Memorandum of the Bishop of To1’onto’s Two Interviews with Sir Robert Peel.. Grey to the Bishop of Toronto, Downing Street, 26 July, 1850. . . Bishop of Toronto 410 Grey, London 27 July, 1850.. .. . . .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, No. 20, Toronto, 4 fE‘ebru9.i‘y, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, No. 21, Toronto, 4 February, 1851.. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Elgin to Grey, No. 29, Toronto, 17 February, 1851.. .. .. .. .. . . Bishop of Toronto to Leslie, Toronto, 7 February, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . Leslie to the Bishop of Toronto, Sccretary’s Office, 17 February, 1851.. .. .. .. Dra£tChartei’.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Arrnnorx XXV. Bounty on Hemp. Grey to Head, No. 170, Downing Street, 11 December, 1849. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Arrrmnrx XXVI. Canadian Currency Act. Elgin to Grey, Toronto, 16 August, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Extract of a Despotch from Head to Grey, 30 March, 1850. . . . . . . . . . Minute ofCounci],14 August, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Grey to Elgin, No. 575, Downing Street, 9 April, 1851.. .. Trevelyen to Merivale, Treasury Chambers, 20 February, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. APPENDIX XXVII. Revenue and Expenditure. Extract of Despntoh from Grey to FitzRoy.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Grey to Denison, Downing Street, 27 July, 1850.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. APPENDIX XXVIII. Retrenchment. Gray to Elgin, No. 568, Downing Street, 14 March, 1851… .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Arrmxnix XXIX. Quebec and Halifax Railway Grey to Elgin, No. 569, Downing Street, 14 March, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Aprerrnnc XYX. Clergy Reserves. Address of Assembly, 23 June, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. Appmxnrx IXXXI. Union of Upper and Lower Canada. Resolutions of Boulton, 7 July, 1851. . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX XXXII. Resignation of Baldwin. Resolutions of Boulton, 10 July, 1851.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. APPENDIX XXXIII. Defence. Great Lakes. Memorandum of P. Smith. No. 768: Canada. Military. Great Lakes.. .. .. .. 1594 1600 1602 1604 [Original MS] Private Mrvalvrs Home LONDON July 16. 1846. My Loan, I think it my duty at an early period after y‘ Lordships assumption of ofiice to submit the following statement in reference to my position as Governor of Jamaica absent on leave——. Under the pressure of u very heavy domestic afiiietion I took occasion upwards of a year ago to represent to Lord Stanley that it was my wish to retire from the Government of Jamaica whenever I could do so with propriety, & consistently with my duty to Her Majesty—— Partly in consequence of this application, partly with a View to other arrangements which he had in con- templation before leaving ofliee, His Lordship was pleased at the close of last year to authorize me to return to England on leave of absence.—- This indulgence was afterwards confirmed by M‘ Gladstone.~ I am aware that it may be of considerable importance under existing circumstances that the Assembly of Jamaica s“ be met in October by a Governor possessing y‘ Lordships entire confidence, and adverting to the fact that the term of my service in the Colony as prescribed by the regulations of the department is not far distant, I think that I shall best consult the public interest & your Lordship’s convenience by tendering my resignation of a Trust which I have already held for a longer period than any one of my five immediate Predecessors. I propose to do myself the honor of waiting upon y’ Lordship at the Colonial Oflice tomorrow in order that I may receive your Lordships commands and reply to any enquiries which you may be pleased to address to me respect- ing the condition and prospects of Jamaica. I have the honour to be My Lord Your Lordships most obedient humble Servni The ELGIN & KINCARDINE EARL GREY [Original MS] Private Mimnrs I-Iornn Lennon, July 18. 1846. My Loan, I am truly grateful to your Lordship for the terms in which you are pleased to refer to my services in Jamaica and for the promise of your future confidence and support. 9337——I 2 IJLGINVG REY PA I ’ERS I do not intend to iorego the satisfaction of the personal interview with your Lordship which you have so kindly consented to grant me = but I think that it may be convenient if in the meanwhile I place before you in Writing more distinctly & fully than I did in my former letter the grounds of my disinclination to return to Jamaica—- Relying on y‘ Lordships goodness I propose to do so with entire frankness & sineerity—and I trust that you will permit me at the outset to assure you that my views on this subject have not been in the slightest degree influenced by the change which has recently taken place in Her Majestys cousels [sic]. The personal motives which induced me more than a year ago to apply to Lord Stanley for permission to depart from the Colony retain their full force- I am now informed that I must seperate from my only child if I return thither, as I cannot with safety any longer expose her to the climate—~ I must apologize for obtruding such topics on your Lordship, but you will, I am confident, under- stand, how heavy the burden of existence must be in the isolated position of the Governor of a Colony, to one who has undergone there the greatest of all human afflictions-— Again, as a Scotch Peer, my admission to Parliament is contingent on the favor and support of my Brother Peers. A General Election cannot be far distant, and if I leave England at present I run the risk of probable exclusion from public life at home for a period which may be indefinitely prolonged. I beg further to observe that when Lord Stanley gave me leave of absence he did not contemplate my return to Jamaica, for he ordered me home with the View of inducing me to enter the service of the Crown in another quartcr~—— I am most unwilling to take a step which might seem to evince a lack on my part of that strong sense of duty to Her Majesty & tm Her Majesty’s Government which ought in my opinion to actuate every man who enters the public service~—but, adverting tm the fact that I have, under circumstances of great personal inconvenience, discharged, for a longer period than any of my Predecessors since the Duke of Manchester, the duties of an office, which, however encouraging the estimate your Lordship has formed of my humble services, is still as respects the judgement of the Public, a thankless one, I trust that I may be acquitted of want of zeal, or of respect & gratitude to your Lordship, if I renew the request that you will accept my proffered resignation. Unless I receive your Lordships commands tm the contrary, I shall do myself the honor of waiting upon you on Monday next. I have the honor to be My Lord y‘ Lordships most ob‘ humble Seri ELGIN & KINCARDINE The EARL Gan! ELGIN—GIx’EY PAPERS 3 [Duplicate MS copy] BELGRAVE SQUARE. Aug‘ 4. 46. MY DEAR Loni), The reasons which you assigned in your letter of the 18”‘ of July for de- clining to resume the Gov‘ of Jamaica were so cenclusive~«tl1at much as I re- gretted the loss of your services in a Colony which you so well understand, and where your administration has been so successful, I felt that I could not further urge you to return i;hcre-— But as your objections to returning to Jamaica are in so great a degree founded upon the nature of its climate, I am encouraged to hope that you may possibly not be unwilling to undertake the Government of a yet more important portion of Her Majesty’s Colonial possessions, not labouring under the same~disadvantage in respect of climate—as Jamaica-— If so, nothing would give—ine greater satisfaction than to be permitted to recommend you to Her Majesty for the situation of Governor General of British North America——— You are aware that this important post is at present occupied by Lord Cathcart, but that he went to Canada not as civil Governor, but as Commander of the Forces, and was appointed Governor on the recommendation of my pre- decessor, partly as I understand, owing to the difficulty of making any other arrangement when Lord Metcalfe was unfortunately compelled to come home by illness—partly, because it was considered that in the event of ,a rupture with the United States of America (which at that time there was so much reason to appre~ hcnd) there would be a convenience in having the highest executive powers both Civil, and Military, united in the same hands—~ Without giving any opinion as to whether such a union of power would have been advantageous, or otherwise, in the event of war—- I have no hesitation in saying that under present circumstances, when all immediate apprehension of such a Calamity is happily dispelled——- I think it inexpedient that the same person should be both Governor General, and Commander of the Forces, in British North America—~ Such is also the opinion of my Colleagues, and it is therefore our intention to advise H. Majesty to separate the two appointments, and to name another Governor General, and as this is a post which it is of the highest importance at this time— to have well filled, I am most anxious that you may allow me to propose to the Queen that it may be conferred upon you——— I believe that it would be diflicult to point out any situation in which Great talents would find more scope for useful execution, or are more wanted at this moment—& I am sure that I could not hope to find any one whom I could recommend to Her Majesty for that Ofi’lce——with so much con- fidence as yourself- Before I conclude there is one part of your letter of the 18”‘ to which though with some hesitation I will venture to advert——~ You mention as one of your reasons for not wishing at present to leave England, that by doing so you would run the risk of probable exclusion from public life at home for a period which may be indefinitely prolonged since as a Scotch Peer your admission to Parlia- ment is contingent on the favour and support of your brother Peers, and a General election cannot be far distant— Nothing can be more just than this reason for your wishing to remain at home, but at the same time allow me to remind you that by proceeding to Canada you might hope to obtain an entrance to the H. of oss7—i; 4 ELGIN—G’REY PAPERS Lords upon a more independent footing than as one of the Representative Peers of Scotland, both of the two last Governors of Canada have been rewarded for their services in that Capacity by being created Peers—and with the Claims which you already have from your successful administration of the affairs of Jamaica, and from your rank as the possessor of an ancient Scotch Earldom, I cannot but think that you might fairly expect that in the course of no very long time, you might establish a. right to be recommended to Her Majesty for a British Peerage, which would be recognized either by the present, or by any succeeding Ministcr—— I am not authorized to make to you any promise upon this subject, but I believe I are justified in saying, that the opinion I have now expressed is held by Lord John Russell as well as by mysclf—- Believe me My dear Lord, Faithfully yrs Signed GREY The Emu. or ELGIN & KrNoA1u>1Nm———

[Original MS]
Mrvaars. Horm.—
Aug 6, 1846
MY Dunn Lono,

However diflident I may be disposed to feel of my ability to cope success—
fully with the difficulties which the condition of Canada presents, and however
reluctant on private grounds to leave England, the kind and encouraging tone of
y‘ letter and of the personal communications on Colonial subjects with which
you have honored me induces me to lay all scruples at once aside, and to place
my services at y‘ disposal~

The interests of the public service are of paramount importance and tm
them all minor considerations must be made to yield, but I venture to submit
that it would be a great convenience to me to be permitted to defer for some little
time my departure from this Count1’y—at least until the arrival from Jamaica
of my plate & that portion of my establishment which I left thcrer—and the
return of my Brother, whose valuable aid & support it is of great moment to me
to secure in entering upon that larger field of duty to which you have been
pleased to call me

I have the honor to be
My dear Lord
very gratefully & truly Y”

The, ELGIN & KINCARDINE
EARL GREY

[Endorsed]
Aug. 6/46

L“ Elgin to L“ Grey
respecting Gov‘ Generals of Canada—

ELG’IN—G’1?EY PAPERS 5

[Original MS]
MIVARTS,
Sept 3. 1846.
DEAR LORD Gnnv,

There are one or two matters of detail affecting my position as Governor
of Canada on w“ I venture to take the liberty of addressing you.-

Firstly, as respects the Governor’s personal staff—I understand that 111
Lord Metealfe’s case it consisted of a Military Secretary——two paid and two
unpaid A.D.C.s. I apprehend that I shall be entitled tm the same.—-

I have been given to believe that the Private or civil Secretary of the Gov-
ernor is not necessarily (as in Jamaica) removeable with the Governor In
that case it is obvious that the Mil. Sec. is the only person who can be received
as the Governor’s confidential adviser or friend—~It becomes therefore in no
small degree important that the situation s“ be well filled & worth holding»
I have written to my brother who was with me as Governors Secretary in
Jamaica (the duties of which office he still continues to perform with much
advantage tm the service) urging him to accept it/-‘-It is fair that I s“ state
that in acceding to my wishes in this respect he will have to make a consider»
able sacrifice of Income——

A numerous body of A.D.C’s is a source of expense to a Governer—but in
order to the maintenance of the dignity of the ofiiee it will be proper I suppose
that my staff should in this department equal that of my preclecessors~

I have no intention to annoy you by raising questions about allowances for
outfits passages nice. But as the Salary of the Governor General of Canada is
confessedly far from excessive I trust that I may calculate on receiving any
aid under this head which has been afforded to those who have preceded me—-

I am,
Dear Lord Grey
very faithfully yrs

ELGIN & KINCARDINE

[Endorsed]

Sep. 3/46

L‘ Elgin

Respecting allowance &c~
An“ by Ld G-

[Original MS]
BROOM HALL
DUNFERMLINE.
Dc’ 8. 1846.

My dear Grey (I obey you see the injunction delivered to me by Mary from you
on the 7“’ of Nov’) 1 write this single line tm acknowledge the receipt of M’
Shuttleworth paper1~I intended tm have returned it today with a few remarks~
but I was interrupted, & indeed I find it rather difiicult to handle the subject.

1 We bu->701!‘ riflhrndizr I.

s ‘ ELGIN~GREY PAPERS

I have read with much interest the circular on Emigration & the West Indies
& Mauritius w“‘1 you were good enough tm give me before I left London.——1
think that it is calculated to do much good and that it will be acceptable to
reasonable men in the Colonies. I am glad to perceive that you consider our
legislation on this subject in Jamaica tm have been generally in the right direc-
tion—

Most truly y”

ELGIN & KINCARDINE

As respects the Privy Councillorship. I think I shall give it up as it WW1
certainly be very inconvenient to run up tm London for the purpose. I do not
care about it for myself, but I think that honorary distinctions are of.some
importance in the eyes of colonists and give one more weight than Ministers
at home who look tm public opinion in England, are aware of. Unless therefore
I hear something before the 17″‘ to make me change my mind I shall not arrive
in London till about the 26”“ or 27“ when Mary will accompany me to make
my final arrangements preparatory tm dcparture——Many thanks to you for
having so kindly consulted my convenience in this matter-«1

[Endorsed]
Dec‘ 8/46
L“ Elgin to Lord Grey.

[Original MS]
Bacon HALL
DUNFERMLINE
Dee‘~10-1846‘
MY DEAR Loan GREY,

I thank you for allowing me to see M‘ Shuttleworth’s paper on Industrial
Education for the Colonies—l’. have read it with much interest, and rejoice
to find that he has brought his great experience and knowledge to bear on this
important subject——If this paper can be circulated among persons in the colonies
who take a lead in Educational matters it can hardly fail to do much good————

1 [The following notes appear to have been made in reply to questions asked by Lord Grey.
They are found appended to the proceeding letter.]
Lord Metcalfe was allowed one military Secretary and two Aides de Camp.
See Treasur_v letter of 7 February 1843.
By the T” letter it would seem that the military Sec” was only appointed provisionally
was he afterwards confirmed?
The Salary it appears is 7005 a year 82 with‘ allowances to a military officer but I suppose
not stopping the mi 9112/?
The military Secretary was Capt“ Brownrigg of the Grenadier G“ who was on full pay.
What was Sir C. M. allowed finally for his expenses in going? & what W‘ L“ Elgin receive?
G
_Lord Metenlfe was desired to report wlietlier the Services of :1 military Secretary were
indispensable,—and, after a long delay—l1e answered that question eflirmati\’e1y— But I am told
that the Trvasliry are rather sensitive upon this matter.
His Lordship was allowed £900 for his expenses to Boston,—- and £368 for his expenses from
Boston to Czmadzi.
P S 3 Sept’

ELGI N -GREY PAPERS 7

It will tend to diifuse among them large and just views on Education generally,
and, by illustrating its bearing on the moral social & intellectual advancement
of the laboring class, to remove prejudices against industrial training which
prevail but too widely—.

I think it right however, (having myself attempted to hold the plough which
is now grasped by so much abler a hand) to warn you, that before you can
hope to succeed in establishing a system of moral and industrial training as
complete as that contemplated by IW Shuttleworth, you will have to overcome
many difi”1culties—~A1l the interests prejudices and passions which oppose the
march of educational improvement in this Oountry—vestcd rights in school
property & the nomination of teachers—-jealousies of rival sccts—the desire to
claim credit for doing much at a small expenditure of toil & patience-reappear
in the colonies with circumstances of aggravation, from the greater difficulty
of obtaining teachers competent in respect of attainment and uncxceptionable
in moral character,—-the illiterate condition of the bull: of the adult population,
-—-and the want of any class of resident Gentry with leisure sufficient to enable
them to exercise a gratuitous supervision over the rural schools. Add to this,
that in most of these colonies the discredit of associations derived from slavery
still attaches to labor—M” Shuttleworth proposes a plan for training masters
which would, I have little doubt, Work well, but it cannot be carried out in
accordance with his scheme until the day schools have already been some years
in operation. In the mean time therefore you will probably find it necessary
to approach the more perfect system developed by 1\/I‘ Shuttleworth by slow
and cautious steps, and to frame your instructions to Governors of Colonies
accordingly—

In Jamaica there were no schools instituted &, supported by the state and
under the control of the Government. The grant of a small sum in aid of
schools of all denominations in which the rudiments of the science and practice
of agriculture were taught and two or three hours a day set apart for manual
labor, was the only mode by which we could attempt to promote the introduction
of an industrial system of Education. To such cases all M‘ Shuttleworths sug-
gestions rcspecting the School Plot, the scholars plot, and the employment of
apprentices, would, I should think, he immediately applicable. Wherever the
wash house could be provided it would be a very useful addition-

It is needless to say that schools reoieving aid in this shape should be
subject to frequent and searching inspection, as otherwise gross abuses will
infallibly creep in under the pretence of industrial teaching, and the labor of
the scholars become a mere pcrquisite for the masters.

Where schools are instituted under the authority of the Government (and
I should have recommended in Jamaica the establishment of a sufficient number
of schools of this class to provide for the reception of children who were not
recieving instruction at other schools) M’ Sliuttlewortlfs system might at
once he introduced in greater perfection. It may be doubtful however whether
it would be judicious to attempt the care of cattle at present in any of the
day schools. ,

The range of study prescribed by M‘ Shuttleworth for those who are
twining to be masters might probably be some“ hat extensive for the class of

8 ELGIN~GREY PAPERS

scholars who would frequent a normal school in our tropical colonies at the
present stage of their civilization but, with such modifications as local circum-
stances might suggest, I should think that his system might be carried out in
institutions of this deseription——I was very desirous that the Trustees of Lady
Mic0’s charity‘ who now expend a sum of £800 or £900 a year to little purpose
in Jamaica in the education of youths as teachers, should have adopted the
industrial system in their normal Establishmcnt.—I suggested that the educa-
tion given at their seminary should have been of such a character as would
haveiqualifiecl the student not only for the situation of Schoolrmister, but
also for that of Bookkeeper and Overseer: so that while youths who had a
vocation for teaching would have found occupation in that line, others might
have followed their natural bent in a different direction with the prospect of
rising to oflices of emolurnent & responsibility on Estates»

I trust that you will pardon me for offering these remarks which are only
worthy of perusal as coming from one who has some acquaintance with the
state of opinion and practise in the tropical Colonies. The education now
given in the schools is so superficial and so deficient in the characteristics of
a moral discipline, that I have little faith in its eflicacy as a means of raising
the condition of the Peasantry.-—~more especially, when account is taken of the
depressing influences which weigh them downWards.—an enervating; olirnate—
wants easily supplied—-8. low standard of enjoyment mental and physical—and
centuries of barborisin and oppression—I should entertain better hopes for the
future if I saw a system in operation among them which, while it developed the
intelligence of the young & imparted to them a knowledge of religious truth,
trained them in habits of industry, order and cleanliness——

I am
Dear Lord Grey
Most truly Yours

ELGIN & KINCARDIXE.

[PS.]

The school system adopted in the village in which a number of the laborers
employed on this property (quarries agriculturalists & others) reside, works
so Well, that although it is not industrial, nor probably in all its features suited
to a population differently cirounistanced, I am tempted to say a few words
respecting it. Each man employed on the work agrees to contribute to the
support of the sohool—The wages vary from 3%, to 3/1 a day, and the lowest
payment to the school is 10″ the highest 14 per month. This contribution entitles
the parents to send any number of children they please to the school. The con-
sequence of this arrangement is that there is no temptation in any case, however
large the family, to withhold the advantage of education from the ehildren~—and,
in point of fact, all do attend school, from about the age of two years when they
enter the infant. School, to fourteen when they generally leave in search of em—

1An nenount of this interesting: fmmrlntion is given in F. (‘-umlall. “A S-\’r=nt-mirth Century
Charity: a brief history of the Mice Training College,” Journal of the I’/Lstiiute of Jamaica, 1895,
vol. 2. pp, 238-13: and by the same author. .11-ica (‘ollectian.. Jamm‘co: some accamz-t of the M100
family. the story of file Mica Iv’xmd, its dz’»rer5v’onr to the West Indies & its latest devclozznzent.-2 in
Jamaica rrith (1 brief hz’.Sim’y of the Collection (Kingston: 1914).

ELGI.\’~G.lx’]I.’ Y PAPERS 9

ployment— It is a gratifying circumstance too, that older lads and young men,
availing themselves of the facility afforded by the absence of any extra charge,
when thrown out of work by any accidental cause, sometimes return to school to
complete their education. Out of a population of 850 souls We have a school
attendance of 225.— The school is nearly if not entirely self supporting— The
people are contented, and I have had the satisfaction of ascertaining on enquiry
that the young men who have left this community to encounter the trials of life
in Glasgow and other great towns have generally turned out well—— It is fair to
add that these favorable results would not probably have been attained had we
not been fortunate in the Sehoolmaster who is a painstaking earnest sirnple~
n1inded man, & in the School-mistress who superintends the infant school— They
were both brought, up in the Sehool—

[Endorsed]

Dec’ 10/46

L“ Elgin to L“ G.

respecting M‘ Kay Shuttleworth’s paper on Industrial Education for the
Colonies—

[Original MS] MONI(LANDS.
Feb. 2 1847.
MY DEAR GREY,

I hear that by sending a letter today via1 new York I may succeed in reach-
ing you in England before the next Packet arrives I therefore write this un-
official line, to let you know that my first effort here has been entirely successful.
I had an opportunity of replying to an address from the inhabitants of Montreal
immediately after my inauguration, & the sentiments which I expressed have
gained (to judge by the press of all complexions) universal satisfaetion——

I did not shrink from speaking my mind, but I did what I ed— to raise
Canadian Politics from the dirt. I send tm you addressed to Belgrave Square a
Newspaper with a report of my address,—and I have sent Mary another of
opposite Polities— I have not yet had time to mature any plans— I hear that the
civil list act has not yet been eonfirmed— Why so? M‘ Cayley expresses con-
siderall [sie.] anxiety that the proposal sent home by the last mail for selling out
the Clergy reserve funds now invested in Consols & re-investing them in the
Canadian debentures already remitted should be acted upon without delay.—It
is also hoped that the sinking fund on the loan of 150,000 guaranteed by Great
Britain will not be required at least until the W01‘{S are completed~— I do not
know how soon diliieulties may arise but I am happy to say that things look
very well at present, and that I think much may be done by suavity & caution
combined with decision—

Y” most truly

ELGIN & KINCARDINE

The paper w” I send you is an organ of the Gov‘ Mary will send you one
of the opposition——

1 In the manuscript this appears to be either ” via.‘ ” or “via‘.”

10 ELGIN—G’REY PAPERS

[Duplicate MS copy]
Private.
Bnncnnvn SQUARE
Feb. 2/47

MY DEAR ELGIN

The subject of a public nature wh. is of the greatest immediate interest is that
of emigration By this mail you will receive a Despatch1 explaining to you
that I have almost given up all hope of your being able to carry into effect
the plan of systematic colonization detailed in the Despatoh9 you carried out
with you, & I enclose in this letter copies of a memorandum drawn up by F.
Elliott (the emigration Comm‘) & of a letter & paper sent to him by the New
Brunswick Land Company?‘ Wh. will show you the practical difliculties Wh. have
been started as to the execution of my scheme—— These difiiculties I am bound
to admit are great, & yet I am quite persuaded that if proper means were adopted
for the purpose they are capable of being overcome—— With abundance of good
land & vvitli capital wh. this country can supply provided a reasonable prospect
of repayment is aiforded, I never can believe that the labour of a large number
of able bodied emigrants might not be made to produce not only the means
of maintaining themselves but also of returning what might have been laid out
in the fiI‘St instancc~ After all we know that emigrants who have industry &
some small means of their own by their own isolated & unaided efforts never fail
in a few Years to realize an indepcndence—— The small capital wh. such settlers
possess is of necessity expended in the maintenance of their families at first,
but yet after 4 or 5 years of exertion we find them having overcome the
difficulties of establishing themselves & in possession of property to a far greater
value than what they originally possessed-— But if this can be done by individual
settlers it seems to me altogether irrational to suppose that it might not be
done still more easily by bodies of settlers, whose labour by their mutual co-
operation, if it were but properly directed, might accomplish far more than
the separate efforts of individuals— What is wanted for this purpose is some
plan of operations wh. shall call forth all the energy of individuals, at the same
time directing & guiding their efforts, & supplying the capital wh. is wanted to
support them until their own labour can produce a return from the soil, without
subjecting them to the deadening & benurnbing influence of feeling that they
are in debt» It is I think a fundamental principle of any good system of

1In this despatch, Lord Grey set forth the reasons which had induced the Government to
abandon the policy cg settling emigrants in villages (see below, notcf 2), antllalso {fir declining
to assist emigration y providing free passages. Great approbation o the “or < of t e emigrant agents was expressed. uml it was pointed out that there existed it great rlenmud for labour in tl\cDL;;l_;)Ln:p_s, 5;” tlgat eggiggzéiligs Pg)\1lc(l77l>e to obtain employment without difficulty. Grey
o’z’,io. an. , . «>4 1;. .
_ 2In this _<1éspatch, Lorci Grey pointed out that co_nsi<lern1)le bodies of people would be
indulcded ti; %n\1gxrate. to ether with their tc*]i‘erg3’i1i1nn or 1£1es{.’, they coulfilx be Vz\sslu:e<lttha‘t ghcay)
won no e ispersen on Z\I‘X’1VlTl“’ 1’L\ co om or< * mi Wix‘ ‘ creiore 1115 nice {mike provision for the establishment of villages or such coimiiunitie; of emigrzmts. Detail_ed _)\gSl§l:11l1ct1]gIIS T§;1‘e1§{l\6‘CI\ lfgr guid,a91(i)e}e in em ‘ing this scheme into operation. Grc.7/ 10 197.1/W; .0. .01‘.-. ‘. ….p. (~41 3For Elliott’; ireportrsee .’l[em;randa re J-,’migrrm’a21. The other papers are not in the collection. ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 11 colonization that the settlers ought not to be made to start in debt & above all not in debt to the Gov” wh. never can be the creditor of any considerable number of its subjects without the greatest danger—— The solution of this problem I am convinced is to be found in the application by some means or other of the Wakefield 7m’nciple,1 that is to say it is by putting a considerable price upon land, & selling the land in a state in wh. it is worth this increased price——- I enclose with the papers I have already mentioned a slight sketch of the sort of way in wh. I think this might be done——- It is very possible, or rather most probable, that exactly in this shape the plan might not be capable of being worked out, but I am not the less firmly convinced that in principle it is sound, & that if the Assemblies can be made to co-operate with you it might be acted upon— The great thing is to convince the Assemblies that it is not by lowering the price of land, that the settlement of the country is to be promoted, on the contrary I am more & more persuaded that what is desirable is as I have said to raise the price of land, spending the money received on improvements wh. increase its value~—- But as this is a principle ag“ wh. public opinion in North America seems to be very strongly directed it will require much management to lead the Assemblies to adopt it. Probably this will be best accom- plished indirectly, by suggesting as the best source from wh. funds can be raised for the execution of public works wh. are greatly desired, the imposition of a small tax upon Waste land, or rather upon land generally, since if a tax is confined to wild land it is not always very easy to (ll‘a\\ the line between land wh. is really wild & that wh. is partially reclaimed, whereas a small tax such as 6“ an acre is practically unfelt by land wh. is made productive, but is a burthen wh. renders it impossible to retain for long periods large tracts of uncultivated land in private hands. The imposition of a tax of this sort, & a trifling increase of the price at wh. land is at present sold, W“ afford to the Canadian Legislature the means without any real addition to the public burthens of affording a guarantee for the interest of the money invested in works of public utility wh. I am persuaded w° induce capitalists to execute them — There is one such work now in contemplation wh. without some such guarantee cannot I fear be executed, & wh. I am persuaded wd be of the very greatest advantage to the Colony. I allude to the projected Railway called the “Great Western of Canada” for wh. a bill has been already passed by the Canadian Legislature. I have within these few days seen a statement drawn up by M” (formerly of the Railway department of the Board of Trade but now practising at the bar & counsel to the promoters of this project) by wh. it appears that in the present state of the money market notwithstanding the reasonable Prospect of a good profit wh. this undertaking presents money for going on with it will not be forthcoming without some public assistance. Such assistance in our present financial state & with the heavy burden of Ireland upon us, it is utterly impossible to afford from the B5″ Treasury, but I do think it very well indeed worth considering whether the Colonial Legislature might not guarantee 5 per cent on the capital. or take half the shares (amounting to about £600.000) in order to enable the projectors to go on with this railway. I am told that with some such assistance all the great railway people in this Country with Hudson ‘See \Yal:e(leld, I). G., A Vieic of the Art or C’0I0’“-‘1’“’“7Yv (I-011|10111 1349)‘ 12 ELGI.\’—G1x’EY PAPERS at their head W“ be very glad to take up the scheme, & that a large amount of capital from the United States W“ also be invested in it. To commence this work in the ensuing spring w“ be of infinite advantage with a View not only to the assistance of emigrants but also to the general improvement of the province, & I wish you w“ consider whether the Assembly might not raise a Revenue sufficient to guarantee the interest upon tl1e capital of the Company, or to pay the interest of a loan sufificient to enable them to take half the shares, by some such impost as I have described upon land. Considering how land in all the Western part of tlie Colony wd be raised in value by such a work the impost w“ seem to me both politic & just— I shall be very anxious to hear what prospect you think there is of doing anything in the way of effecting a closer union among the B5“ North American Provinces than at present exists. I am convinced that there is nothing more important to their interest & also to ours-— [Original MS] Secret. Monrcnmns. Feb 24-4847. MY DEAR GREY, I have given you in the memorandum herewith enclosed a narrative of what has taken place since my arrival in regard tm Ministerial arrangements.—— My ministers are; M’ M om’: President of the Committees of the Council & Receiver General- M’ Draper Attorney General for Upper Canada & leader of the Ministry not avowedly but in fact—- M’ Oayley Inspector General of public accounts– M’ Duly Provincial Secretary——~— M’ Papineau, Commissioner of Crown lands-~ M ’ Smith, Attorney General for Lower Canada.- I beg that you will really consider this letter and its enclosure secret, because it is hopeless to attempt to work the system of Government we have got here unless the Ministers feel that they may with perfect safety communicate un- reservedly with the Governor. In order to preserve the confidential character of the document I have described the ministers in the memorandum by their Initials—M’ Draper being designated as D. & NI” Daly as D.D.— Why D. should have endeavored to persuade me to turn my back at once on the French & to go all lengths with the exclusively British Party when he was so ready to admit, on my objecting, the extreme inconvenience and peril to my future usefulness of such a course, is an enigma which I have not yet been able to solve. Whether it was only because he thought that he could not after his failures renew a negotiation with the French, and that therefore if any attempt was to be made in that quarter the proposition ought to originate with me-« or whether he may have calculated that a new Governor, undeflled by Gallic, contact, would be an acceptable peace offering to his Upper Canadian friends who are out of humor with him=I cannot even conjecture. .1. Ib‘LGIN~»G’ltEY PAI’lI?RS 13 Hitherto (I am writing on the 24”‘ of February) things have gone on well with me~ Much better than I hoped for when we parted— I should have been very willing to meet the Assembly at once, and throw myself with useful mea- sures upon the good sense of the people——- But my Ministers are too weak or too wanting in Pluck for this——— They seem to be impressed with the belief that the regular opposition will of course resist whatever they propose, & that any fragments of their own side who happen not to be able at the moment to get what they want, will join them. When I advise them therefore to go down to Parliament with good measures & the prestige of a new Governor, & to rely on the support of Public Opinion they smile & shake their heads—— It is clear that they are not very oredulous as tm the existence of such a controlling Power, and that their faith in the eificacy of appeals to selfish & sordid motives is greater than mine. Nevertheless we must take the World as we find it-, and if new Elements of strength are required to enable the Government tm go on it is, I think, very adviseable to give the French a fair opportunity of entering the Ministry in the first instance. It is also more prudent to enter upon these delicate negotiations cautiously & slowly in order to avoid if possible giving the impression that I am ready to jump down every loody’s throat the moment I touch the soil of Canada.—This is the more important because my per- sonal influence has been extending itself in the mean time. I regret that any delay should take place as I know that you are anxious about the measures which I have to submit tm Parliament~—’but I am doubtful whether with a Ministry so weak as this I could hope to carry anything.»-— I sent a letter to you by the New York Packet of the 6“‘ as I was anxious that you should hear of my start as soon as possihle.——- I also felt at the time that it was very hard that I had nearly a whole month of Government here to undergo before I should have an opportunity of reporting progress to you.—— I have an immense deal of hard work to do. So much that is new—and Lord Oathoart (not very unreasonably perhaps) has allowed every thing that required thought to lie over for me~Add to which shoals of addresses pour in daily— I wish I could be more useful to you about Innnigration—— But it is impossible to fathom all the depths of the land & labor question at a plunge— I think that the plan of encreasing the means of forwarding the new Corners tie] places where their labor is wanted, is the best & safest——-you could ad0pb—— I intended to have suggested it, but yr despatch of the 29″‘ of January has anticipated me. Pray mention to Lord John Russell that I have seen J‘ Alexander——-I like him much, and shall regret if he cannot remain on my staff as I think he W“ prove an efficient coadjutor——— I trust that you have not forgotten or abandoned y. plan about the Bath and the Militia A.D.C.’s to the Queen. Take away y‘ troops if you pleafies but give some gallant Knights & titled dames to maintain British connexion withall_.. I shall be grieved if you disapprove of my ministerial proceedings. Every course in diflicult circumstances has its inconveniencesw I think if I had 14 ELGIN—G’REY PAPERS adopted the first plan suggested to me, I should have had a very weak Min- istry even after all sacrifices had been made to conciliate the Upper Canada Tories—~ The unnatural alliance between the Baldwin & French factions W4 have been confirmed, & their feelings towards myself embittered under the impression that I had started as a partizan Governor. Whereas if the French agree to my terms I shall have the strongest Govm United Canada has yet seen: if they refuse a most suflicient reason is furnished for seeking strength elsewhere. Yrs always very truly [Endorsed] ELGIN & KINCARDINE Secret [Endorsed] Feb’ 24/47 Earl Grey Lord Elgin to Lord Grey Elgin and Kincardine with memorandum [Enclosure] [Original MS] M em. Secret. MONTREAL. February 8”‘ 1847. Col Bruce informed me today that D. had called upon him, Stating that he had certain proposals to Submit1 to the Gov‘ Genl which he thought it adviseable in the first instance to communicate to him. D. conversed with C01. B. for Some time, & the more important propositions which he advanced, were=1*“‘Y That the Gov’ Genl. Should apply for n1andamus’s to raise 8 Gentlemen, whom he named, to the Legislative Council. 2“‘“Y That he Should also procure a man- damus for Sir A. Maonah, to be used in the event of the attempt to prevent his voiding his Seat, in Consequence of his alleged acceptance of the Olfioe of Adj‘ General of Militia, failing. If the Gov‘ were defeated in this matter, it might be very important, he Said, to have the means of placing Sir A. in the Upper House, with the Oflice of Speaker—~ M. Caron, the present Speaker, being ejected for the purpose—— He aclverted to other points of less importaneew These, however, were the principal. Feb’? 9″‘ I sent for D. to—day, & told him that I was ready to receive any com- munication, which he might wish to make to me. He informed me, that he had been drawing up a memorandum, in reference to the Subjects which he had mentioned to Col. ]3-—- the day before. I observed that I would much prefer dealing with proposals of importance on paper; but that, in the meantime, if he wished to give me any information, orally, 1 would willingly listen.—— He coin- menced by Stating, that the number of Legislative Councillors was Somewhat re- duced from various causes, & named 8 persons for whom he wished mandamuses .b13‘he constant use of a capital “S” throughout this document has been faithfully tran- QCTI e – ELGIN—G’REY PAPERS 15 to be procured, detailing the recommendations of each. He Said he had reason to know that there were mandamuses in the possession of the Gov’ for Certain individuals. The elevation of Some of these persons to the Council, he would to the utmost, oppose. Sir C. Metcalfe had procured the Mandamus on the recom— mendation of his first Ministry. He adverted to the position of M’ Caron, Stating, that that Gentleman had been appointed Speaker of the Legis” Council, at the time when all the Members connected with Upper Canada, & among them M’ Jameson, the Speaker, left the Council, on the occasion of the Vote for re- moving the Seat of Governm‘ to Montreal. He Said that he had reason to believe that M‘ C. accepted the ethos, on the understanding that he might at any Time be called to vacate it. He then proceeded to the Case of Sir A. Macnab, leaving on my mind the impression that he thought Sir A’s right to the Seat questionable, but defensible, there being little or no evidence of his having accepted office. A defeat in this case, might be very awkward for the Gov‘, & he wanted a man- damus So as to be able to avoid Such a risk, by his removal (if necessary) to the Upper House. He mentioned all this now, because if I applied immediately, I might have the documents in my Possession, So as to be enabled to meet the Legislature in 2 months——~On this hint, I remarked, that my impression, derived from M” Cayley, & others, was that it would be inconvenient, especially to Members for Upper Canada, if the meeting of the Legislature were deferred after the commencement of March. I observed that measures which I would be unwilling to delay, would probably be introduced into Parliament in the approaching Session, affecting the Tariff, the Post Oifice, & other matters of importance. I gave him to understand that as far as I was concerned, I should be quite ready to meet the House early in March, & I wished him & his Colleagues to consider this point well, before they prepared the memorandum. 10″‘ Feby I received this day the following confidential memorandum from D. CONFIDENTLAL MEMORANDUM. “ From the years 1842-3, Suggestions have been repeatedly made for adding “ to the numbers of the Legislative Council, & it is understood that Some writs “ of Mandamus have been Sent out, which have not hitherto been acted upon. “ In the meantime vacancies have taken place by death, resignation, or a with- “ drawal from attendance. A diflioulty has also been frequently experienced in “obtaining; the attendance of a quorum—-_— To obviate this, & for other reasons “hereafter pointed out——the following namesmof gentlemen whose principles, “character, & integrity cannot be questioned, are humbly Submitted: -—L. Canada. U. Canada.—- “ 1. Denis Benjamin Viger. 2. Roderick Mattheson.1 “ 3. F. A. Quesnel. 4. George Strange Boulton. “ 5. James Ferrier. 6. Benjamin Thorne. “ 7. Charles Penner. 8. Hamnetz Pinhey. 1 Roderick Matheson. 2 Hamnett Pinhey. 16 ELGIN—GIx’EY PAPERS “ The circumstances under which the I-Ion”‘° R. E. Caron was elevated to “the Speakership of the Legislative C‘ have been explained to Y‘ Lordship “ so far as D. has understood them. He begs to explain that he does not Speak “from any personal knowledge in this respect. It has been thought desirable “ that this-oflice Should be filled by one politically connected with the adminis- ” tration, & that he Should ‘be~—-pro for-ma, at least—an Executive Councillor. “After M‘ Caron’s unqualified refusal to take office last Summer, there can be “ no reason to Expect he would desire to retain his present position coupled with “ a political alliance with the Existing Council. In fact, for the moment, at all “events, the Govern” can only rely for Support on the British Party of Lower “Canada, & on the Conservative Party in Upper—& it is of the greatest con- “ sequence, to prevent any disunion in the latter, & one of the most prominent “risks of this, arise from the position of the Speaker of the Assembly. “ The circumstances which created this difficulty do not require to be now entered “upon. Although the Oificial correspondence does not contain any positive “evidence that Sir Allan M°Nab accepted the Oflice of Adj‘ Gen‘ of Militia, “ & the Gov‘ can therefore as Seems most politic, assume that he has not vacated “his Seat—there is certainly enough to furnish ground for a plausible argument “in favor of a Contrary proposition, & when it becomes known that this view “ is taken—-it is most probable that the Opposition will adopt a Contrary Opinion, “& they may very possibly ‘be joined by Some others who may have taken ” um-brage at Sir Allan’s reference to a “ round robin” in favour of the present “deputy Adjutm Gen‘ for Upper Canada. If it Should be ascertained before “ the House meet, that Such a Contingency is likely to arise, it appears to D. “ desirable to be prepared to avoid it-by being in possession of a Mandamus “ calling Sir Allan to the Upper House. “Independently of this consideration there is this Contingency, that a few “ persons of the Conservative party, who (whatever their motives) feel unfriendly “ to the present Council, or at least to Some member or members of it—might, “if opportunity offeredwbe inclined to make Sir Allan a rallying point——as “ he is in fact the only person in Upper Canada, they could or would make their “leader. They would then Create a division, the Speedy and certain Conse~ “ quencc of which would be to bring in the Same parties who resigned on their “quarrel with Lord Metcalfe. This danger would also be obviated, -by having “the power to place Sir Allan in the Upper House—& making -him Speaker, “ with a Seat in the Executive Council, but holding no Office as head of an “ Executive department. “ The anticipated effect of these appointments is, to give Such a Strength to “the Existing Government in both houses——as would enable them to undertake, “ with every prospect of Success—the various important measures, financial, & “political, which must ‘be Submitted to the Legislature. The confidence this “would give to the Country Generally would in many ways be beneficial. By “no means the least advantage to be hoped for, is the Strong probability, that “the Lower Canada Opposition must then distinctly perceive, that their union ” with M’ Baldwin & his friends, in no ways favors the objects, whether personal “ or political, which they are believed to desire, & that any proposals or advances “‘ to them are dictated Solely «by a desire to afford them every thing that is just ELGI N vGREY PAPERS 17 “ or reasonablc—~& not by a want of their Support to carry on the Govern‘ They “ will thus be in a far more favorable disposition to unite with the Upper Canada “Conservatives than they were in 1844——«& infinitely more So than they are at “this time, when advances made to them would be considered as the result of “weakness, & be rejected accordingly. And if their leaders Should then reject “overtures, there would not be the Same unanimity that has hitherto actuated “the parties who Sustain them. “It is Submitted that the additional delay of a month in assembling the “Legislature would be of trifling consequence, compared with Such results as “may be reasonably anticipated from the successful prosecution of this plan. “ That the public in fact, do not anticipate that the Legislature will be convened “Sooner than April, & that no positive inconvenience, can result from a delay “ Suflicient to carry out the foregoing propositions. “ D. in Submitting the foregoing hasty observations, olfers them only a [sic] “Suggestion to which he respectfully Solicits Your Lordship’s consideration, & ” Such Consultation with the Council as their importance may seem to deserve.” Jllontreal 10*“ Feb’. Saturday 13”‘ Sent for D. having wcll considered his proposals. Told him that I should be glad to have Some Conversation with him in reference to cer- tain objections which I felt to them, before giving him a written answer. It appeared to me, I said, that in advising me to adopt the Course which he had Suggested in regard to M‘ Caron, he was inviting me to take a Step against the French Canadian Party much more decided and oflensive than any which my Predccessors had adopted— That the principle that the Spcakership of the Legislative Council was a Political office had never been acted upon~That even if it were true that an understanding had bcen entered into by Sir C. Metcalfe & M‘ Caron at the time when the latter accepted the Olfice~of which understanding, however, there was no evidencc—it had not been acted upon either by Sir C. M. or L“ Cathcart.— That if it was Contended that his refusal to join the Ministry last Summer altered his position (D. explained to me that during the Summer he had made a formal proposal to Mess“ Caron & Morin, which had been civilly declined, but without any reason assigned) Still it remained to be Shown, why, if Lord Catllcart did not deem Such refusal a Sufficient reason~for removing him from the Speakership, I should assume the responsibility of Such a Step. That I could not but fear that the Moral effect of my adopting, immediately after my arrival in the Province, the course which he had Suggested, would be to convey the Impression, that I had resolved to be a partizan Governor, at the head of a British Anti Gallic party-—a Posi- tion alikc repugnant to my Principles & inconsistent with my Professions.—— D. admitted the force of these remarks: He Said that looking at my position as a new Governor, nothing could be more just than all that I had Stated-— That his recommendation had been prompted Solely by the belief, that as things then 5t°0d: it was quite hopeless for him to attempt to Conciliate the French Party. That he knew that in the Expectation of an Early dissolution of Parliament, they had already strengthened the Connexion with the Upper Canada Liberals, & commenced a Canvas of Several Constituencies. That So far as he was D337~2 13 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS Concerned he had always ardently desired to effect an Union with them~——That with the Exception of M. Lafontaine, there was no one of their leaders, with whom he could not act-—~ That he believed there was a much greater Coincidence of Sentiment between his Party & them, than between them & the Baldwin Party. That he felt he never could act in concert with the Baldwin party, because there was an entire opposition of principle between him & them, but that he had no Such difliculty with respect to the French leaders.‘ I replied that I was glad to find that he So candidly admitted the force of my objections to his proposal—- That although I did not intend at that Time, & in Conversation, to Submit formally a Countcr—proposition, I had no hesitation in Saying that it appeared to me, that I should be acting very fairly by himself & his Colleagues, if I offered them the following alternative——Either on the one hand, that they should meet Parliament as they now Stood, at the Earliest day, availing them- selves of any advantage, which the arrival of a new Governor with acceptable measures, might afford them, or that on the other, a negotiation Should be entered into with the French Party, Such negotiation to be based on the offer of reasonable & liberal terms to them, and to be conducted by me, or under my immediate direction. To the adoption of the former branch of this alternative, he seemed much averse. He gave me to understand that although he would be happy in Such a case to give his utmost Support to the Government, as an independent Mem- ber out of office, he would be very unwilling to meet the house as Minister, because he was Sure that all the dissentions in his (the Conservative as they Style it) Party, would be charged upon him. With regard to the latter branch of the proposed alternative, he had no objection, & thought the attempt might very properly be made; & if undertaken by me, not without a reasonable prob- ability of Success. 14″‘ Feb’ I received this day the following note from D. “Since the interview with which Your Lordship honored me yesterday, I “ have heard from a Source in which I place great reliance, Something connected “ with parties alluded to in our conversation, which may be perhaps useful to “ your Lordship to know-— I am precluded from giving the name of my inform~ ” ant, but will vouch corps pour Corps for his high and honorable character. “ ‘ They, (meaning the Canadian Party, & their Upper Canada ally M‘ Hincks) “ ‘ are getting very uneasy. They fully Expected that they would have been “ ‘ Sent for by Lord Elgin to form a new Administration——and they now begin “‘to doubt whether they have any present chance.’ “My informant alluded to the pecuniary Embarassment of Some of the par- “ ties, as one reason for great anxiety and impatience, & finished by Stating his “Conviction, that though the Canadians (French) would in the first instance “fight for bringing in their U. Canada allies, they would give way, if they “ found that impossible. I subjoin an Extract, from a letter written in Toronto “ on the 9”‘ ins” It is from a friend of mine, also a Member of the Assembly, “ as Showing to Your Lordship, how the Subject of our Yesterdays Conversation “ is viewed at a distance. ‘I was much afraid at one time that you would ’ “ determine not to meet the House, but now I understand you have resolved to ’ “ do so, 6: I think the resolution is right, but do not have the house called’ ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 19 “together too Soon— Give Lord E. plenty of Time to feel the men whom he’ “has to deal with. . — — . I hope that he will personally try the French——’ “ it can, I think, properly be done by him—and if they unite—-well-—if not’ “they must give their reasons in Some tangible Shape, and if their demands’ “ ‘ are exorbitant, you can go to the Country when you please, & certainly carry ’ “ ‘ Upper Canada, as it will then be too Exciting a question for individual con- ’ “siderations to prevail.’ I make no other apology for troubling Your Lord- “ship, with this Communication, than my desire to keep you fully informed .“ of all I gather on the Subject.” Feb?’ 19*“ I have had Several conversations during the Course of the week with mem- bers of the Council. All profess their desire that a negotiation Should be entered into with the French Party, and their willingness to admit them on reasonable & fair Terms to Olfice: I have Spoken to Mess“ E. II P. H DJ). M & M. Yesterday the 18”‘ the Chief Justice M. Valliere died. I broached the Subject this day in Council, all present but S.——They assented to the Justice of my Views—D. Stated his willingness either to remain in Oliicc, or to go out, as might be most conducive to the Success of Such an arrangement——P. offered likewise to give up his Office, Expressing however, a wish, that it Should be conferred on a French man, in order that his views respecting the Crown Lands of Lower Canada might be carried out-& M. Said, that of the 2 olfiecs he holds (the Presidency, & the Receiver Gen‘sl1ip) he would prefer to retain the latter, but would give up either to facilitate the negotiation. Feb? 23”‘ I sent this day by the hands of Col‘ B— the following confidential memoran- dum to M‘ Morin, requesting that he would bring it under the Consideration of his friends at his earliest Convenience. CONFIDENTIAL MEMORANDUM “ The Governor General is Sincerely desirous that in the Administration of the “affairs of the Province, the interests & feelings of that important Section of “the inhabitants, which is of French Origin, should meet with the fullest “ attention, & consideration. It would be very satisfactory to him, therefore, “ to have the means of including in his Executive Council, Some of those Gentle- “ men, who enjoy in a high degree their Esteem & confidence»-— “He has reason to believe, that this object, might under Existing Circumstances “ be accomplished, with great advantage to the Public, & on terms that would be “fair, both to them, & to the members of the present Council. “The Gov’ Gen‘ has too Sincere a respect for the Gentlemen to whom he “addresses himself, to ask their assent to any proposal, involving a Sacrifice of “Principle——But, in inviting them to consider the practicability of Such an “arrangement as he has Suggested, & to favor him with their Sentiments there- “upon, he desires to Express his confident hope, that objections founded on “personal or party diiferences (if Such Exist) will yield to the dictates of ” Patriotism & Public Duty.” 93374; 20 ELG’IN—GRE Y PAPERS Before doing So, however, I sent it to the Executive Council, for the perusal of the Members, with the following Note. PRIVATE & CONFIDENTIAL “In pursuance of the Conversation which took place in Council on Friday “last, the Governor General Submits for the perusal of the Members, a 001.1- “ fidential Memorandum, which he proposes to place in the hands of the leaders ” of the French Party.” GOVERNMENT House, Feb?’ 23. 1847. Feb 25- The following note reached me yesterday Evening. M. Morin accuse tres respectueusement réception hier le 23 Fevrier d’un Mémoirc venant de son Excellence 1e Gouverneur General. En addressant ses humbles remercimens ole cett-e communication M‘ Morin prie son Excellence do vouloir bien croire qu’e1le fait le sujet de son attention la plus sérieuse, & qu’il ne mettra aucun délai la. y répondrem Montreal 24 Fevrier 1847 [Endorsed] Secret Memorandum Feb’ 1847 [Original MS] Secret Gov‘ Housn MONTREAL. MARCH 27/47 My DEAR GREY, I enclose a continuation of the memorandum, the commencement of which I sent by the last mail. Although an the face of it there is little evidence of pro- gress, I am by no means disposed tm think that we are spending our time unpro- fitably. The Quebec French seem very indignant with their friends here for rejecting my proposals without taking any measures to -ascertain their views and the Party here are promulgating so many false rumours to justify this proceeding that it is evident they feel the ground which M. Morin has taken in his reply to me to be untenable I believe that the problem of how to govern United Canada would be solved if the French wd split into a Liberal & Conservative Party and join the Upper Canadian Parties bearing the corresponding names.—~ The great diificulty hitherto has been that a. Conservative Gov“ has meant Gov‘ of Upper Canadians which is intolerable to the French—-«and a Radical Gov” a Gov‘ of French WW is no less hateful tm the British— No doubt the Party titles are misnomers for the Radical Party comprises the political section most averse to progress— Nevertheless, such has been the case hitherto— The national element xv” be merged in the political if the split to W”‘1 I refer were aceomplished.——- Meanwhile I think that my appt of Major Gampbelll will have an excellent effeet——- The legacy which L“ C. bequeathed to me in the matter of the Civil Secretary was likely to have embarased [sic] me greatly-— 1Mu3or Thomas Edmund Campbell had been appointed Civil Secretary. ELG’IN—G‘l€E Y PAPERS 21 I trust that the Mandamus for which I applied by the last mail will be furnished, for they may be much wanted What complicates my ministerial arrangement now very considerably is that a certain Judge Hagerman of Upper Canada to whom MW Draper aspires to succeed has been at the point of death for the last 4 weeks. M. D. is facile princeps in point of talent among the Ministers and his removal at this time will of course be a great loss to them——— However Parliament will be called together after the navigation opens, and the Ministers must then meet it. I am prepared to give them every constitu- tional support, but I am equally determined to do nothing which will put it out of my power to act with the opposite Party if it is forced upon me by the Repre- sentatives of the People- I am glad to see that the measures w‘‘ I broached in Nova Scotia have been progressing favorably. Very sincerely Yrs ELGIN & KINCARDINE. [Endorsed] Itlarch 27/47 Secret Lord Elgin to L“ Grey with continuation of Secret l\Iemorn.ndum. [Enclosure] SECRET :ME.\IORAND’U.\1 27 “‘ February: I received this day the following letter from M. Morin—~ “M. Morin dcmande qu’il lui Soit permis de presenter dc nouvcau it Son “Excellence le Gouverneur Général Passurance de San respect. “ M. Morin a clonné tcute Son attention au Mémoirc do Son Excellence, “ exprimant le désir que les intérets et les voeux de limportantc partie de la “population qui est d’origine francaise puissant obtenir dons Yadministration “ des afi*”a.i1’es de la Province une tres~grande part d’attentions ct d’égards, et. “dans ce but, témoignant la Satisfaction que Son Excellence aurait 5. pouvoir “inclure clans Son Conseil—Exccutif quelques uns (le ceux qui possedent it un “ haut degré l’estime et la confiance de cette meme partie de la population. “M. Morin éprouve uue vivc reconnaissance de l’e.\’pression de ces Sentimens “de la part dc Son Excellence, et espérant que Son Excellence parviendra 5. “réaliser ses vues, ne doute pas qu’Elle ne soit animée dcs dispositions les plus ” P1‘0pre [sic] A y parvenir. – “Quoique trouvant quelquc délicatcsse, sous les circonstances existantes, E3 ” discuter la position du gouvernement provincial, M. Morin Se croit appellé a “Soumettre cette réponse a Son Excellence, ce qu’il fait avec une humble “ déférence, mais avec franchise ct precision. II no le tente que pour lui-meme, “Se eroyant la personne la moina propre a connaitre et 52. bien représenter les “ opinions d’autrui, mais il croit que les Siennes clans le cas actuel se trouveraient “ étre partagées par la classe d’habitans que Son Excellence a désignée. Pour “éviter route méprise Sur Scs vues, lesquelles il pense communes a ceux aveo ’22 ELGIN—G1?EY PAPERS “ qui il IL agi, il prie Son Excellence de croire que clans Sa. Conduite publique il “ n’est mu par aucunes considerations personelles, eh qu”1l n’a formé et znaintenus “ do liaisons politiques que Sur (les motifs dc pah’ic’oisme at de clevoir. Fort do “scs Scnlimcns. ii declare liunibleinentz, que Sou accession au Conseil Exécutif “Actual, cu celle d’aut1‘cs pcrsonnes Sous les memes Oirconstances, n’attein— “ draient. pas les fins que Son Excellence s’est proposées. “M. Morin E1 agi de concert, dons sa vie publiquc, avcc des personnes d’ori— “gines diverses, Comprenant Iiéaiiinoins la. picsquc totalité do celle 33. laquelle “il appartient, p2m’cequ’il les 31 trouvées pzwtagcants les memes vues SUI‘ les “ Sujets liés nu Gouvernement. Tous comme 1ui—mE=3me, ayant pour la Conduite “ du Gom’e1‘nement des vues difféwentes dc celle de l’Aclministration actuelle, et “n’ayant pas de confiance on elle, out oppose depuis plus de trois ans la poli- “ tique de ccttc Adlninistration. Ce manque dc ccnfiance, ct cette appreciation ” dc vues démeumnt les rnéxnes pour M. Morin, comma indubitablement pour “ ceux qu’il pmli-rait étre Suposé repro’senter. L’idée d’u:1 Conseil Exccutif oil “ ne régneraient pas une pzufaite confiance ct une enbiérc unité do Scntimens ct “d’action, Scraib Contrairc Em celle cl’un Gouvcmemcmfi fondé S111‘ l’opinion “ publique, présentant clans sa marche toute Yliarmonie et 12. force que clonne “cette opinion, et calqué ainsi S111’ les bases memes d’institutions qui Sonia “ cléclarées nous régir et auxquelles nous Sommes fcrmement attaches. “ M. Morin, dans la Supposition que lui-meme, ou quelques autres pa.1‘tageant ” les mémes vues ct qu’il plairait A Son Excellence cl’appeler EL Ses Conscils, “ fusscnt disposes A sc coaliscr uvec l’aLln1inistr:1tion qu’i1s out opposée, et cela “sans rapprochement de vues et de principes en taut qu’opposés EL d’autres “ vues et ii d’autres principes, Sans pivot Sur lequel une telle coalition dfit reposer, “ ne croih pas que Son Excellence y trouvfit un accroissemcnt d’appui public, ct “qu’il ffit possible d’attendre qu’en declans ou en dehors du Parlement l’on “ proclainat une confiance Soudaine, et 1’on donnfxi; un Soutien meme douteux aux “liommes en [sic] pouvoir. “M. Morin remcrcie rcspcctueuseiiient Son Excelleiice do 1:1 monlion qu’E110 “ it bien voulu fairc de la classc d’ll2.bitans Z1 laquollc M. Morin est plus par- “ tiouliiweinont vattaclxé, ct clont les institutions SOL‘lalC.~ ct lo 1>icn-€‘t1’e lui Sent
“cliors, et il est certain qu’elle c’ct71endra t()Uf|O111‘w‘ l‘uH’cmicn E1 laquellc elle 9.
“ un juste titre et qu’un Gou‘»’ernement Sage no pent manqucr do lui donncr.

“ M. Morin est en meme temps ferinemeiit convaincu. qu’une adjoncfion fondéc
“ uniquc.-ment S111‘ dos Ccn;~’idera’cion:< cl’O1’ip,iuc, at no p1’c’s0niant clans lcs ci1’con—
“sl’ances qu’une position tiquivoque pour toutes les parties Concernées, no
“ pourrait étre avantageuse 51 la classe pour laquclle cctte (léte1’minai’icn aurait
“ cu lieu. Si, indépendamment dc 1’évid<‘ncc logique. You :1 1’ocon1’= E1 l’oxpe’1’iencc
“ du passé, cette ex1)é1’iencc abondem h Yappui.

“M. Morin, a ainsi, en obéissancc an désir de Son Excollc-11cc, communiqué
“Ses opinions Comme Si Son Excellence ffit entrée dans des offres plus dé’oer—
“ minées, parceque cos opinions lui paraissant préalables, il a cru plus respectueux
“ (Vacloptcr cetfe forme.

“ Rt il clcnmnclc inzzintenant rcnoxivolcr £1 Son Excellence 1’a=surance de Son
“ phi: profoncl respect.”

MoN’m1T:AL, 27 Février, 1847.

ELGI N—G’I€E Y PAPERS 23

In this letter M. M. Studiously avoids committing his friends, but he States
fully dz distinctly the objections which he entertains to any coalition with the
present Ministry, & expresses his Conviction that the persons with whom he is
nccustoined to act would take the Same view of the Case as he does.

Mai-cl) 11. On reflecting on M. M’s letter I thought it advisable to give
Some more of the French Canadian Gentlemen an Opportunity of Seeing the
memoranduni which had been placed in his hands, lest they Should complain
at any future time of it’s not having been communicated to them. I was
precluded from reverting to M. Lafontaine for two reasons, firstly because he
was Spoken of on all sides as a Candidate for the Ofiice of Chief Justice, (now
vacaut,) & secondly, because Several of my Council in professing their willing-
ness to Serve with any of the French Canadian leaders had made him an
Exception. I put the memorandum accordingly in the hands of M. Taché, a very
respectable person of that party authorizing him to Show it in Confidence to
any of the leading Gentlemen of the French Canadians. I explained to him that
my only Object in making the Overture was to evince my entire readiness to
include persons connected with that Section of the Population in my Council-
That I knew of no Suflicient Cause to prevent them from acting with the
Members of the Existing provincial Administration, but that of course I fully
admitted their right to decline the arrangement if they Saw reason to do So.
M. Taché returned to See me three days after this interview, and told me that
he had not found among his Countrymen any disposition to enter into an alliance
with the Existing Ministry~that they Seemed to expect that there would Soon
he a break up of the administration, after which they would have it all their
own way, & that with this idea in their heads they were So ‘ exaltés ’ that he did
not consider it prudent to put my memorandum into their hands, though he
had Spoken of the arrangement Suggested in it ‘l1ypotl1ctically.’ M. T. is,
I take it, a good but weak man, easily cowed by any ‘esprit fort’ he chances
to meet. He told me that he had convcrsed on the Subject with M. Morin.

Having thus, as I conceive, Sufliciently Shown my readiness to act with
the French Canadians, which was the main object of the proceeding, & thrown
upon them the responsibility of Such Steps as I may now be obliged to have
recourse to to Strengthen my administration, I have called upon my Council
to furnish me with a programme of the arrangements which they propose to
make for filling up all vacant oflices & meeting Parliament.

20” March.

My council informed me Some days ago, that M it might probably be
Expedient, with a view to the Completion of their ).[ini~’tcrial arrangements,
that the chair of the Legislative Council Should be filled by a Supporter of
the Government, they felt it to be due to M. Caron, who now holds that oflice,
that he Should be invited to retain it on these terms: In order, however, to
enable him to determine his Course, they thought it right that he should be
made acquainted with the nature of the Overturcs which I had made to the
lear.ler= of the national party with which he is connected. As the Council had

24 ‘ ELGIN—G1(’EY PAPERS

been consenting parties to the proposal, I considered them to be entitled to a
Copy of the Memorandum in which it was Contained, & I placed it therefore in
their hands, with authority to Communicate it Confidentially to Such persons
as they chose, at the Same time telling them that the tenor of the reply which
I had received from M. Morin Satisfied me that I could not with advantage
press the matter furthcr~—~that therefore if they shewed the Memorandum
to any Members of the Party, they must do So as from themselves, not from
zne—as evidence of the character of the proposition which had been made and
rejected: I gave them, however, to understand that although I declined to appear
further as a negociator in the matter, I was no less ready than heretofore to
include in my Council any French Gentlemen Whom they might be able to
persuade to accept Officc. M. Papincau, one of the Ministers, proceeded with
this document to Quebec, to see M. Caron. He received from him a reply
very cautiously worded, expressing his unwillingness to determine his Course
without Consulting others, but at the Same time acknowledging his high Sense
of the Consideration for his race, which had prompted my proposal. This day
I saw a letter from M. Caron, to the Gentleman who accompanied P., couched
in very Strong terms, declaring his earnest hope & belief that the time had come
when the French Canadians of the District of Quebec, would throw off the
“ intolerable tyranny” of the leaders at l\/Iontreal—~(meaning of course Lafon-
taine &c) and requesting that all proceedings as to filling up offices the Sh“ be
Stayed until the result of certain proceedings to be taken by the Members for
that district Should be known.

[Endorsed]
Continuation of
Secret Memorandum_

[Duplicate MS copy]
Private DOWNING STREET

April 19.47
MY DEAR ELGIN

I am much pressed for time to day & 1’ can therefore say nothing on the sub-
ject of your letter of the 27” March & the continuation of your secret memo-
randum, except that the course you are taking appears to me quite right & that
I shall be very anxious to know the result of the present unsettled state of par-
ties & of your ministry—-

I am in some hopes of being able to send you an official answer to your
Despatches on the effect of the suspension of the Navigation Laws by to day’:a
Mail, but as I cannot do so without the concurrence of the other members of
the Gov“ & the Despatches only arrived 3 days ago I am not sure that this will
be possible. I am very anxious to extend to the Merchants of Montreal the
advantage of the suspension of the Law.— I have received several petitions &
memorials from Railway Comp“ both in Canada & N. Brunswick asking for
advances of money to carry on their works. I have been unable to return any
other answer than that we cannot comply with these applications for assistance;

ELGIN-GI€]Z‘Y PAPERS 25

but tho’ this is all I can say at present 1 sh“ be very glad indeed if a well
matured scheme ed be framed by wh. the prospect of such advantages to the
whole Empire sh“ be held out by promoting emigration & securing :1 rapid com-
munication between the seat of Gov“ in Canada & Halifax, as to justify us
hereafter in applying to Perl‘ for some assistance in carrying it into effect. A
scheme of this sort must however in the first instance have been approved by
the Colonial Legislatures, Lb must have received their effective support: unless
they are prepared in proportion to their means to contribute to the measure
they cannot expect Parl‘ to do so. With reference to their plans, I have been
much struck with the printed reports, sent to me by Sir W. Colcbrooh, of Mr
Wilkinson on the cost of making the electric telegraph & wooden railways in
Amcrica.1 You have probably seen these papers but if not it iv“ 1 think be
worth your while looking at them.——-

D’ Alder, the Chief Sec’ of the Methodist Missionary Society is going out
to Canada, & has asked me to mention him to you wh. I do very willingly: he
is 23. very respectable & well meaning man & the body with wh. he is connected
is one of considerable influence both at home & in the Colonies, any civility you
can shew him W” therefore be very well bestowed. I told him the purport of the
instructions I gave to L“ Cathcart respecting the grant to the Methodists from
the Clergy reserves fund3 with wh. he is quite satisfied.»

I am not aware that there is any other subject on wh. I need write to you

at present. ‘
[Yrs]

(Signed) GREY.

THE EARL on ELGIN & KINGARDINE
[Endorsed]

April 19/47

Lord Grey to Lord Elgin

[Duplicate MS copy]
Private

Dowmno Srnnnr
May 3/47.

My DEAR ELGIN
I have as usual very little time to write to you by the mail to day, but
there are two or three subjects I must mention, & in the first place I must say

“Ihcse two re oris are to be found in Journals of A3”’”7’7I/ 0 N070 B”fl?I¥ICf0l’, J3-77:
Afipcndiat, pp. clmvglwmim. They were made on 24 February and 17 .{Inreli 1847. I’L’SpL’(i1V4’h’-

”In this despntch Lord Grey reviewed the action taken by the British Government in l840
Vfhen a separation had taken place between the British and Upper Canadian \Vcslyan Con-
Ierencos. At that time both conferences had contended for the annual grant which had been
made when the two societies had been united in 1832. In accordance with a decision of the La“
Olficers of the Crown the British Government had decided to rvitlxhold the §”3“’- “Om b°”‘
societies and to invest’it in the Canadian funds. A reunion of the societies had recently taken
place and Lord Cathcart was new ordered to pay over the fund to nccrvxlitrrl officers -‘:1
the reccnstitlitml society. Grey 10 C’az‘7tcm’t, 3’0. .95., .90z‘h Sept. 1865 (G. 4:70. 17. $75}-

26 ELGIN—G’REY PA PERS

how glad I am that the Green Ribband vacant by the death of the Duke of
Argyle is to be given to you. This is much more suitable for you than the
2″“ class of the Bath—~

Emigration is still occupying much of my attention, & I am a little uneasy
lest greater difficulties than I had anticipated sh“ arise in disposing of the large
numbers of emigrants who are proceeding to our N. American Colonies. I am
told that both New York & Massachusets have passed laws wh. -will Seriously
impede emigration to the ports of those states & that the effect of this will be
to divert to our Colonies a large proportion of the stream of emigration wh. W“
otherwise have gone there, & this not only of our own population but also from
Germany. It is said though I have not been able as yet to learn with certainty
whether‘ truly or not that a very large number of utterly destitute German
labourers are likely to be sent to Canada & New Brunswick in consequence of
the laws I have mentioned instead of the United States. Sh“ this really be the
case it is worth considering whether it might not be advisable to double the
emigrant Tax upon all emigrants but British Subjects arriving in our Colonies.
The Justice of such a measure is obvious. You cannot leave these people if
they come to die on the wharves of Quebec & Montreal but will be compelled
to forward them to places where they may find work. The expense of doing this
will be considerable & it ought not to be thrown upon the Colony. With respect
to B” emigrants the expense of receiving the sick in Hospital & forwarding
the destitute is provided for by the emigrant Tax assisted by the Parliamentary
grant, but as there is no grant from Germany towards this expense, nothing
c“ be fairer than doubling the tax upon German Emigrants if the Provin-
cial Legislature sh“ consider such a measure to be necessary.— It would
of course be requisite if any such tax sh“ be imposed to give so much notice
by making the bill come into operation on rather a distant day after its passing,
as to enable shipowners here to make their arrangements accordingly.

Since my letter of April 19 I have seen M‘ Perley the Ernigrat“ Agent for
N. Brunswick who is over here but will return by the next Steamer. He seems
a very intelligent man indeed & has confirmed my impression as to the practic~
ability of making wooden railways at a very low cost in N. America & also
as to the great eflect wh. such works W“ have in promoting Emigrant” He tells
me that a very great part of the labor of constructing such railways may be
performed in the winter a most i1npo1’t:1nt eonsiderat“ I can have no doubt

that in these Colonies the wise plan is to begin with cheap railways of wood & .

by degrees to convert them into iron ones–this M‘ Perley tells me is the
American policy—their own expression is that they put off inthe more remote
districts attempting an iron railway till the road itself cams it. I sh“ be very
glad indeed if we c” act upon these views by setting on foot this autumn the
Quebec & Halifax railway a Work of wh. the construction wd be of such infinite
buiefit to the whole empire; the Worst of it is that since I last wrote money
matters have become much worse in the city, & I really doubt whether new it
W” be possible to do anything towards obtaining a grant or an advance from

ELG’IN~GREY PAPERS 27

Perl‘ for such an object——an advance I shd say almost certainly not, but a
moderate grant in return for a stipulation that Troops, mails, & public stores
sh“ -be conveyed by the Railway at cost price Might not be impossible—

We expect Mary back to day from Codicote, we thought her looking very
Well when she came to us.

(Signed) GREY.

THE EARL or ELGIN
IEndorscd]

May 3/47

Lord Grey to L“ Elgin—

[Original MS]
Secret—
MONTREAL
26 April 1847.
My DEAR GREY,

The mom. WW accompanies this letter will shew that the attempt to bring
the French into my adniinistmtion has not been attended for the moment with
that result—Their demands have been considered unreasonablc-2—and, I think,
justly so. They insisted that as a preliminary measure a member of the exist-
ing Government should be sacrificed, and that they should virtually have the nom-
ination of four out of seven seats in the Council. As they are, even with the
assistance of their Upper Canada Allies, in a minority in the Assembly, such
concessions could hardly have been made to them with propriety—— In point
of fact however I believe that personal antipathies are at the bottom of their
difliculties. Mess Smith & Daly are objects of the special aversion of the
French leaders— The latter, because he was the only member of Sir C. Met-
calfe’s first administration who adhered to him on the occasion of his mem-
orable rupture with his council: and because, as they allege, he agreed with his
colleagues in all the steps they took up tm the period of their resignation, and
threw them over at the last moment.——» The former, because M. Lafontaine and
his friends thought that they had Such influence in Lower Canada that they could
Prevent Sir C. Metcalfe from getting any one with 2. seat in Parliament to fill the
situation of Attorney General for that section of the Province. and they were pro-
Dortionably disappointed when M’ Smith accepted it— Add to which it is I be-
lieve only fair to say that Mm S. has no great reputation as :1 Lzmjvein As regards
-\I”1 Daly I apprehend that Lord Cathcart’s proposal that he should be made
civil Secretary was prompted in some measure by the conviction that while he
remained in the Administration he was 9. formidable obstacle to union with the
French—- I humbly conceive, however, that the remedy in this case would haV€
been much worse than the disease-« To place a person particularly obnoxious
in an influential party in such a situation as this. in order to put him beyond
the reach of Parliamentary control. would seem to be very questionable

28 1.7LG’IN—G1tE’Y PAPERS

Policy.— With reference to the subject I venture to enclose a newspaper
paragraphl giving extracts from the organs of the several Provincial Parties
in which Major Campbell’s appointment is noticed—

I cannot say that I am surprised or disheartened by the result of these
negotiations with the French— In a community like this where there is little
if anything of public principle to divide men, political parties will shape them-
selves under the influence of circumstances, and of a great variety of affections
and antipathies, national, sectarian and personal: and I never proposed to
attempt to force them into a mould of my own forming. I do not indeed see
why the Government of the Province should not be successfully conducted
under the present combination, although until the French break into political
Parties and join British Parties with corresponding names, I do not think
any strong and lasting administration will be formed. Their coherence
enables them to organize a powerful opposition to any Ministry from which
they are excluded, but it no less certainly provokes among the British both of
Lower and Upper Canada a feeling of antagonism to one of which they form
a part.—

My principal object in making these overtures was not the formation of
a mixed administration (however desirable a modification of existing parties
might be) but to shew the French that I do not distrust them» In this I hope
I may have succeeded: though there will be, I doubt not, some wrath among
them when they find that they have lost the good things of oflice, and a pro-
portionate desire on the part of their leaders to throw the blame on any
shoulders off their own! I purposely framed my proposal so as to enable
them or any portion of them to say if they saw fit to do so “ our political
principles make it impossible for us to join the present administration ”—
M. Morin took this ground in his refusal, and if he had stuck to it there would
have been a division among them: but the sequel shews how soon he aban-
dcnel it, and condescended to join his countrymen in discussing the terms on
which power should be partitioned between them & the existing Council.—
You will observe that no question of principle or of public policy has been
mooted by either party during this negotiation, unless indeed you except MM
Morin’s letter in which he condemns in terms that are perfectly general and
commit him to nothing the proceedings of the——administration- The whole
discussion has turned upon personal considerations. This is I fancy a pretty
fair sample of Canadian Politics. It is not even pretended that the divisions
of Party represent corresponding divisions of sentiment on questions which
occupy the public mind such as voluntaryism, Free Trade &c &c-

Responsible Government is the only subject on which this coincidence is
alleged to exist The opponents of the administration are supposed to dissent
from the views held by Lord Metcalfe upon it———though it is not so clear that
its supporters altogether adopt them, That this delicate and most debateable
subject should furnish the watchwords of Party is most inconvenient, but it is
the natural consequence of the conflict which Lord Metcalfe waged with his

1 This clipping is not in the collection.

ELGINMGREY PAPERS 29

first Ministry I shall endeavour to avoid discussion with any provincial con-
stitutionalists but I must say that when I read Lord Sydenhan1’s despatches
I never cease to marvel what study of human nature or of history led him to
the conclusion that it would be possible to concede to a pushing enterprising
people unencumbered by an aristocracy and dwelling in the imniediate vicin-
ity of the United States such Constitutional privileges as were conferred on
Canada at the time of the Union and yet to restrict in practice their powers
of self Government as he proposed.

The negotiations with the French being closed, and it being very impor-
tant on public grounds that the bench here which has been long in a deplorable
state should be filled, my council have recommended the appointments WW
I have communicated to you ofl‘icinlly—— M. Rolland is I believe unquestion-
ably the most deserving candidate for the Chief Justiceship, having been
a very hard working Judge indeed owing to the wretched health of the late
chief he has for some years done all the duties of the higher office. Mr
Badgley is I am told a good lawyer. He must of course get a seat in Part.
Par‘ is summoned for the 2“ of June——then our work will begin. Yrs very
Sincerely

ELGIN & KINCARDINE
[Endorsed]
April 26/47
L“ Elgin to L“ Grey
with Memorandum

[Enclosure]
Men. SECRET.

April 12. M’ Caron came here from Quebec, 4 days ago, in order to have further
communication on the Subject of the overtures made to him by M’ Papincau——~
He had interviews with M‘ Cayley on the part of the Executive Council. The
following Statement of what passed between them was reduced to writing &
agreed to by both parties.

“Résumé de ce qui c’est [sic] passe entre Mess” Papineau & Caron, depuis
le 12“ Mars au 69 Avril (1847) an Sujet d’une négocintion relative E1 une arr:1nge-
ment niinisteriel, cntuinée le 12° Mars ii Quebec, ontre les deux Mess“ Ci clcssus,
et continuée 31 Montreal par M’ Caron avcc M’ Cayley depuis la dcrniere de ces
rleux dates.

“Lo 12° Mars (1847) M‘ Papineau donne 21 M” Caron :3. Quebec, Communi-
cation d’un certain Memorandum do Son Excellence le Gouverneur General,
3.V5lI1’C P0111‘ but de constater la possibilite de former un arrangement, au moyeu
du 011161, on pourrait faire entrer dams le Conseil Executif quelques Personnes
Cl’origine frangaise, jouissant de la Confiance de leurs Compatriotes.

‘HM’ Caron fut informé que ce document avait antérieurement été Com-
munique a M’ Morin, ht Montreal, et que ce Mons” n’avait pas eru pouvoif

30 ELG’IN~GREY PAPERS

donner Suite et effet a cette Communication, que 1’on avait eu raison dc croire
que M” Morin, avant de dormer Sa réponse, n’avait pas cu le temps de consulter
A Quebec our le Sujet, que Sous cette impression, et afin de donner A cette
ville, et an District de Quebec, Poccasion de Se prononcer Sur oette importante
Question; lui, M’ Papineau, avait été autorisé BL Y npporter co memormzdum,
et a le cominuniquer Ea. qui il Scrait trouvé Convenable de le faire; que c’était
dans cette vuc qu’i1 avait Montré dabord, et ensuite laissé entre les mains de
M‘ Caron jusqu’au lendemain, le papier en question, a fin qu’il peut [sic] le
faire voir fa. Ses amis; mais qu’il no devait pas Sortir de Set possession, qu’i1
n’en devait pas étre pris eopie, et qu’i1 Serait remis a M’ Papineau, avant Son
depart de Quebec.

“ M‘ Caron fut informé, que cette demarche avait été adoptée, afin de volr,
Si sous les circonstanccs, il était possible de trouver les nioyens de réaliser les
intentions de Son Excellence, Si elles étaient approuvées. Apres cette explication
il fut entendu que le lcndcmain dans l’ap1’és-midi, M’ Caron dirait 9, M’ Papineau
ce qu’i1 aurait 5, lui répondrc sur le Sujet.

“ Ce memorandum laissé entre les mains de M’ Caron, fut par lui Com-
muniqué a quclques personnes, $1 autant qu’il lui fut possible d’en rencontrer
jusqu’z‘i 1’heure du rendez—vous qu’il avait donné a M‘ Papineau. Ce dernier
s’étant présenté, M’ Caron I’info1’ma verbaleinent que Sous le peu de temps
qu’il avait eu, et que Sans consulter plus de personnes qu’i1 n’avait nu faire,
il lui était impossible d’émettre une opinion Sur la possibilité de Parrangement
que Son Excellence avait en Contemplation; et pour éviter tout mal entendu,
l\/I’ Caron remit a. M‘ Papineau, une note qui devait étre régardée Comme
Contenant tout ce que M’ Caron avait a répondre a la Communication qui lui
avait été faite. Cette Note on Substance reconnait les bonnes intentions de
Son Excellence envers la partie de la Population qui est ol’o1’igine francaise:
dit qu‘il eera bien aise s’il peut aider it leur dormer Suite, mais ajoute, qu’il
n’a pas les informations néeessaires pour émettre une Opinion Sur la possibilité
ole oonclure un arrangement qui aurait ce resultat. Avec cette Note le memo-
randum de Son Excellence fut remis 21 M‘ Papineau, qui répartit[sic] de Québec
lc jour Suivant, Quelques jours api-es, l\/I’ Caron recut une lettre de M‘ Papineau,
Contenant le meme memorandum qui lui avait été montré a Quebec, et l’infor-
mant que depuis lui, M” Papineau avait recu autorisation de Son Excellence de
renvoyer ce papier is M’ Caron, qui pourrait le garder, et en faire l’usage qu’il
croirait Convenable pour atteindre la réalisation des intentions y Exprimécs.

“ Cettc Communication a été aecusée purement et Simplemont par M” Caron,
dans une note qui réferre 21 ea proiniere, mais n’y ajoute rien.

“ Depuis M‘ Caron a. regu de M’ Papineau une nouvolle lettre, qui a été cause
de Son voyage £1 Montreal, dont le résultat se trouve Consigné dans un Second
état de faits qui aceompagne le present.”

“Exposé dc ce qui c’est passé 51- Montreal les 7 & 8 Avril (1847) par
1’entreinise de M’ Caron, au sujet de la. négociation ministerielle entamée a
Québcc lo 12 Mars dernier avec lui par M‘ Papincau, et continuéc ii Momreal
entre Moss“ Cayley et Caron.

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 31

“ Arrive 5. Montreal le 6° M’ Caron s’est présenté le 7 au Bureau de Gouverne-
ment et vu l’absence de MW Papineau qui était allé a la Campagne, a demandé
une entrevue avec que1qu’un des meznbres de l’Administration. M‘ Cayley lui
fut indiqué coinme la personne avec qui la négociation dévait etre continuée, et le
meme jour Pentrevue demandée eut lieu entre lui et M‘ Caron.

“Dans cette occasion M‘ Caron Expose en Substance que la lettre qkru
avait regu de M‘ Papineau on date du 1°‘ Avril Courant, était de Nature 53.
requérir des Explications avant qu’il lui fut possible de répondre; que c‘était
dans la vue de les obtenir qu’il était venu a Montreal, et qu’il avait Sollieité
oette entrevue; que cette Iettre Contcnait deux oifres ou propositions clistinetcs,
la premiere referant an Memorandum dc Son Excellence, et a une autre lettre de
M‘ Papineau pouvait Se resumer Coinme Suit:

“ ‘Au moycn des Situations do President du Conseil Executif, de Procureur
General de la partie est de la Province, et de Coinmissaire (les Torres, qui
Sont raises a votre disposition, et a cello de vos amis, vous Sera—t~il possible dc
trouver des personnes de votre origins, ou jouissa-nt de So confiance, qui con-
sentiront Er entrer dons l’administration, Sous les termes et pour les fins Mentionés
dans le Memorandum de Son Excellence dont vous avez copie.’

LA SECONDE

‘Voulez—vous vous meme acceptor une do ces Situations, celle do President du
Conseil Exeoutif.’

“Que pour répondre a ces demandes, M‘ Caron désirait avoir dos reponses
catégoriques aux questions Suivantes, qu’i1 avait redigées par écrit pour Eviter
tout Mal entendu.

“1“’ II n’y a do vacante Sur les trois Situations offertes, que celle cie President
du Conseil, les deux autres étant encore oecupées, l’on demande Si eeux qui
les tiennent et qui doivent les quitter, Seront on non autrement pourvus Sous lo
Gouvernement, et dansle cas ou ils le devraient étre Comment le Seront ils?
“Z” La personne qui oeeupe actuellement la Situation Bas Canadienne qui no
nous est pas oifcrte, doit elle Continuer Er oecuper Cette Situation, ou Sera—t-elle
changée?

“ 3” Pour la formation de Parrangement en Question, 1aissera—t—on is. Quelqu’un
la libcrtéi et le Soin de proposer les noms do eeux qui doivent on foire partic.
et a qui laissera—t—on ce Soin?

“time En soumettant ces noms, y a-t—il quelqu’un, ou quelqucs uns qu”1l Sern
inutile de proposer : si c’est le cas quels Sent CeuX—la’.7 _
“5”‘“ Dans le personnel de Yarrangeinent est—il absolument nécessaire que je
compte pour un?”

“ M’ Caron a. observé que ces questions étaient posées dans la we de le Mettre
en état de repondre a la premiere proposition (celle relative a l’arrang<->meY_\t
Général) ; que pour répondre in. la Seconde proposition (celle qui le 1’eE3Td5“t
Dersonellemcnt) il désirait une réponse aux deux Questions Suivantes.
“1”——«Avec la Situation que l’on me destine (La Presiolenee du Conseill
retiendrai—je celui que j‘occupe maintenant: lcelle d’Orateur du Conseil
Législatif) ?

32 ELGIN«G1tEY PAPERS

“ 2“–Entend—on que je prcnne Ia Situation do President du Conseil en tout cas,
Soit que l’a-irungemcnt en contemplation nit lieu, Soit qu’elle ne re’ussisse—pas?”
“ M’ Cayley ayont observe que quoi qu’il fut it pcu pres prepare a repondre a
ces cliverses Questions, puisqu’elles avaient été noises par écrit, il désirait en
obtenir copie ufin do pouvoir donner dos réponses aussi par écrit.

“La Copic demandée lui ayant été fournie Quelque temps apres M‘ Cayley
a remis a M‘ Caron les réponses Suivantes.

“1‘“ In M’ Papinoau’s letter to M” Caron of the 15*“ April, that Gentleman
places his oflice of Commissioner of Crown Lands unconditionally at the disposal
of M’ Caron & his friends taking office.

“The ofiice of Attorney Geneml East is to be vacated by raising M‘ Smith to
the Bencl1—

“2‘“‘ Upon l\I’ Caron ti: his friends taking the oflices proposed, the Seventli
oflice is to be placed at the disposal of His Excellency to be filled up by the
other 6 Councillors.

“ 3“-~«By M’ Caron to whom M‘ Papineairs letter is addressed.

“4‘“ The offer which has been made through M’ Papineau to M’ Caron &
his friends is based upon the invitation made to the French Canadians by the
Governor General, which contained no Exception.

“5“’ Yes. The present arrangement contemplates that the Speaker of the
Legislative Council should be a member of the Government.

“6″‘ It is contemplated that the Executive office to be taken by M’ Caron
should be held in Conjunction with the Speakership.

“ 7”’ A reply to this Question is waived, pending the present negociations.”
“Cos répcnses ayant été remises a M‘ Caron par M’ Cayley, il fut reglé qu’il
y aurait une autre entrevue entre eux le lendemain matin. _

“ Cette Seconde Entrevue a eu lieu tel que Convenu. M‘ Caron y a constaté
que M‘ Cayley n’avait rien a ajouter, ni a changer aux réponses par lui donnécs
le veille.

“ M” Caron a dressé apres cette entrevue le detail de ee qui S’était passe entre
M’ Cayley et lui; ce detail a été approuvé par l\I’ Cayley, et est celui qui
precede.”-—

“ At a final interview which took place on the morning of the 9*“ April.

” M‘ Caylcy having pressed for an Early decision upon Considerations of a
public charactei-——it was observed by M’ Caron that Some difficulties might be
found to Exist from the fact, that according to the terms of the proposition
-——no nomination to the 7”‘ Seat would be made until the Gentlemen repre-
senting the Ercneh Canadian Interests had taken oifice, thus Committing them
to a Selection in which possibly they might not concur.

“ In reply to which M’ Caylcy remarked that no difficulty of this kind had
been raised by his Colleagues or himself in the invitation made to M‘ Caron to
name to Certain Offices, but that he “bogged M‘ Caron to observe, that though
the invitation was final on the part of the Members of the Government, M‘
Caron & his friends were not precluded from making 9. Counter proposition,
which in their Opinion would attain the Object pointed out in His Excellency’s
Z\Iemorandum.”

ELOIN—GIEEY PAPERS 33

April. 26” M‘ Caron having proceeded to Quebec with the view of consulting
his friends upon the Subject Generally, and more Especially with respect to the
Opening for a Oounter-proposition made at the interview of the 9″’ of April
after a few days interval, wrote to Say, that if M‘ Daly was excluded from
Office, as a preliminary measure, he, with two of his friends, and an English-
man, in whom they had Confidence—-(1VIess”*‘ Lafontaine, Morin, & Black were
named) would take Ofiice, & form an Administration for Lower Canada.

This proposition involving the sacrifice of an individual, and amounting virtu-
ally to a demand for 4 seats out of 7, was held to be inadmissable by my Coun-
cil~— It was accordingly rejected, & the negcciations brought to a close. I fear
it will not be in My Power to procure, for transmission by this mail, the docu-
ments which embody these transactions.

[Endorsed]
Secret Memorandum
April 1847

. [Original MS]

1VioN’rrcEAL,
Ap‘ 26/47
My Dmn GREY

The Mail has been so long delayed on the road that I have not time even
to read y. despatches before sending this. I shall, you may rely on it, bestow my
most anxious attention on the very important subjects to which you direct
my attention. But in enumerating the ditficulties w“ surround such questions
as Union of the Provinces, Emigration &c, you omit the greatest of them all—~
vz, the materials with which I have to work in carrying out any measures for
the public advantage. There are half a dozen parties here standing on no
principles, and all intent on making political capital out of whatever turns up.
It is exceedingly difficult under such circumstances to induce public men to
run the risk of adopting any scheme that is bold or novel.——- However I think
the failure of my negotiations with the French may be conducive to the success
of my endeavors to eifect the other objects to which you allude; for they (the
French) are inimical to the Union of the Provinces thinking that it will swamp
them, and jealous of Immigration for the same reason~—

I thank you for the kind terms in WW you ofier to recommend me for a
civil K C B. I shall be happy to accept it being sure that you W“ not propose
it if it were not proper that I should do so-—— A decoration (whatever its intrinsic
value) is certainly of use to a person who has so much representation to go
through, & who is supposed however imperfectly to symbolise the Sovereign in
this vast region.-—It helps to prevent him from being jostled in the crowd.

I need not say that I am much grieved to find that so little has been done
’50 bring honors & distinctions within reach of the Colonists-—~ I feel confident

9337-—z

34 ELG’IN»GREY PAPERS

that the time will come when British Statesmen will rue the Policy which induces

them to neglect a cheap & easy method of drawing closer the bonds which unite ;

an Empire in order to gratify the arrogance and exclusivism of Metro-
politans.
Yrs most truly
ELGIN & KINCARDINE

[Endorsed]
April 26/47
Lord Elgin to Lord Grey.

[Original MS]
Private
Monrnnnr. May 7. 1847.
MY DEAR GREY,

My fear of misleading you by communicating opinions hastily formed has
prevented me hitherto from writing much on some of the most important subjects
to which you directed my attention before I left England— I shall now submit
such information as I have been able to collect on certain questions of interest,
premising always that my views are open to modification and correction when I
have an opportunity of conferring with my legislators and seeing more of the
Country.

Firstly, as respects an Union of the Provinces—— My impression is that there
is little feeling here in favor of the project. The French dislike a measure which
has, they think, a tendency to encrease British Influence. The inhabitants of
Montreal dread it, because they fancy that it will lead to the removal of the
seat of Gov“ to Quebec. The trading interests seek to communicate with the
Ocean through New York or Portland rather than Halifax— Again, certain
arguments in favor of the scheme which are advanced with considerable effect

in the Lower Provinces do not tell here.

No practical inconvenience is felt from 3

the operation of conflicting Tariffs, for a frontier consisting of several hundred ‘
miles of desert does the duty of expensive custom House Establishments; and 1
although the prospect of having a larger scope for the exercise of their talents _;

and influence may tempt ambitious men in the lower Provinces to desire an 5

Union with Canada, this motive weighs little if at all with Canadian Politicans~—
To this it must, I fear, be added, that until the Provinces are connected by
Railway, a legislative Union between them would be hardly practicable— During
Winter, Liverpool is nearly as accessible from Montreal as Halifax or
Fredericton, and the means of intercourse in summer are not much greater.

A federal Union under every coneievable modification also presents great
difliculties— I doubt much whether the free & independant legislatures of British
North America could ever be induced to consent to grant to delegates even of
their own naming such powers as the well drilled bureau ridden councils and diets
of Germany confer on their Representatives in the Zollverein. On the other
hand, if an attempt were made to create a federal system on a more extended

ELG‘IN~GREY PAPERS 35

basis after the model of the United States, the central Body having no foreign
Policy army & navy dw &c to manage, will either occupy itself in doing mischief,
or in the discharge of duties which now devolve on the Provincial legislatures-
In other words a federal can hardly fail to become either a nuisance or a legisla-
tive Union.—~ I will not aflirm however that circumstances might not arise in
which it might be judicious to introduce it as a step towards the accomplishment

of the latter object-

Secondly, as to Immigration— The prevalent feeling here is one of alarm
lest it s“ be excessive this season: and lest disease should follow in its train-
Godley & Co. sent a circular with their project to the Provincial newspapers, but
it is condemned by the organs of all Parties1~—

The apprehensions entertained on this subject are strengthened by what is
taking place in the United States. The Colonists observe that at New York and
elsewhere their neighbours are putting impediments in the way of Immigration-
They suppose that the Yankees who are a shrewd people must have some good
reason for what they are doing in this matter—and they fear that in consequence
of their precautionary measures an undue proportion of Immigration will be
directed towards this quarter. At Toronto a society has been formed for the
purpose of aiding Immigrants and forwarding them to places where their labor is
required.” I hope that this example will be followed elsewhere.

I have no doubt that a large proportion of the destitute Immigrants who
arrive here this year will be housed and supported by relations already settled
in the Province until they can provide for themselves.

With the view of encrcasing the demand for Immigrant labor by the with-
drawal from the market of some of those who are now employed as agricultural
laborers I have, with the advice of my council, sanctioned the opening up of some
of the unclear-ed lands of Western Canada on the principle adopted in the

“I.‘he rllontreal Transcript, April 29, 1847, summarizes this pro1jcct:—— _

“ Fir-stly——A guarantee on the part of the British Government, ‘or the payment of a certain
rate of interest on money invested in the im. roveinent of the new country. Sccon(lly——’J.‘he direct
“flay 011 the Part of the state, of a very rge sum of money, in providing aid of settlement
for the emigrants; and thirdIy—the use of such instruments of moral attraction, 05 $113111
Kroduce the spontaneous immigration of capitalists from the United States into British

met-rca.

The latter of the objects above mentioned is not less important than the former; it is, to
take care that the proposed emigration shall be of an orderly, prosperous and civilized kmd.
F03‘ this purpose the memorialists suggest that aids of settlement shall be granted to the
elnlgrflnis. of various kinds, but especially that their Clergy shall be induced to accompany
thenlgand to not not only as their religious instructors but as guides and governors to those
‘Vb?’ if left unaided, prove too often incapable of bcncfitting either themselves or the country of
their adoption, To this object it is proposed that a sum of about £5 for each emigrant shall
he devoted, so that if the emigration shall, as is hoped, amount within the next three or four
Yea“ to a million and a half of people, £7,500,000 will be expended by the British Government
In settling them upon land in the Colonies.

, very large irmnigration of pnupers cast out, as is too often the case, to starve on the
.-Xnxerucnn shores would, of course be distasteful; but this is the very thing which the whole
m3‘?l1″lETY of this plan is calculated to avert. It is proposed that no person shall be
“53‘5t° . T his labour in America; indeed, the plan is directed for more towards stimulating the
1DYestment of capital than the emigration of labour, for its authors well know that the
chief difficulties, which encumber :1 scheme of colonization, are transatlantic, and that when
°”°6 the demand is created, it will be comparatively easy to supply it.

This letter is signed by Morgan John O’Connell M.P., W. H. Gregory, M.P., John Robert
C0519)‘. Hon. Secretary.” J

‘The Emigrant Settlement Society formed at a public meeting held at the City Hall.
10 April; 1847. For an account of the drgztziizatinn and aims of this Society, see Appendxfit II.

D337-3!

35 . ELG‘IN—G‘REY PAPERS

formation of the Owens Sound Settlement} Grants of 50 acre lots are to be
made to actual settlers on one side of the line of roads laid out through these
lands- The settlers become bound under the penalty of forfeiting the grants, to
execute certain improvements annually, and to form & maintain the roads. I
admit that if it were practicable, which at present it certainly is not, it would be ‘
more in accordance with sound principle in this matter that money wages B“ be ‘
paid tm the laborers employed in such works, in the expectation that out of
their earnings they might purchase the land to W“) their labor had given an
enhanced value. In result, however, as the conditions of settlement are for the
most part faithfully carried out, and as additional value is given tm the lands 5
adjoining the free grants by the opening of the roads, the two systems do not
materially diiier: and that which is adopted here has the twofold advantage, that
it requires no outlay on the part of the Province, and that it is more to the taste
of the large class of Immigrants who abjure servitude as soon as they touch the
soil of America. It is moreover tm be observed that so many oonflicting systems
obtain in the disposal of wild lands in this Colony, and the crown has so many
competitors in the sale of this article, that the relation between population capital
and occupied territory can be but partially afieoted by the most rigid adherence
on the part of the Gov‘ to colonization doctrines. The Canada 0° among others
both lease their lands & sell them on instalments——~ I had a good deal of con-
versation lately with their agent, a very intelligent person, and he assured me;
that, speaking generally, the success of settlers on the lands of the Company*
varied inversely with their means at starting—« Those who begin in the greatest
want, prospering most.

The inducements to settlement in the United States are also considerable,
and render it impossible to check materially the tendency to dispersion of popu-
lation in this Colony by enhancing the price of lands unless at the risk of pre-
venting colonization altogether. What with Prairie land, rights of squatters to
preemption, &c &c, I take it that a man can settle himself on a farm in the
United States, paying the upset price, when the day of survey arrives, at a
smaller expenditure of capital than he ooum] on a similar farm in most parts
of this Province if he gets the land for nothing. You may perhaps have
observed that M” Walker, the American Secretary tm the Treasury recom-
mended to Congress last Session a new mode of selling wild lands involving a
great reduction of price as a means of raising Revenue.” I do not know

whether or not his plan was adopted.

1’l‘he Owen Sound Settlement was founded under authority of 0. Minute of Council, 16
June, 1840, with the two-fold object of providing employment for immigrants and of_ opening up
a fertile and extensive tract of [public land. In providing for the expense entailed by this
undertaking, the Council authorized that:-—“Persons desirous of procuring land, _in the new
settlement, may be induced to Work at the road, reoeivin Land Wholly or partly an payuient,
by which means the pecuniary expense will be lessened.” (%ee Memorandum of Lieut. Governor
and Report of Executive Council, 16 June, 184»0—l71Ipe1’ Canada State B0070, M. PD. 648-I360).
‘llhe system of free grants of 50 acres upon ‘public roads in new settlements was subsequently
adopted by the Provincial Statute 4 & 5 Victoria, cap. 100. In 18:15 this syatmnyvas applied
two more roads from Owerfs Sound Settlement. (See Mmute of Council, 8 August,

‘n openi
l34i 011 epott of Commissioner of Crown Lands, 31 July, 1845. Umzada Land Bank, 0, pp.
28l;~236). In 49. despatoh of 26 March, 1847, Lord Elgin declared that:—“The 60 acre grants

_\vere taken up immediately when ofiered last season subject to the following conditions—_Op_en-

mg and improvement of the roads—~the erection of a house——actual residence, and the bringing;

i3fr04c;l1l’»iV&ti03l three acres of land yee.r1y——” (Elvin to Grey, 26 March, 1847, No. 21, 001?!/-
. G _, p. 125 .

EI1GIN——GRE Y PAPERS 37

On the whole, I am disposed to believe that the Quebec and Halifax Rail-
way is the work on which Imperial funds might be most properly expended
with a view both to the interests of colonization and British Connexion. Union
between the Provinces is hopeless without it; but if it were completed or even
in progress a great step wd be taken towards bringing this object within the
range of practicability. Notwithstanding the indiflerence or disinclination of
certain classes of persons in this portion of the Province I are informed that
there is a strong feeling in favor of the Railway at Quebec and in Upper
Canada among the staunch friends of British Connexion. The great object
W“ be to render the execution of the work subservient to the interests of Immi-
gration. To secure this, care must be taken in arranging the details of the
plan, for otherwise the bulk of the laborers employed will be eanallers from
the States. I have thought much on this subject and am endeavoring to mature
a scheme for the accomplishment of the ends in view. I entirely agree with you
in thinking that the Imperial Gov‘ s“ not move in the matter until the Provin-
cial legislatures have cordially adopted the project & shewn their sincerity by
giving it all reasonable aid.-—

Very faithfully & truly yr

ELGIN & KINCARDINE

[Duplicate MS copy] ,
Private
0.0.
June 2/47

MY DEAR ELGIN

I shall not be able to Write to you tomorrow & I must therefore write
you a. few lines today to thank you for your two letters of the 7”’ & 12”‘ of
May, but first I must say how anxiously we shall wait for the next packet, wh.
I trust will bring us an account of Mary as far as Halifax, by this time I trust
her voyage is over & that she is on her way from Boston to Montreal so that
ill a few days more she may join you.—

To take the difienent Subjects mentioned in your letters in their order—«
1“ As to the Union of the Provinees——— I am sure that this is not a mat-
ter to be pressed forward in a hurry, all that can be done is to throw out the
general idea & to endeavour by degrees to lead mens minds in that direction;
but that some bond of union or other ought to be established amongst the
different Provinces of N. America I have no doubt whatever supposing it to
be practieable— Whether that union ought to be a Legislative one or only
federal & in the latter case whether it ought to be more or less complete, are all
questions the answer to which must mainly depend upon the state of public
Ppinion when any measure of the sort is attempted. I agree with you in think-
mg that we slid wait for the railroad, the establishment of wh. from Halifax
t° Quebec I consider both for this & for other reasons an object of the highest

national importance-

38 ELGIN»GREY PAPERS

2″“ As to immigration I have very little to add to what I have already said
in public & private letters except to call your attention to the debate last night
in the H. of Commons1 in showing how much we are pressed upon this subject
& how urgently necessary it is to do something or to show very good reasons
why we shd not. If you act upon the principle of making free grants under
any Circumstances (& the opinions prevalent upon this subject in N. America
may make it your best course to form settlements upon the principle of that
of Owens Sound)? I am persuaded that the Yankee system of Township
rating sh“ be adopted at the same time: this w“ I believe neutralize much of
the evil otherwise likely to follow from allowing any free grants to be made,
wh. at best I regard as an evil tho’ it may be an inevitable one——~ But for
immigration the railroad is really wanted— I shall be very glad to receive
your scheme for it.

3″” With regard to the Cayley Caron correspondence I entirely agree in all
the opinions you express, more especially as to the maintenance of the exist-

‘ing Provincial administration being in no degree essential to the success of

your Gov‘ & as to the error committed by L“ Mctcalfe in giving to much coun~
tenance to the idea that the Home Government was more connected with &
had more confidence in, one Canadian party than another, your authority 35
that of the B“ Gov” cannot be too carefully kept distinct from all party

struggles in the Province-

4”‘ I think your application about your travelling expenses a most reasonable
one & one wh. it W“ be very good policy to grant, you may therefore depend on
my doing: all in my power to support it, but the moment is not favorable for
such applications, with an empty exchcquer & the probability of being driven

to an increase of Taxation next session.
I &c
(signed) GREY——

The Earl of Elgin

[PS] I have omitted to mention that I send you by this mail a confidential
Despatch3 of some importance as to the form of making legal & other appoint-
ments in Canada. The practice has grown up of late of making them by the

‘The debate took place on s motion of the Earl of Lincoln:-“ That an humble address
be presented to Her Magsxsty, praying that She will take into Her most gracious consideration
the means by which Colonization may be rmacle subsidiary to other measures for the im.-prove-
nient of the social condition of Ireland; and by which, consistently with ‘full regard to the
interests of the Colonies themselves the comfort and prosperity of those who emigrate may be
efiectuaflly promoted.” After debate, and on request of the Under-Secretary for the Colonies,
the Earl of Lincoln wiiihdrew his motion, stating, liowever:~—“At the same time, I am not
without hope that even this discussion may lead to some good, and that the Government mag be
imlauced by it to turn more deliberate attention to this subject than they would otherwise ave
done.” (flamsarcvs Parltavltciztury Debates, Ser. III, val. mcii).

2 See above, p. .38, note 1.

3q‘l‘3,7f‘/D Elam: 2 Julie, 1847. Lord. Grey: ointecl out that in all Her M.ajesty’s possessions,
legal, Judicial and administrative vofiioes were filed by Letters Patent or Commissions for which
a warrant under the Royal Sign Manual, counter-signed by the Secretary of State, had been
obtained. In Canada, however, a. practice had rown of making apmointmcnts to judicial
oflices by means of local commissions for which no -warrant had been obtained‘ Lord
Grey doubted the expediency of this method of appointment and pointed out that if the
warrant was necessary for smne appointments it was necessary for judicial appointments;
and if it was not necessary for one class of cases it should be discontinued for all. A report
should he made as to the course which should be pursued. (G. 128, p. 376).

ELGIN—-GREY PAPERS 39

authority of the Governor instead of that of the Queen, for some time this
has been the practice with regard to Judges & in your Despatoh N° 35 you
use the same form of expression with regard to the Attorney Generall. I
greatly doubt the expediency of this change— in the immediate neighbour-
hood of the U. States it seems to me a very questionable policy to allow to fall
into disuse any forms wh. mark the difference between republican & mon-
archial institutions, & that the old practice of making such appoint” by the
authority of the Crown was a wiser one——— I believe the change of practice
arises chiefly from a dislike to paying the stamps & fees (only about 11£) on the
Queens warrant, if so I think we might manage to reduce this expense to a
merely nominal sum & that it w“ be advisable to return to the old form.

(Signed) G.
[Endorsed]
June 2/47
Lord Grey to L“ Elgin

[Original MS]

Secret.
May 18. 1847.

MY DEAR GREY

I transmit herewith the closing papers of the Caley Caron correspondence~
Since my last letter to you was despatched the prospects of the administration
are brightcr— A certain Mm Macdonald, a person of consideration among the
moderate Conservative anticampact Party has consented to accept the office of
Receiver General now held by M’ Morris jointly with the Presidency of the
council. M’ Draper has been absent on the circuit playing rather fast and loose
with his colleagues in the hope of replacing his friend Judge Hagerman on the
bench before Parliament meets.—He has been informed however that this will
not do, & that if he will not face Parliament it will be a question whether all
Ought not to go out together, D. is evidently a man of no moral courage, and
the more I see of their proceedings the more satisfied I am, that if they had
taken my advice-put a bold face on it, & met Par‘ at the earliest convenient
day after my arrival it would have been better for them—— However I will
think that they may do well,if they are true to themselves. They shall have
all constitutional support from me—neither less nor more. At the same time
You must allow me to repeat that I do not consider my success here to be con-
tingent on the maintenance in power of this or that Provincial administration»-
It is above all things necessaiy to inculcate the belief (to which I must with
great deference say a shake was given under Lord Metealfe’s rule) that the
British Government and its Representative place entire confidence in the loyalty
Of all parties in the Province—-that they seek in the exercise Of their 311fll1°11°e

#“To the Oflicc of Attorney General for Canadg

I have appointed Wifliam Badglei 3399- – – E-

1Elgn’n to Grey, 21, April, 1847 (001211):
“I have aprpoi .”

East. with ‘ ‘ ‘I
with F°sar§E1;?aattlitrl4ien(i§i1xi]ci;1’so makes use of the phrase
(03 W1. 10. 13.1). ’

40 ELG’IN—GREY PAPERS ’

5 only the good of the Colony—and that they seek it by means that are strictly
I constitutional. I may be mistaken but I have no apprehension whatsoever that
l a change of administration, should such an event take place, will weaken my ,
J’ influence or render me less able to carry on the Gov‘ tohy‘ satisfaction. H fl
I have been obliged to write a begging Despatch w 3 I hope you wi see t
l to support. The salary of the Gov” Gen‘ is really not sulficient for the charges ,
I upon it when travelling expenses are superadded.
; I must also beg for the mandamus for Sir A. MacNs.b.1 He is quite qualified
; to be a. councillor, & though I do not much expect to use it I might be subjected
; tm considerable inconvenience if I had it not.
Very truly Yrs ‘

ELGIN & KINCARDINE

l
[Enclosure]
l Secret M em.
MONTREAL. 9 Avril. 1847.
“ Moivsmrm,

Je pensais partir ce Soir, je n’a.i pu le faire; le délai m’a fourni le temps et
“ Poccasion de consulter ici plus que je n’e.vais pu le foire, oceupé comme je
“ Pavais été depuis mon arrivée en cettc ville.
l “ Sachont, comme je l’a.i vous dit ce matin, d’en venir it une conclusion le
2 “plutot possible, je dois vous dire que Sous un bien Court délai, je pourmis
: “vous donner une réponsc Sur l’afi’aire qui nous a. occupée dcpuis quelques
“ jours, Si vous pouviez me dire par un out on un non si Pélévation de M‘ Smith
l “ sur le Bane est une condition Sans laquelle Parrangement au quel nousavons
1 “ travaillé devient irrévocablement impossible.
I “ Je pars domain matin EL quatre heures, je ne puis retarder mon depart,

” Sons celo. je le ferais volontiers.

fl “Ayez done in bonté de me faire tenir une réponse 5. eette note par la
.
u
1

“ poste de domain.
“Dans cette attente je me Souscris, avec beaucoup d’estime et de con-

“ sidér23.tion.”
“Monsieur,
“votre tres humble
“ et tres ob‘ Serviteur,

l

l

l sige ED. CARON.”
L’Hon”‘° W. CAYLEY

– MONTREAL, 10”‘ April, 1847.
A: Sm)
I have the Honor to acknowledge your note of the 9*“ April, but which

“ unfortunately I did not receive until after 4 o’olock this afternoon.
“ In reply to your question whether the elevation of M’ Smith to the Bench,

“ is an Essential Condition to the proposed arrangement.

1See above, 12. 14.

J

!“.‘

ELG’IN~G12E Y PAPERS ‘ 41

“ I have the Honor to State that it is not proposed to vacate the Oflice of
“Attorney Gen‘ East, in any other Mode than by raising that Gentleman to
“ the Bench.”

I have the Honor to be, Sir,
Your most humble & ob‘ Servant

“Signed, W. CAYLEY—”
” Hon” R. E. CARDN

Apres Son retour de Montreal, M. Caron a écrit le 14 Avril, a un tiers, une
lettre qui devait etre Communiquée a M‘ Cayley, et qui en Substance, va ii.
dire, qu’ 5. Montreal et 2‘; Quebec, M‘ Caron a trouvé Ses amis bien disposés 5.
le Seconder dans Yarrangement qu’il était charge d’elTectuer; Si bien, qu’il Serait
prét a faite a M’ Cayley la centre proposition que M‘ Caron avait été invite a
faire, dans leur derniere entrevue: mais, que d’apres la forme, Sous laquelle
il avait compris que cette proposition devait étre présentée, il fallait qu’il fut
prét E2. fournir les noms de trois personnes, qui, avec lui, devraicnt Composer
l’administration pour le Bas Canada; que M‘ Caron était Silr de l’une de Ces
trois personnes; que quant 5. la Seccnde, dont il aurait absolument bcsoin, il ne
pouvait entrer en Communication avec elle, a moins qu’i1 no hit en état de lui
dire, en lui proposant de faire partie de Padministration, qu’elles étaient les
bases et les Conditions de Son arrangement.

Que des deux difficultés, que jusque la, M‘ Caron avait rencontrées, il
pouvait dire, que 1’une, oclle de M” Smith, était levée; qu’il était Sfir que l’cn
ne ferait pas manquer Parrangement pour cette raison: que, quant A Yautre
dilficulté, celle relative 2. M‘ Daly, il nc pourrait rien dire de positif; que tout
Ce qu’il pouvait dire, était, qu’il espérait de la faire disparaitre; que probable-
ment l’on insistcrait pas a garder M‘ Daly; que M‘ Caron était persuader qu’une
proposition faite de cette Maniere, Ne Serait pas agréée par celui a qui il [sic]
devait étre olferte; qu’il devait étre prét EL lui dire: voiei Parrangement: voici
les bases et les Conditions Sur lesquelles il est fondé; voulez—vous y prcndre
part?

D’apres cela, M’ Caron Se trouvait dans cet embarras: pour S’a‘ddresser S3.
18. personne dont il avail; besoin, il fallait qu’i1 Scfit s quoi S’en tenir, quant a
M‘ Daly, afin dc pouvoir le dire; tandis que pour obtenir une réponse de
M’ Cayley Sur ce point, il fallait que M’ Caron cut Constaté si la pcrsonne a
qui il voulait S’addresser, ferait ou non partie dc Yarrangement.

Que la méme diificulté existait, quant 2‘). la troisiéme personne que M’ Caron
avait it voir, laquelle n’accepterait pas Sans connaitre tout le personnel de
l’ari.-angement; que pour ces raisons M‘ Caron desirait que, par le retour de la
P03“: 011 l’assurat qu’en cedant le point de M‘ Smith, M‘ Caron était certain de
gagner celui de M’ Daly; avee l’entcndement que la chose Serait faite de la
meilleure manietc possible; que Sur cette article M” Caron devait étre ferme; que
quand il Saurait la chose de la part de M‘ Cayley, il reglerait avee les deux
Messieurs aux quels il voulait S’addresser, et s’ils accepteient Ses offres, M‘
Caron ferait parvenir a M” Cayley, une réponse finale. d9J-IS laquelle M’ C930″

4-2 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS

Communiquerait 5. cc dernier les nozns de Son personnel Canadien-Francais, en
ajoutant que ceux qui lo devaient Composer, avaient accepté ou consenti a agir,
Sous Pententc qu’il leur Serait possible do S’assurer des Services de M‘ . . . . ..
ou bien de ceux de toute autre personne d’extraotion Britannique dont il Serait
Convenu. ‘

M‘ Caron ajoutait qu’il était prét a Se preter a tout ce qui pouvait étrc
Suggéré pour rnénager la délicatesse de toutes les parties, mais qu’il fallait lui
donner la latitude nécessaire pour agir, et il terminait en disa-nt qu’avec la con-
cession qu’il demandait, il ne voyait rien qui put empécher Parrangement de Se
conclure.

MONTREAL, April 1847

“M’ Cayley has the honor to acknowledge the receipt of a Memorandum
“ written by M‘ Caron, gdving the Substance of a letter dated 14“ April, addressed
“by M‘ Caron to a third party, for the purpose of being communicated to M‘
“ Cayley.

“ M‘ Cayley begs in the first place to point out an error into which Mr
“Caron appears to have fallen in Supposing that the invitation to him to make
“ a Counter-proposition, was intended as an invitation to furnish the names of
“three Gentlemen, who with himself, Should compose the Administration for
“ Lower Canada, & begs to express his doubts whether the passage in Question
“will bear any Such Construction.

“While assuring M” Caron of the gratification which the Members of the
“ Government have derived from the announcement made by him that he has
“found his friends both at Montreal & Quebec Strongly disposed to assist him
“in his efforts to effect the arrangement which he had undertaken, M‘ Cayley
“ cannot avoid Expressing his regret & that of his Colleagues, at finding that a
“ Difliculty from another Quarter has Sprung up calculated to disappoint hopes
“ So justly conceived & bring the negociations to an unsuccessful termination.

“M” Caron States that a Gentleman whose assistance and concurrence
“ are essential to any arrangement to be effected, Cannot be communicated with,
“ nor his views ascertained, until a point Connected with M‘ Daly is Concedcd
“‘ by the Administration, in plain terms, until M’ Daly is declared by his
“Colleagues ineligible to hold oficc under the proposed arrangement. Before
“ making a reply to this demand, M’ Cayley begs to bring to M‘ Caron’s recollec-
“tion, two prominent features in the memorandum placed by the Gov‘ General,
” in the hands of M‘ Morin, & on which the present overture has been based-
“ first, that an Union was invited on terms that Should be fair to the present
“ Members of the Council, as well as to the Party to whom the invitation was
“ addressed; & Secondly, that General objections were to be waivcd.~ In an
“ Earnest desire to satisfy & carry out the terms of this proposition, the members
“ of the Council while retaining three Seats, offered to place three at the disposal
“ of M‘ Caron & his friends, without making any personal exception, & to leave
“ the nomination to the Seventh Seat, to the Council of Six, the Selection to be
“from amongst Gentlemen of British Extraction in Lower Canada: thus clearly
“indicating that M’ Daly’s Oflice had been placed by that Gentleman at the

ELG’IN~GREY PAPERS 43

“ disposal of his Excellency.~— M‘ Cayley is now informed that these Conditions
“ are not Sufliciently precise & Satisfactory, & cannot be Submitted to the
“Gentleman before adverted to, unless accompanied by a distinct Concession
“regarding 1 ’ Daly, namely, his prescription from Oflice.~— In reply, M‘ Cayley
“ has to observe that the Members of the Council, having on their part, frankly
“conceded any privilege which they might be Supposed to possess of making
“personal Exceptions, cannot be expected to yield that right to the Gentlemen to
“whom the present overture has been made. In giving this negative, it is un-
“ necessary for M‘ Cayley to make more than a passing allusion to the character
“ of the advance in the negociation to be Secured by the proposed Sacrifice of M‘
“ Daly, namely, that of placing the proposition in a palatable form for
“ acceptance or rejection by the Gentleman whose Concurrence in any arrange~
“ment, has been Stated to be indispensable. Again, it is not to be overlooked,
“that had the proposition been So far favorably entertained as to permit M’
“ Caron to name his Colleagues, the announcement was to be accompanied by the
“recommendation of a fourth Gentleman, So pointedly referred to, & formally
“introduced, as to render a dissent of the part of the present Government all
“ but tantamount to a rejection of the Coalition.

“ It is hardly necessary for M’ Cayley to state that the concessions
“demanded have never been Contemplated by the members of the present Gov-
“ ernment, & would be wholly inconsistent with a proper regard to the interests
“ of the British inhabitants of Lower Canada, & the position of an Administration
“honored with the confidence of the Head of the Government, & Supported by
“the Parliament of the Province.

“In thus Giving a final negative to the demands -advanced by M’ Caron,
“ M’ Cayley is aware that the negociations are brought to an unsuccessful ter-
“ mination.-— He trusts, however, that what has passed, will not be wholly un-
“productive of beneficial results, that it May tend in a Measure to remove
“doubts as to the character & extent of the overtures made by the Executive
“ Council, & the nature of Some of the difficulties which have Successfully inter-
“ fered to prevent their accomplishment.

“It will, at all events, Set at rest a Question which for Some time passed
“ has agitated the public Mind.”

Qtntsnc, 6 Mai- 1847

” M’ Caron a Phonneur d’accuser reception (in memorandum de M‘ Cayley,
“ daté “Montreal, Avril, 1847” qui ne lui est parvenue 01119 D31‘ 13 P0559 Mrivée
“ce Matin. _ _

“ En replique, M” ‘Caron prend la liberté d’observer, qu’il est possible qu’11
” ait été dans l’erreur, quant a la forme Sous laquelle il était invite a faire la
“ contre—proposition mentionée dans le memorandum du 9 Avril, pourtant il ne le
“ Croit pas; il penseméme, que certains faits, rappelés au souvenir de M’ Cayleyi
K‘ P0u.rrait le mettre d’accord avec M’ Caron sur ce point.

“A tout événement M‘ Caron est d’avis, que ce memorandum Se préte
“facilement 5. Pinterprétation qu’il lui a donnée, puisqu’ a Sa face, i1 n’a été

Am“. . _. m……,__ _7

44 ELGIN-GREY PAPERS

“ écrit que par Suite des difiieultés émises per M‘ Caron, 23. Padoption du mode
:: suggéré par M’ Cayley, pour remplir le Septieme Siege, et afin de fournir les
moyens de parer A ces ditfiouités.

“ C’est Sous eette impression qu’a. été éorite la lettre du 14 Avril, dont le Seul
“ but était d’obtenir une réponse décisive, quant a M‘ Daly, Savoir: s’il ferait on
“ non partie active du nouvel arrangement, et non S’il Serait proscrit et déclaré
“ ineligible Ia. tenir oflice, prétention que M‘ Caron n’a jamais émise, non plus que
“ Sea amis a Se Connaissance. La réponse que désirait M‘ Caron devant, pour
“ les Raisons qu’ii déduisait, étre Communiquée, non A une Seule des personnes
“ dont il avait besoin, oomme parait 1’avoir compris M‘ Cayley, mais bien aux
“ deux Messieurs qu’il avait 9. voir, et dont Pun était d’extraction Britannique;
“1’intention de M‘ Caron, en Sollicitant eette réponse, n’étant pas de rendre plus
“palétable a ces Messieurs, la proposition qu’il avait 5. leur faire, mais bieu
“ d’étre mis en état de leur faire Connaitre les Collégues avec qui ils auraient 53.
“ agir, S’ils acceptaient les situations qui leur étaient ofifertes.

“M” Caron prie M‘ Cayley de remarquer, que la Seule Concession Sur
“ laquelle on insistait dans la lettre du 14 Avril, éteit celle relative a M’ Daly.

“ M’ Caron est informé que les Membres du Gouvernement, n’ont jamais eu
“ en Contemplation de faire cette Concession. M‘ Caron veut bien le croire,
“puisque M” Cayley ie iui dit; quoiqu’il ait toujours compris que M’ Daly ne
“ Serait pas un obstacle a Parraugement.

“M” Caron Se Réjouit de la détermination qu’ont prise les Membres de
“1’Administration de ne rien faire qui ne Serait pas oonforme aux intérets de la
“ Pa:-tie de 19. Population du Bas Canada qui est d’extraction Britannique, mais
“en meme temps il doit assurer M‘ Cayley que si Parrangemont qui vient de
“ manquer eut réussi, les intérots de cette partie de notre population, n’auraient
“ pas été négligés, et que meme déja des mesures avaient été prises, pour que ces
“ intéréts fussent habilement et convenablement représentés dans l’administration
“ qu’on aurait pu former.

“ Tout en aocordant aux Membres do l’Administration, tout le orédit qu’i1s
“méritent, pour la franchise aveo Iaquelle iis out renoncé au Privilege qu’ils
“ pouvnient avoir, de faire des Exceptions personnelles, M’ Caron regrette d’étre
“ informé, que le point Sur lequel il a été oblige d’insister avec une franchise égale
“ a la leur, ait été regardé par M‘ Cayley et Ses Collégues comme une difficulté
“ telie, qu’e1le leur imposait Yobligation de refuser Ieur assentiment A une
“ arrangement, qui leur evait fait Conoevoir des espérances, que M’ Cayley dit
“ étre Si justes et qu’ils [sic] rogrette de voir degues.

“Tout en partageant ce regret, M” Caron espere, avec M” Cayley, que co
“ qui vient de Se passer ne sore pas on pure perte; qu’il en résultera des avantages
“ parmi lesquels l’on devra Compter celui de faire dispamitre toute doute sur
“ Pétendue et le oaractére des ouvertures faites 33. M’ Caron par les Membros du
” Gouvernement, aussi bien que Sur la Nature et la validité de la Raison qui a
“ empéohé qu’e1les amené [sic] un résultat Satisfaisant.

“ Puisque M’ Cayley a prévu que Sa derniere communication aurait Peifet
“ de mettre fin aux negooiations, ii ne reste plus :3. M” Caron que de prendre
“ Congé de M‘ Cayley Comme négociateur, et de lui réiterer Passurance cle Sa
“ haute Consideration.”

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS ‘ 45

Private
MONTREAL

May 27. 1847.
MY DEAR GREY,

I am most grateful for the Green Ribband-— Such a mark of the confidence
of Her Majesty and Her Advisers cannot fail to be useful to me here——

Emigrants are beginning to pour in, bringing with them much sickness—— No
foreigners have yet arrived but I think y’ suggestion with respect to encreasing
the tax upon them most reasonable. It shall be duly considered, but I do not
suppose that any measure of this kind could come into operation during the
present season.——

My letters may, I fear, disappoint you from not containing more information
with respect to the course which our legislation on important questions of general
Policy may be expected to take—‘ The fact is that my data for forming a judge-
ment on such points are but scanty. The public mind here is so occupied with
personal squabbles that the bent of men’s opinions on graver subjects can hardly
be conjectured.’ There are symptoms of an intention on the part of the opposi-
tion to take up free trade. Meanwhile however its advocates have recieved a
check. The Committee of the Board of Trade of Montreal were last year Free
Traders. This year they have been replaced by Protectionists; and their organ
the Canadian Economist has been discontinued-

’ One thing is certain—the question can the present administration stand?
or will it be replaced by Mess. La Fontainc & Baldwin ’ is more momentous by
far in the judgement of the mass of our local politicians than any other which you
can raise.——~ Until it is answered, which it will probably be by the result of a
grand debate at the outset of the Session, little attention will be paid to anything
else.

Although this state of the public mind is to be regretted, I think that the
evil arising from it is not altogether unmixed. While the representatives of the
people are engaged in more exciting and congenial conflicts, it will be the duty
of the Representative of the Crown to press forward without noise or ostentation
measures which are calculated to advance the real interests of the Province.
In the present balanced state of Parties it will not, I hope, be impossible for him,
if he keeps his proper place, giving due support tm his Ministers, but avoiding the
imputation of partisanship, to exercise a salutary influence on candidates for
oflice; so that under the agitation which ruffles the tide of improvements may
move on unimpeded.

Several causes cooperate to give to personal and party interests the over-
weening importance which attaches to them in the estimation of local Politicians»-
There are no real grievances here to stir the depths of the popular mind— We are
a comfortable people——- With plenty to eat & drink——— No privileged classes to
excite envy-— or taxes to produce irritation—— It were ungrateful to view these
blessings with regret, and yet I believe that they account in some measure for the
selfishness of public men and their indifference to the higher aims of States-
manship—— _

The comparatively small number of members of which the popular l30d16S
Which determine the fate of Provincial administrations consist, is 3150; I am

46 E1_4GIN—GREY PAPERS

inclined to think, unfavourable tm the existence of a high order of principle
and feeling among oflicial personages. A majority of ten in an assembly of seventy
may probably, be, according to Cockemi, equivalent tm a majority of 100 in
an assembly of 700. In practice however it is far otherwise. The defection of
two or three individuals from the majority of ten puts the administration in
peril— Hence the perpetual patchwork and traficking to secure this vote and
that, which (not tm mention other evils) so engrosses the time & thoughts of
Ministers that they have not leisure for matters of greater moment.

It must also be remembered that it is only of late that the popular assemblies
in this part of the World have acquired the right of determining who shall govern
them-«of insisting, as we phrase it, that the administration of affairs shall be
conducted by persons enjoying their confidence. It is not wonderful that a
privilege of this kind should be exercised at first with some degree of reckless-
ncss———and that, while no great principles of policy are at stake, methods of a
questionable character for winning & retaining the confidence of these arbiters
of destiny, s“ be resorted tow

A few days will probably shew what Parliament has to say on this subject
of confidence. The administration is supposed to have a majority in the
Assembly but there are so many disappointed suitors and lukewarm supporters in
that majority that it cannot be much depended on. The opposition leaders are
already mustering in the metropolis and their ranks exhibit a much more un-
divided front. The possession of that large French contingent who always move
as one man is of course aigreat advantage to a Party.

Meanwhile M‘ Draper the ostensible leader of the Ministerialists has acted
a very shabby part towards his colleagues. On the plea of attending to his
professional duties, but really, I believe, because he was determined to place
himself on the bench at whatever cost to his friends, and afraid of being shamed
by them out of this intention, he has continued to absent himself from the seat of
Gov‘ while discussions most vital to the administration were in progress.

He insists on being considered a candidate for the J udgeship now vacant-~

My course in these circumstances is I think clear & plain—— It may be
somewhat difiicult to follow occasionally, but I feel no doubt as to the direction
in which it lies. I give tm my Ministers all constitutional support frankly
and without reserve, & the benefit of the best advice, such as it is, that I can
afford them in their diificulties——- In return for this, I expect that they will, in so
far as it is possible for them to do so, carry out my views for the maintenance of
the connexion with G‘ Britain & the advancement of the interests of the Province.
On this tacit understanding we have acted together harmoniously up to this
time——- Although I have never concealed from them that I intend to do nothing
which may prevent me from Working cordially with their opponents if they are
forced upon me.

That Ministers and oppositions should occasionally change places is of the
very essence of our Constitutional system, & it is probably the most conservative
element which it contains. By subjecting all sections of politicians in their turn

‘A11 interpollafion has been made in the manuscript {but it is possible that the reference
is to Edward Cooker, 1631_1675—-author of Oockea-’s Ariflmectic.

ELG’IN~G’REY PAPERS 47

to official responsibilities it obliges heated partizans to place some restraint on
passion and to confine within the bounds of decency the patriotic zeal with
which when out of place they are Wont to be animated—~

In order however to secure these advantages, it is indispensable that the
head of the Gov‘ should shew that he has confidence in the loyalty of all the
influential parties with which he has to deal, and that he s“ have no personal
antipathies to prevent him from acting with leading men.

Very sincerely yrs
ELGIN & KINCARDINE

I am sorry to observe the altered tone of y[‘1 last letter with respect to Im-
perial aid in favor of the Quebec and Halifax Railway—— To suppose that this
work can be executed without assistance from that quarter is I fear a most ex-
travagant expectation. As a merely commercial speculation it has very little
to recommend it. But taking into consideration the vast extent of wild land
through which the line runs, it presents as fair a subject for colonization as any I
know of, and if the Gov‘ are forced to make an effort in this direction (as you at
one time seemed tm think might probably be the case) the execution of this work
so important to national interests & the settlement of the Country might proceed
pari passu— Imperial & Provincial resources cooperating to relieve Ireland of
her surplus population.

[Endorsed]
May 27/47
Lord Elgin to L“ Grey

[Duplicate MS copy]
Private

BELGRAVE Sormnn
June 16.47

My DEAR ELGIN

I reed by the last mail your letter of the 27″‘ May, & also the good news of
Mary’s having got safely as far as Halifax. I hope the short rest she got there
W“ enable her to accomplish the remainder of her journey without being the
worse for it, & that you have had the happiness of receiving her in as good health
35 You ed wish. It is unfortunate we did not know before she went that the
Vesuvius was to be at Halifax or I c“ easily have got an order for her to go on
with her to Quebec- Your letter has interested me exceedingly & I most entirely
concur in every word you say, it is in fact as clear & complete an account of the
Proper duties of the Gov‘ of such a Colony as it is possible to write, 6: it suggests
some considerations wh. are new to me——particularly the important effect whlch
the more want of numbers has upon the character of a popular Assembly: the
moment this is suggested it is obvious it must be so, but I confess it had 1101?
Previously struck me. Does it not rather tend to the conclusion that some day

48 ELGIN—G’REY PAPERS

or other a Legislative Union of all the Provinces coupled with an improved muni-
cipal organization w“ be highly desirable? It seems to me to do so & that the
probability that at some future time this may have to be attempted ought never
to be lost sight of.—— However this is a distant vision not to be accomplished
within anything like the term to wh. it is either probable or desirable that my
official life sh“ extend, but I always think that short as the tenure of office
generally is while one holds it one ought to act as if it were to be permanent or
as if ones successor was likely to carry forward the policy one has begun—-
Your description of the people with whom you have to deal is very graphic &
makes me feel to [sic] understand more than I have ever done of the real state of
affairs & of society.— I am grieved to hear (tho’ it is only what I expected) of
the disease & mortality there has been on board the emigrant ships1~ I write
to you oflicially upon this subject wh. is one of extreme importance.—~ You must
not suppose that my anxiety about the Quebec & Halifax Railway is by any
means diminished——far from it I regard it as an undertaking of the utmost
importance both to the Colonies & the Mother Country, & I am also aware that
the former are little likely to be able to execute such a work without aid from us,
all I meant was that I fear this is a bad time for getting such assistance & that a
better state of the money market W“ have to be waited for, this however is no
reason why we sh“ not proceed to mature & [sic] scheme on the subject leaving
the question of when it is to be carried into effect to be settled hereafter. The
great point wd be to make out some reason for our giving pecuniary assistance
to it wh. W“ not be a precedent for unbounded claims for similar assistance from
other Colonies: probably to avoid this any money we give sh“ be in the form of
of a sum of money paid down, or an annual payment guaranteed in return for an
undertaking to carry Troops &c at some low charge. I do not see why we shd
not agree to pay the Company annually the whole amount transport now costs
us, thinking the saving in time an ample gain & allowing the railway to reap
the whole benefit of any saving they can make in the cost of conveyance.

Tell Mary that I left Emily a little while ago at Stafford House looking thin
but we1l——there is an enormous ball there for the Queen & all the other Royal
personagcs now in London. I made my escape as soon as I could leaving LY Grey
with M” 0. Grey to come home later, & I am availing myself of the opportunity
of writing to you as I know that tomorow I shall have so many people to see «it
things to do that I shall hardly be able to write to you.— If therefore I have
made a great many mistakes you must attribute them to its being very late &
my being rather sleepy—With my best love to Mary, Alice 6: George.

&c
(signed) GREY.

The
EARL on ELGIN & Kmcnnnmn

1See below, 7). 50 and note 1.

ELGI N »GRE’ Y PAPERS 49

{Original MS]
MONTREAL
June 13, 1847.

MY Dmiz GREY,

My first and most interesting intelligence by the present mail is that the
Party of travellers1 Whom you despatched from Belgrave Square on the 18″‘
of last month arrived here, on Saturday week in perfect health. They performed
the journey from Boston in a much shorter time than I had anticipated and
without much fatigue; and although the passage was unfavorable have suffered
no serious inconvenience from it. Mary is a little tired, but thank God looking
remarkably well.—

I have met Par‘ The question of the Speakership has been settled to the
satisfaction of Sir A. MacNab who retains the chair}. Four nights have been
consumed in a. debate on the address–a division on which has been taken as a
test of the strength of Parties. Ministers had a. majority of two: but some
seats are vacant, and it is supposed that when all are mustered they may have
a majority of 4 or 5. not more. However, it must be remembered that the whole
house comprises only 82 members.

The main amendment on thm address consisted of a declaration on the
subject of Responsible Gov‘, introduced in connexion with a congratulatory
reference to Lady Elgin’s arrival3’~ Ministers met this by proposing & carry-
ing an address of congratulation on that event separately“ This was entirely
their own doing— I did not meddle in the matter, nor did I know What course
they intended to take in regard tm the amendment in question until the dis-
cussion took place

If the Ministerial Party hangs together I do not think there will be much
more trouble this Session— But I suspect that more is going on than meets the
eye, and I should not be surprised if I were enabled before long to report to
you that an arrangement with the French on the basis of my memorandum to
M. Morin”= had been consummated.

Meanwhile the tone of the debate has been satisfactory to me personally:
and leads me to hope that I have been able to make my course of policy intel-

‘Lady E1 in, her sister, Lady Alice Lambton; her brother, file Earl of Durham; and Lady
Elma Bruce, iord Elgin’s daughter by his first marriage. V

2See above 12. 11,. g

‘The amendment was introduced by l3al<l’W’in, 8 June, 1847,,and se<x)nd9d ’bY_L£! F°m?3″‘e-
It read: “And to state tzlmt this House, on this first occasion of approaching His Excellency,
°am1°’3; in justice either to their own feelings or those of their constituents: refrain fmm
referring to the gratifying cireiimstance of His Excellenoy‘s connexion with the family of the

Earl of Dm‘ha/m. To that d.’lEl5iILg1l’lI$l.1e(I Statesman we are indebized for the Imperial
remgmtion of our undoubted right as British subjects, to have the Government oi the Province
conducted by the assistance, counsel, and in-formation of .9. Provincial Administration, under the
Representative of the Sovereign which while appoinmd by the CNW71 311 9119 5’‘9T°i5e. °f. It‘
undoubted prerogative rainains nesponsihle to the Provincial Parliament, on the same 1JI‘1D°lIJ195
which have been founii so perfectly efiieaeious in the zv.d.ininistra\‘/ion of the Goveriiment Of the
Parent State. That grateful for the important part thus taken by him in PTGGUTIDE U9 “hm
net of constitutional Justice we cannot but indulge the pleasing confidence, that under one so
n‘i”~1‘1Y connected with him’ and to whom his memory must necessarily be dear, We shall
witness the practical applichtion of this great rinciple, and reaalize the benefits which it is
calculated to secure.” (Jourmzls of Assembly, gcmada, 1847, p. 12).

‘See above 12. 19.
9337-4

50 ELGI N—GRE Y PAPERS

ligible to all parties. There appears tm be a general disposition to give me
credit for acting constitutionally, notwithstanding the support I have given to
my Ministers, and the severe censures passed upon them-

MT Draper goes home by this packet. He accepts the J udgeship and has
leave till the Sept circuit. We part on good terms, and I do not wish you to let
him know that I think his conduct in leaving his colleagues at the present time
the reverse of magnanirnous. Indeed from what I have observed since the
legislature met I am not sure that they wd have been numerically as strong
with him as without him. He is a man of considerable ability. Had it not been
for his Shiftincss and L“ Metealfe’s resolution it is probable that the Party W“
now governs Canada wfl never have been formed. He can give you a good deal
of information and w“ be gratified by attention being shewn to him-— although
his views may not be always of the largest, and although he is a little too
anxious to signalize his own prowess to be the most instructive of narrators.

Emigrants have been arriving in Crovvds-«many of them in a deplorable
condition— I have found it necessary to sanction a considerable outlay in pro-
viding medical aid for the sick and food for the destitute} We have done what
we could in this rnatter——and by a future mail I shall report more fully on the
measures taken. Large numbers are, I fear, so reduced by Want that even if
there be room for them in the labor market they will not be able for many
months to do efiicient work. It is impossible tm look at the future without
serious apprehension.

Mary has a good deal startled me by telling me how much it will cost to
make me a Knight of the Thistle— However it is on public grounds that I
chiefly covet the distinction and I should be sorry to forego any advantage
which it may confer on me here by declining to obtain possession of it until my
return to England. I have therefore written to my Agent C, R. M°Gregor Esq.
17 Charles S“ St James requesting him to pay whatever sum for fees Harry
may demand—— As I should like to have the insignia of the order before the
adjournment of my Par”, I hope you will allow them to be transmitted in the
bag whenever they are procured.

Very sincerely yours

ELGIN & KINCARDINE

I enclose copies of the Minutes of the Legislative Assembly and of the address
& amendments?

[Endorsed]
June 13/47
Lord Elgin to L‘! Grey

‘ In this and other letters, Lord Elgin refers to the distrws occasioned by the imTDigl?i1l7i°“
of 1847. The frightful mortality was attributed to ‘the condition to which the Irish immlfiwnfl’
had been reduced ‘by the famine of that year. Gr. M. Douglas, the Medical Superintendent,
writing from the Quarantine Station, 24 May, 1847, said:——“I regret to have to call attention
to a state of illness and distress among the new] arrived enfigrnnfs, unprecedented even duriflfl
the prevalence of cholera in 1832 and 1834” angles to Daly, J_ourmlls of Assembhj Ganadflv
181;’! Appendix L). A. O. Buchanan, Chief imigration Agent, 111 D. letter to the Giovernm”9
Secretary reported tha.t:——“’1lhe mortality is truly alarming, and I am informed that deatllfi
during the est few clays has averaged from forty to fifty per day.” (Buchanan to Campbell;
Quebec 39 my, 1847, Ibid). .

ghlot among the collection. These documents belong to the official correspondence.

ELGI N —GRE Y PAPERS 51

[Original MS]
Private & Confidential
Earl Grey Monmnan,

June 28 1847.
My Dnzm Gnmy,

Matters have been going on as smoothly since I last wrote in the Political
would here as could under all the circumstances have been expected. There
have been three grand Party demonstrations in the Assembly. The first on
the address, on W” Ministers had a majority of 2. The second, on a motion to
call on the Gov‘ Gen‘ to take steps to form a strong and efificient administra-
tion—— On this, the ministerial majority encreased to 4, — and the third, on
a motion for an address to enquire’ into the utility of the office of civil Secre-
tory— This motion was resisted by the Gov” and rejected by a majority
of six. ‘

Thus far it is well with them, They have, I think, shown, that if their
Party remain steady tm them they are stronger than the opposition. But I
have reason to believe that several sections of their body of supporters are
intriguing on their own account and that their position is still therefore far
from secu«re——

With so much party: fighting to occupy attention and time, business as
you may suppose, has not been making rapid progress. The financial measures
have however been broached and well recieved——~

In the Upper House there has been a discussion which was rather embar-
asing for Ministers. A certain M’ Neilscn who is intensely of the old school,
and avowedly hostile to the present system of Gov“, brought forward there a
series of resolutions complaining that the French are not suificiently represented
in the administration. These resolutions were supported by the French members,
& generally by the British opposition, although it is believed that they were
Pmposcd by the mover with the View of throwing discredit on Responsible Govt.
Several of the British Conservative members happened to be absent When this
debate took place, and the resolutions (which Wd have amounted, if carried,
to a vote of want of confidence) were finally rejected by the casting vote of
the Speaker.1

Meanwhile the tone of the discussions in both Houses has been satisfactory
to me personally. Credit is given to me on all sides for the course which I
have hitherto pursued, although I am occasionally Warned by the more fervid
orators of the opposition that I shall get into a serious scrape if I do not new
force my ministers to resign. ‘

To maintain amid this strife of tongues & factions the position which in
my opinion the Gov” Gen‘ of this Province ought to occupy —— a position of
llelltrality as regards mere Party contests, and of activity as respects import-

’ John Neilson had brought forward ten resolutions, on 17 June, 1847, The first six W8”
elplmged from the Journab by vote on 18 June. Resolution 8 points out that there was only
one French member of the Executive Council. Resolution 9 rea.ds:—“’l.‘hat this state of thm88
gggfiggcrs -the Rights, Liberties, and Privileges guaranteed to the descendants of the fin-It

3 99 U0/flafla by the aforementioned Capitulations, Treaties -and Acts of Parliament, and

1158 to Weaken their confidence in the security of those Institutions, their afiection for
igxfsgp materially contrib_uted_ to the preservation of Uamzda as a port of the British Domin-
‘$37 ‘if0u1’nztZs of Lemslctx-uc Uoumrtl, Gcmadrt, IBM’, 1). 88‘)

52 ELGI N-GICE Y PAPERS

ant Provincial interests, — is indeed by no means an easy task—- There is
naturally a readiness on the part of the opponents of the administration to
charge the head of the Gov‘ with the crime of deviating from thc line prescribed
by the Constitution, and in order to avoid furnishing occasion for this reproach
constant circumspection and unremitting vigilance on his part are required~
It is not so difficult to deal with the British opposition, because the individuals
who compose that Party have at least some notion of fair play in carrying out
the principles of Gov” which they advocate. But with the French generally
it is far otherwise. They adept at second hand the political dogmas of the
English liberals and assert them, whenever it is convenient to do so, with
becoming force. But they are unwilling to admit — I might almost say they
seem incapable of comprehending – that the principles of constitutional Gov‘
must be applied against them as well as for them —— and whenever there appears
to be a chance of things taking this turn, they revive the ancient cry of nation-
ality, and insist on their right to have a share in the administration, not because
the Party with which they have chosen to connect themselves is in the ascend-
ant, but because they represent a people of distinct origin~ As the theories
of Gov‘ on which their claims to oflice respectively rest contradict each other,
it is almost always possible for them when they are out of place to demonstrate,
on one or other hypothesis, that they are unconstitutionally treated.

However, as I before observed, 1 think that my Policy has hitherto justified
itself in the eyes of all parties. I send an extract from the political corres-
pondence of the Toronto Globe in which this subject is” canvassed. The Globe
is the organ of the Upper Canada liberals, against whom my policy both in
making overtures to the French, and, subsequently, in recruiting the strength
of my administration by additions from the Conservative ranks, wd seem to
have been directed. Its testimony on this point is therefore of some value.

We held a drawing room last Tuesday, and Although the weather was
unfavorable, and our residence at an inconvenient distance from the town, it
was more numerously attended than ever drawing room had been in Canada.
The description of this event given in the Revue Canadienne, the organ of the
French liberals, (which I enclose) augurs, I should hope, no unfriendly feeling
towards the Gov“ House.

I transmit by this mail an address of the Assembly complaining of this
year’s immigration and seeking cncreased aid from Imperial funds to meet the
expense which it is likely to occasion.1 There has been much disease, destitu—
tion & mortality among the Immigrants but the Provincial Govi are doing all
they can to mitigate their sufferings. Indeed, I think they are much more
likely to exceed than to fall short in this matter, for all parties have a strong
conviction that whatever they advance on this account will be reimbursed
by the Imperial Treasury. In acknowledging the receipt of the memorandum

1.EZm’n to Grey, 28 June, 18l;’I——No. 64 ((70171!) (G. 461, p. 151). The address, as reported
-to the Assembly, 25 June, 1847, drew atwntion to the effects of the condition in which rimmi~
grants had arrived and requested that precautions be «taken. in the selection of immigrants and
in the mode of transportation The address <:onclu<lctl:—“ We humbly inform Your Majesty
that, in the opinion of this House, an unusually large expenditure must he made in this
Province, in the present season, to meet such unexnmpled destitution and distress; and we
assure Your Majesty of our confident belief that the justice, as well as the liberaliiy of the

Imperial Government will (provide for this expenditure from the Imperial Funds. (Journal:
of Asecinbly, Cnz1uzda._, 184:7, 1113. 74-75).

ELGIN—GRIJY PAPERS 53

from my Council which I have sent you ofi5icia11y,1 I think it W“ be well if
you were to take occasion to impress upon me the necessity of caution 6!
economy in administering relief.-—~ _

I hope by the next mail to be able to communicate my views with reference
to the app‘ of Judges & other important matters to which in y. last letter you
direct my attention. I entirely agree with you in thinking that Commissions
in this Province ought in so far as it is possible to emanate from the Queen.

Mary continues quite well, got through her grand reception admirably,
though it was rather a nervous thing for her. The season has been very
backward and fears are entertained with respect to the prospects of the wheat
in Western Canada, but our summer here is now commencing in earnest.

Most truly y“‘

ELGIN & KINCARDINE
[Endorsed]
June 28/47
Ld ELGIN

[Enclosure]

No. 1
Toronto Globe

Lady Elgin arrived at Montreal on Saturday evening, and was accom-
panied by her ladyship’s brother, the Earl of Durham. His Lordship is just
of age. . _

Many of our readers will, no doubt, be anxious to hear “ what sort of a
Governor Lord Elgin is likely to make ”—but really the country has been so
often deceived in Governors that it is dangerous to give an opinion on any of
them until they have been tried. Whether it arises from national prejudice
or not, however, we are unwilling to regard Lord Elgin with the suspicion
entertained by many intelligent Reformers. It is true that he has sustained
in power the most corrupt Administration which ever existed, and that some
of his appointments have been redolent of corruption, and far from palatable
to the people. But it must be remembered that the Cabinet Council, and not
Lord Elgin are responsible for these appointments; and with them the people
must deal. When his Lordship came to Canada he found a Provincial Admin-
istration condueting the affairs of the country, and in possession of a majority
in both houses of Parliament. It was not his business to inquire how that
majority was obtairiedmtlzere it was, and as long as they held a majority and
could carry out the Government measures, he was bound to sustain them by
all constitutional means. With every disposition to criticise Lord Elgin’s

‘Elgm to Grey, 28 June, 18.57, No. 6: (Com/). (G. 461, p. 151). ’l\he memorandum, beam
date of 25 June, refers to the heavy expenditure which had been rendered necafafy, an
declared that it would probably entail the expenditure of £75,000. The £10,000 paid by the
Imperial Govermnent was -acknowledged but at the some time it was _ that the PYOVIDC19-1
r°V97-‘file would be quite inadequate to meet «file further 0118186 1113011 1l7- -A‘“°fl1e’” 9.°‘”‘ce °‘f
expense was apprehended from the number of orphans who would have to be provided for.
(Canada State Book, G. pp. 27-28.)

54 ‘ ELGI N ~GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

proceedings, we are bound to confess that his conduct as yet has been strictly
constitutional, as far as the public knowwand as long as he does not exceed
his constitutional duty, as long as he refrains from making hi_mself a partizan
in the cause of either of the great political divisions of the Province—though
he should give his most strenuous legitimate support to the most extreme Tory
government which was ever assembled—hc shall be ever spoken of with
respect by us.

Had Lord Elgin dismissed his ministers on his arrival, and called the
Reform party to his aid, we could not have withheld our censure. But should
the present Administration be broken down in Parliament—sl1ould they prove
unequal to the task of grappling with the great commercial measures now
urgently demanded by the country, or should they fail in carrying the ministerial
measures, whatever they may hereafter prove to be, through the House, we
shall expect his Excellency to come up to the constitutional mark, and to
frown down all further trickery to enable the present men to keep their ofifices;
the Reform party, consisting of three—fourths of the population of United Canada,
will then expect his Lordship to give the helm of state into the hands of their
leaders. We ask from Lord Elgin constitutional government——and that only~—
and we shall have it. We frankly, but respectfully, tell his Excellency, as the
Reform Press did Sir Charles Metcalfe at the outset of his reign, that if he
will let us fight out our own battles, he may live long and happily among us, with
the respect of all parties-but if he should unfortunately assume the attitude
of a partizan in our local disputes, and allow either party to use his name
as 9. rallying cry—then we tell him plainly that his government will end in
total failure.

We confess, however, that from all we have heard, we are inclined to
believe that Lord Elgin will pursue a constitutional course. The way the
Conservatives talk of him is satisfactory; they evidently do not regard him
by any means as a safe card, but as a keen shrewd man of the world who is
not to be trifled with—~and they say very little in his favour.

Col. Bruce, and Major Campbell, a1’e remarkably popular, and all men
speak well of the courtesy and attention paid to every “sort of visitor at Gov-

ernment House.

No. 2 [Enclosure]

Revue Canadienne

~—Son Excellence le Gouverneur—Général a consenti 5. devenir patron de

la Société Canadienne d’Agricu1tu.re, et a aceompagné son acccptation du don
d’une somme de £25 a la Société. Revue Uonudienne.

Le cerole de lo comtcsse d’Elgin.——I1 y avait foule mardi soir an eerele
de la comtesse d’Elgin—-Ni la distance de Monkland a la ville, ni la pluie
battante de la soirée n’ont empéché la société de Montreal, d’aller presenter
ses hommages a Yaimable jeune dame de notre gouverneur. La nombreuse
compagnie réunje ce soir-la dans les salons de Monkland témoignait dn
respect et de Pestime des habitants de la capitals pour ses hotes et pour la
fille de Pillustre comte Durham en particulier.

E’LGIN—GRE’Y PAPERS 55
[Enclosure]

La presentation ccmmcnca a neuf heures, dans le salon a droite. La
comtesse avait un air de fraicheur et de jeunesse qui faisait plaisir a voir;
on ne pouvait s’empécher d’admirer ses manieres pleines de dignité, sa pose
gracieuse et son aimable sourire. Elle avait aupres d’elle lady Alice Lambton
et lady Russell, ainsi que lady Efime Bruce, la jeune fille du gouverneur-
général et Son Excellence lui meme en grand uniforme, qui paraissait bien.
Les visiteurs était recus e. la porte du salon par le col. Bruce, lord Mark Kerr,
lord Egerton, lord Russell et présentés a la comtesse par le col. Antrobus,
l’aide dc camp provincial. Apres la presentation, la compagnie circula dans
les appartements ouverts pour lloccasion. Dans le grand salon la bande du
52c. de ligne faisait entenclre des airs magnifiques et donnait un air de gaité
et ole fete 5. la reunion. Dans un autre salon a gauche, il y avait une table
de rafraichissements couverte de tout ee que Yon peut imagincr de mieux et
de plus exquis; les vins etaient excellcnfs, et tout ensemble cette premiere
reception dc Monkland a été trés agréable. Idem.

End of Enclosures

[Duplicate MS copy]

0.0.

Private July 3/47

MY DEAR ELGIN

I have very little indeed to say to you by this mail beyond expressing the
satisfaction with wh. I rec“ your last letter. I was delighted to hear that the
Travellers had reached you so well & so much more expeditiously than I had
expected, & I also think your account of the state of political affairs 9.
Very good one – I have no doubt that by acting steadily upon the sound con-
stitutional principle you so well describe, you will succeed in acquiring more
real influence & accomplishing much more that is useful than by any attempt
more directly to govern
I had a long conversation yesterday with your ex Minister & new Judge
Mm Draper — I see he is bent upon having some mark of honor con-
ferred upon him —~ Would you recommend his being Knighted or receiving
the Civil C.B. before his return? With respect to the Bath as there are only to be
altogether 50 civil K.C.B’s & 100 C.B’s & as this number is to serve for our civil
service at home as well as for the whole of the diplomatic & colonial services we
must be very sparing in the distribution, & I do not think that K.C.B. can be Ewen
V’ anybody lower in rank than a Gov’ A few C.B’s we may make Of Colonifits &
You Sh“ be considering what 3 or 4 Canadians you w“ recommend. The new
statutes of the order wh. you will find in the London Gazette of a few weeks
3&0 Will show you What are the qualifications required. The worst part of the
news you have sent me is that about the Emigrants, it is only what I fully
expficted but it is not the less very melancholy.
The star of the Thistle will be sent out to you by this mail but Harry tells me
that the ribband is not yet ready; I am afraid the P1’0l3°1’l9i°71 °f the fees
Payable upon it wh. I shall be able to save you will be very small, as unfor-

56 IJLGIN—G‘REY PAPERS

tunately they are not like the fees received in the public Ofliees wh. go into the
fee fund, but are paid to people in the Queens household who have a personal
interest in them.

La Fingall has asked me to recommend to you his 3”‘ son L‘ Plunkett of
the 23″‘ Reg‘ who is just going from Halifax to Canada; if you can shew
him any civility you W“ oblige me by doing so. — ~— ~——

signed ‘ GREY

I enclose the Gazette with the new statutes.1

[Endorsed]
July 3/47
L“ G. to Lord Elgin

[Duplicate MS copy]
Private (10.

July 19/47

MY DEAR ELGIN
I reed your letter of the 28*“ June by the last packet. Of the Party con-

tests in the Assembly I cannot form any judgment except from what you tell
me of them as the debates & discussions in the newspapers are far too long for
me to read them & it is difficult at this distance to make out what are the points
in dispute, it is however most satisfactory to me to find that it begins to be
understood that you & the Home Gov“ belong to neither party & have nothing
to do _with their contests. It is clear to me that this principle must be com-
pletely established in order long to preserve our connexion with the Colony.
The question of responsible Gov“ seems to be creating just now much
agitation in Prince Edwards Island & I find it very diffioult to judge from the
reports sent home by the L” Gov‘ What are the real merits of the different
parties engaged in such hot contest there, if you shm be able after the close of
your session to go there for a time I sh“ be very glad to have a report from you
on the state of aEairs—— There is another Colony in wh. a somewhat similar
question is likely to arise. I mean Newfoundland where it has been thought
necessary to allow the Assembly to resume its old form with certain Modifica-
tions-~ Now the state of Society there is obviously unfit for “Responsible
Govnt” in the Canadian sense of the words, & seems much better adapted for
the system [of] Gov” of Jamaica, but Sir Gaspard Le Marchant (Who is doing
very well under extreme difficulties) does not seem to me fully to understand
how the Executive and Legislative powers can be kept as distinct as they were
by you in Jamaica & how the Gov“ can go on without the command of a
Majority in the Assembly. The Legislature will probably not be called
together for some months & if you c“ in the mean time write for me a short
account of the manner in wh. the relations of the Executive Gov“ & Assembly
ought in your opinion to be managed in Jamaica it w“ probably greatly assist
me in directing Sir G. Le Marchant What course to follow—— I have taken your

‘ This paper is not in the collection.

ELG’IN—G’REY PAPERS 57

hint about inculcating economy in answering your Despatch enclosing the
memorandum of the Executive Council1 about the expense of relieving the
Emigrants, you might further remind them that a much larger number still
go to New York where they are also relieved & without any assistance from
home, whereas Perl‘ has already voted £10,000 for this object in Canada. I
hope you will enforce the most rigid strictness in the administration of relief
for the experience we have had this Year of the tendency to abuse wh. exists,
especially when you have to deal with Irish, convinces me that in the end it is
far better to do too little than too much, & rather to allow a good deal of suffer-
ing tm take place than to take away the motive to exertion by attempting to
relieve everybody. -—I am in hopes that I shall be able to send you out by the
packet the inventor of the “dis infecting fluid ”3 of wh. you have probably
heard— The reports ofits elficacy in destroying infection are really Wonderful
& its use in the quarantine station & hospitals in‘ Canada wilm I trust be
attended with great advantage-

I met Elphinstone at dinner on Saturday & he begged me to tell you not
to take any trouble about sending home your vote for him for the election of
Scotch Peers, an arrangement has been made with the Tory party that he is to
be elected without any opposition on our agreeing not to start any other Can-
didate.

I cannot say how sick I am of the Session, but I fear it may not now end
this week, as we are determined to keep it on for any time rather than allow a
very small & factions minority in the H. of Commons to throw out the Man-
chester Bishopric Bill by delay.

Signed GREY

Trim EARL or ELGIN & KINOARDINE
[Endorsed]

July 19/47
L“ Grey to L“ Elgin

_1 See above 12. 63 and note 1. In replying to this despateh, Lord Grey requested full infor-
D18/l5-1011 as to the expenditure involved and cautioned the Governor to follow the rule of strict

9°‘-“110m~‘7. He added:——“ I must reserve for future deliberation, what firroportion of the expense I

incurred ought to be borne by the Imperial ’.l‘reu.sury;——il:‘ upon a fun consideration of all the
.°‘1″5=umstanccs of the case, it should appear that the grant -already mN1e_ fol‘ the PHTDOSG
I8 insuflieient, Her Majesty’: Government will he prepared to IIPPIY 50 P3″h3me“t,f91′ further
flfifiistance, nor do they doubt that Parliament will be ready to vote such an addrt1on.to the
5”!’-‘K! already granted as may (prove to be justly due to the province. At the some time in estr-
matlng what is so due it must be borne in mind that when the immediate dlfieulties are sur-
mounted, -the settlement of these Emigrants is calculated greatly to add to_ the we_ulth of 6119
Pr°V’:“’me. and «to improve its Revenue, both by the increased eonsum17h0D Which V111 be
Oeeasioned, and -by raising the value of the Wild Lands. It is not therefore unreaeona‘ble to
9XPBra4;-e sous lequel ils puissant ae reposer un jour-
mpros avoir noquis le -bonheur, fruit de leurs longs travaux.” (La Minerva, 2 July, 18.!5)_~

The following is an extract from an account of the dinner Otf that society, under the p1’a§1′
dency of Hon. 1). B. Viger, in 1836 :—~“ M. 1e mrésident dans le driscours dent il accompagna cc
toast, [La féte que nous lmnarans at ceua: qui Ia celébrcntj et que ‘nous regrettone Foeazuooup
de ne Ipouvoir reproduire, dit en marlant de l’éra,’ble, dont il y xavait un feston pres do lui:
_C‘et arhre qui croit dons nos vallons, sur nos rockers d’aJl>ord jeune at battu par la. temqiétc.
)l lnnguit en arraohaut avee pcine sa nourriture du sol qui le produitfig mais bientcwt il s’élo.ncc;
at devcnu grand et robuste, brave les orages et triom he do liaquilon qui ne saurait plus
Yelxranlerz ’érab1e oest l‘e roi de nos foréts, (fest \l’einahl%me du peuple ecnarlien.” Followinz
this speech Duvernny rose and sang at song which had been composed for the occasion, the
second stanza of which read:—~

“Citoyena! nous sommes tons freres,

En vain l’on vent nous désunir;

Insorivons done sur nos imnnieres

Le motto de notre navenir:

La force nflit de la oonoorde!

Auteur do l‘éra.’ble eacté,

Creusons, avant qu’il ne déborde,

Lo fleuve de la liberté.” (La Minerva, 27′ June, 1836.)

E’LGIN—G’RI’7Y PAPERS 71
[Enclosure]

this truth becomes matter of perfect astonishment in relation to many of the
great questions of the day. Cast your eye back but a few years—nay, months
-«and look at what has been accomplished by the advocates of free trade and
free navigation all over the world. Turn then to Canada, and mark here the
change in public sentiment on many subjects. It is but yesterday that the trade
with our neighbouring States, or the admission of their manufactures, was
viewed with jealousy, if not ill feeling. Now, we are about to admit the pro-
ductions of their industry and enterprise on an equal footing with those of the
Mother Country.

Nor has this change in our commercial policy been unaccompanied with a
corresponding enlargement of friendly relations in our social fabric. A marked
improvement is here perceptible also, which must, from the nature of the case,
continue to increase.

Many of the young and enterprising Canadian merchants have taken up
their abode in “The Great Metropolis of Commerce,” and continue branches of
their firms in this city. Self-interest, the touchstone of all human action, will
thus engender a reciprocity of good feeling under the fostering hand and the
golden links of commercial intercourse; old prejudices will be worn away, and
in their stead new relations of friendship and attachment established and con-
finned.

Thus, by degrees, and almost imperceptibly, will the conflnity of our new
commercial relations of necessity work a change in public sentiment; and
within a few years, he who lives to see it, will confess with astonishment the
inroads which “ the Universal Yankee Nation ” will have made on our customs,
tastes, and attachments.

It is hardly necessary to remark that a progress of events such as these,
in a country bordering over a thousand miles on a people who thus, by dint of
superior enterprise and skill, subdue such obstacles, must be fraught with
important issues. The question will likely be asked, How do these Americans
thus become the usurpers of our trade, and in some instances actually come into
Canada, purchase the raw material, and return it to us manufactured, paying
duty both ways, and successfully competing with our own producers‘? V

Nor will any answer to this query explain others no less perplexing—how
land on one side of latitude 45 can remain unsaleable at a nominal price of 5s.
‘D0 10s. per acre, and right opposite on the other side of this imaginary line,
Within gun—shot, be in quick demand at as many pounds per acre?

Our villages, too, exhibit a no less striking contrast of adversity and poverty,
85 compared with those right opposite, on the American frontier. Look at
Stanstead and Derby Line, Prescott and Ogdensburgh. Q1199D3i‘«0T-I and L6WiSi’«011:
the two sides of famed Niagara, Chippewa and Black Rock, Fort Erie and
Bufi’alo;~cross over here to this latter “ City of the Forest,” and see the con-
trast! Railroads by the thousand miles in rapid extension; While W W1‘ s°m””’ry
filmed fourteen miles between Laprairie and St. Johns We have not added a
mile of locomotive power in full operation for twelve years. But we think We
heal‘ the common reply to such reflections:—“ Oh, the people of Canada have

72 ELGI N—G’RE Y PAPERS

[Enclosure]

no enterprise: the Americans are a go—ahead people.” Yes, they are; but there
is no effect without a cause. They have within themselves the elements of their
own enterprise—the free adoption of laws which regulate their charters.

Imperial interference in Canada has checked our enterprise. Our Governor
can sanction no Railroad Bills without the line of his precise instructions; and
our home authorities have intimated that none will be granted unless 10 per
cent. of the whole capital is subscribed before the introduction of the Bill.

Let the boasted American enterprise he trarninelled by such conditions as
these in a country where capital has so many sources of employment, and see
if a corresponding efifect would not speedily appear. In England, where capital
is abundant, such legislative interference may be right and proper; but here,
where, with the best of stock, we have actually to solicit subscriptions, how
pernicious its effects must bel And, on the same grounds, we think every
disp_arity we have alluded to can be explained. Do we want a Bank, our
charter passes both Houses but to go home, like the “ Merchants’ Bank ” charter,
and add one more to the dusty shelved Canadian charters in the Colonial Office.
And all this is not tyrannyl Oh, no! it is only a polite way our Imperial masters
have of saying, “ Don’t you wish you may get it, gentlemen?”

But, to be serious, we do say, that under any circumstances it requires but
a partial endurance of such conflicting despotism on this -free continent to
alienate the best affections of a loyal people. We say “ under any eireumstances;”
and how much more so under those we have detailed, when coupled with the
impediments and mismanagement which seem inseporable from om‘ Colonial
system at home, and to which, we lament to add, the sordid and debasing
administration of afiairs here, which for the last few years has stained the
history of the Colony, and obstructed the development of its energies.

[Duplicate MS copy]
Paivate
Howrox
-Sep‘ 30/47

MY DEAR ELGIN, .

I have today received your letter of the 14*“, & I have that by the former
mail still to answer, however I have not a great -deal to say as most of the
subjects to wh. they relate you will find that I had in fact answered you upon
by anticipation—— ‘

With respect to emigration the account “”1 are indeed very deplorable but
the last mail carried out authority from the Treasury for meeting in some
degree at least your pecuniary difficulties upon this subjeet1— The arrange~
ments wh. are to -be made for next season will require very serious consideration
& as soon as I return (wh. will probably be on the 11”‘) I will set to work upon

‘In: 3. despateh of 9 October, 1&7, Lord Elgin said:——“ . . . the Commissary
General has intimated to me that he has received authority to pay from the Military Chat,

§;2:0:g % of flzis yea.r’s Immigration.” Elam to Greg/, Oct. 9, 1847;

__~ —»-~——’.-Q

ELG’IN—GREY PAPERS 73

them— With respect to Sir H. Huntley you will before this have learnt that I
have taken the same views of his position that you appear to have done & that
he is to be relieved iznmcdiatelyfl His successor will be Sir Donald Campbell
a relation of Campbell of Islay— Another of your L‘ Governors is also to be
changed Sir W. Colebrooke is to go to British Guiana & to be succeeded by
Sir E. Head one of the Poor Law Commiss”

I enclose the answer I have received from the Duke of Wellington tm the
application I made to him in favor of M’ Moffetti at your request

Nothing has yet been settled aboutyour travel-ling expenses, the oflicial
answer I received from the Treasury is that when you went beyond the limits
of Canada your expenses might be charged to this Country, but that in Canada
the Provincial Legislature ought to -‘provide for them—— This is very true in
principle, but in practice I am afraid the Assembly wd not provide for them &
I am sure that it W“ be good policy that we sh‘-‘ take them upon ourselves rather
than adopt a rule wh. W“ compel you to abstain from paying the visits you
ought to the rernoter parts of the Province.

1 have sent this letter back privately to L“ John dc I hope on my return to
Town I may be able to arrange with him something more satisfactory-—— The
difliculty is to avoid creating a precedent for throwing upon this Country a
purely local expense of a kind we have not hitherto borne, tho’ I have always
thought it w“ be very good policy if this Country did pay the salaries of the
Governors generally— However with a falling revenue & an increasing expendi-
ture no change of that sort can now be thought of unless the Colonies in return
took upon themselves some of the Military & Naval expense incurred for their
defence~—

I have omitted to mention that I have offered the L” Gov“ of S‘ Lucia to
Captain Darling. I shall probably hear by the next packet whether he accepts
it— With regard to your brother I can assure you that I ah“ be very glad indeed
if I c“ ofier him any similar situation that w“ be likely to be acceptable to him
but the diificulty of doing so I fear wd be very great, nor do I see any present
prospect of my having it in my power»-

I am exceedingly sorry to hear of Mary’s having sulfered so severely from
toothache, pain of so severe a kind & the want of sleep must I fear have retarded
her complete recove1y.— If Col. Bruce is again in London before he returns to
Canada I trust that I shall see him, I hear that he is now in Scotland—— I W“
have asked him to stop here in his way only that he probably will have his time
so fully occupied among his own friends & relations that I thought it unfair to
propose tm him to give up any of it to a visit to strangers——-

Yours
(Signed) GREY.

The ,
Earl of ELGIN & Kmcamarun
[Endorsed]
Sept 30/47

L“ Grey to L“ Elgin——

1 See above 11. 60, Cllhis letter is not in the collection.

74 ELGIN—G’R/EY PAPERS f

[Original MS]
FALLS or NIAGARA, Oct 13/47

MY DEAR GREY,

We avail ourselves of George’s1 departure for England to charge him with
a packet for you. The regular post which describes a circuit by Montreal
having left this point some days ago. Our tour has been thus far prosperous
in all respects except weather, W“ has been by no means favorable.—— I attended
a great agricultural Meeting at Hamilton last week and had an opportunity of
expressing my sentiments at a dinner in the presence of 6 or 700 substantial
Upper Canada Yeomen——— A body of men not easily to be matched. It is indeed
9. glorious countryl And after passing, as I have done within the last fortnight
from the citadel of Quebec to the Falls of Niagara, rubbing shoulders the while
with its free & perfectly independent inhabitants, one begins to doubt whether
it be possible to acquire a sufficient knowledge of man or Nature, or to obtain
an insight into the future of Nations without visiting America

I left at Montreal the Gentlemen deputed from the Lower Provinces to
discuss the Post Olfioe arrangements. They presented themselves I regret to
say under auspices by no means favorable. Sir J. Harvey named Mr. J ohnston2
the Att. Gen‘ to represent Nova Scctia at the conference and probably he could
not well do otherwise -—~ But he writes to me by that Gentlemen himself to say
that the late General Election has so altered the complexion of the House of
Assembly that M’ Johnston’s advocacy of any specific plan will be very likely
to cause its rejection— Sir. W. Colebrooke appoints Mr. Hazan3 9. good sort
of man but a non paid oificial, apparently very lukewarm on the subject, who

tells me that he left New Brunswick in 9. hurry without consulting his colleagues‘

and that consequently he can bind the Provincial Executive to nothing.——-

I had nevertheless a good deal of discussion with these Gentlemen before
I started on my tour, & I left M‘ Caylcy and Mr Johnston (for M‘ Hanan had
already departed) engaged in drawing up a projct M1 which will be submitted
to me on my return. -—

Yr° very sincerely
ELGIN & KINCARDINE

[Endorsed]
Oct‘ 13/47
L“ Elgin

[Original MS]
Private and Confidential
Earl Grey

MY DEAR GREY,
I should be sorry if you could imagine that in naming my brother to you
or in alluding to the subject of my travelling expenses I intended to take advan-

Monrnmn
Oct 29/47

; .I)Ji1°I§§Laaa;n:ee above 11. 49 note 1.
3 R. L. Hozen.

_……_..,.:._._,

_.__‘_.. ._

ELGIN—GRE’Y PAPERS 75

tage of any disposition to do me a favor on personal grounds by which you
might be supposed to be actuated—— You were good enough to give me the
situation I now fill at a time when I was hardly acquainted with you, & I have
the satisfaction of believing that in making the app‘ you could be influenced
by public considerations only. Subsequent events have not affected the relation
in w€“3 we stand towards each other oflicially, & I have accordingly always
declined to be the medium of transmitting applications which persons, pre-
suming on the connexion which subsists between us, have requested me to
forward to you.

The case of my Brother is peculiar or I should not have called yr attention
to it—— He is not new to the service having been employed by y. pi-cdecessors——
and I have to reproach myself with having recommended him to give up the
Gov‘ of Newfoundland (at a time when I thought he could not have proceeded
thither without serious injury to his health,) for a situation for which he seems
tm have been unfittcd.

With respect to my oflicial income I am sorry that you should already
have had so much trouble and I do not wish you to take further steps in the
matter. I certainly came here with the impression that my income would
amount to £7000 a year of British money, and that I should have at least the
same facilities for transporting myself from place to place as I had in Jamaica
where water carriage was always provided for the Gov‘ at the expense of the
Imperial Treasury. In these expectations I have been disappointed, and I
labor under the further disadvantage of having to sueeed a Gov‘ General
who had the command of large private means which he liberally applied to
eke out the defects of his salary. Nothing however can be less agreable to
me than to ask you to press a claim of this description~ For the time that I
remain here I shall endeavor th [ml get on as I best can.

My tour through the Upper Province has been entirely satisfactory to me-—
I do not trouble you with the descriptions and addresses which fill the news-
papers although they are I may say without exception gratifying and encour-
aging: but I send the leading article of the Herald of this day——an influential
P8per,———independent, though Conservative———published in Montreal—— If it
represents faithfully public opinion on this point I may hope that I have not
altogether failed in obtaining that place in the estimation of the inhabitants
of the Province which the Gov’ Genll ought to occupy.

Mary has I am happy to say derived much benefit from her tour— Very
truly Yrs

ELGIN & KINCARDINE
[Endorsed]
Oct. 29/47
La Elgin
Rec“ Nov’ 16

loriginally “I”—scratohed out and “the Gov’ Gen” substituted.

76 ELGI N —GIi’.E Y PAPERS

[Enclosure]

We have little of importance to relate, since the departure of the British
mail on the 13th instant. The political calm, which then prevailed, continues
undisturbed, saving by, so far as we can learn, groundless rumours on the
subject of a dissolution of the present Parliament, which stands prorogued until
the 25th proximo, but not to be then summoned for despatch of business. The
general impression continues, that a short Session will be held in February, and
that, as the Parliament dies a natural death, in October, 1848, a general election
will, most probably, be held during the su1nmer—~what the result of that election
will be, we do not feel competent to predict; but that His Exce11ency’s present
Cabinet, has but a slight and precarious hold upon the good opinion and con-
fidence of their supporters, is a fact abundantly evident. In the meantime,
Lord Elgin, by his indefatigable attention to business, his prudence and circum-
specticn, his invariable and unostentatious courtesy, is securing for himself,
from all parties, that reliance upon his integrity as a man, and his wisdom as
a. statesman, which does not always accompany the respect, that must ever be
felt towards the representative of the Crown. The result, so far, of His Lord-
ship’s Government has, most assuredly, been to soothe those political and party
asperities, which have so long been the bane and curse of Canada,——destructive
alike to its material and moral advancement~—and, although every attempt to
combine, in one Cabinet, upon fair and honorable terms, the acknowledged
leaders of the British and French parties——whose difierenees are not political,
however strongly they may deny it—although every such attempt has hitherto
failed, we trust, the time is not far distant, when Lord Elgin will succeed, in
surrounding himself with advisers, enjoying the confidence and esteem of the
great majority of Canadians of both origins. Success in such an undertaking,
will entitle him to the lasting gratitude of a united and, therefore, of a pros»
perous and a happy people.

[Duplicate MS copy]
Extract of Lord Greg/’s letter to L“ Elgin dated N on’ 3/47

“ I am sorry that the Post Ofiice convention does not begin under favorable
auspices. The subject is a most important one & if well settled might lead to
other improvements——

I have written you by this Mail a Despatchl containing rather a sharp
answer to your Executive Council? about emigration, wh. is I think about as
umcasonable as anything I ever read, I hope to be able to write you a much fuller

‘In this rlespatoh Lord Grey contended that part of the expense of the immigration must
be_-borne by the Province and, with regard to the interest due on the debt of the Province, he
pointerl out that the Executive Council should take steps to meet this obligation-—“re1:neq.n-
bering that a failure to meet that payment with punctuality would probably have the effect
of rendering it impossible for the Province hereafter, for any objects, however important,
to resort for assistance to the money market of this Country, except upon terms of great
disadvantage. (Grey in Elgin, 3 Nov, 1317, No, 135, G. 129, 17. 308).

2The minute of the Executive Council is of 4 October. 1847, and reads as follows:~—

“ On the a. plication of M’ Hiawkie, for £6450 for Emigration expenses; also
on that of the I.)Boarrl of Health at Toronto for £2000 to repay disbursements and
current expenses of Enxigranit Hospital; also on that of the Emigrant Commission

\ -…——,._._….,._.._

ELG’IN—GREY PAPERS 7?’
[Enclosure]

Despatch upon this subject by the next mail. I am in communication upon it
‘with the L. & E. Com” who have drawn up a report wh. with some alterations
that I have Suggested will I think form a very useful document to be laid before
_your Parl‘ — In the mean time I hope you have been turning your mind to the
-subject & considering what steps you can take on your side of the water to render
the occupation of ‘the Territory more systematic. I am convinced that the prin-
ciples wh. I have endeavoured to state in my various Despatches of the earlier
part of this year are sound, & that the difficulties of applying them however
‘great they may appear are capable of being surmounted by judiciously adapting
the means employed to the peculiar circumstances of the Country-—~

You will see by the Newspapers that we have been compelled to call Purl‘
together for the 18″’ I cannot tell you how I dislike the prospect of its meeting
but under all the circumstances it was inevitable— When do you propose meet-

ing your Perl‘? Not I suppose till the New Year & when it comes it is not I.

hope such a bore as ours- We shall be perfectly bewildered by the nonsense
people will talk nbout currency a subject wh. provokes longer speeches with less

‘On the at Montreal for £1500 on Account of disbunsemeiits of last month; $11-90 On 1:114”: of
aimlicutionof the Quebec Hospital for £1000:—-

Scveml Bodies The Inspector General has the honor to observe with reference to these appli-
i-elaltiveto cations that they are for advances immediately needed to defray the most
Efnlsffltioniformressing claims, but will by no means cover all the engagements up to this
.cei-tauisums of date which the several authorities have entered into for forwarding the Emi-
m°”_W-ipol‘ rank, and providing for the Sick; And also that the Eimigmflt Agent £01‘ Upper
E”“B1‘ntxon unado has stated that he ‘wiL1 be called upon very shortly to make a claiin for a.
-expanses. -erpnsidenable Sum to defray expenses in that portion of -the Portion of the

rovinee.

The Amount disbursed -from the Provincial Chest

to the close of September is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 564895.19. 2
Amount received has been from Emigration Tux. .. . £17000
Ifironi Imperial Funds from Coinmissafy GEDOM1
{or expenses of 1847 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12166.13. 4
_ . £29160 13 4

£35729. 5 10

To enable the Provincial Chest to meet thsis O_ut1_&Y, 959 S‘”11 0f 535000 1,133
fbeen Advanced by the Montreal Bnnk—-the Provincial Surplus revenues _-being
Wholly absorbed by the demand to carry on the Public Works: gmd It Will ‘be
necessary to raise it fimtlier loan from the Bank to meet -the applications now made,
and make provision for the fLitIire——2is the greatei‘ proportion Of‘ these advances
will have to be repaid at Short dates the Province ’W1ll notrbe_in 8.’{)09l‘l7l0IX to
keep faith with the Pwblie Creditor, unless these Sums are Speedilyfeimbureed to
.hey—-.mu¢4}_x time would be saved and the Arrangement Simplified if the Sum of
£40,000 or £50,000 vwrere Iplaeed to the credit of the Province with t11e_Bo.nk of
England which might the mode aupplriceble to the payment of her Semi Annual
Dividends -there, while she di’s9bu1’ses.th.e equivalent within the Provmce to SWWD
this helpless Emigration. , .

The Committee respectfully Submit that .a further I:oa.u (be negociated With the
Bank of Montreal payable at three months’ (hate to meet these first Demands-
and that the Substance of the Inspector Goneral’s Memorand-um be transmitted
to the Imperial Authorities, humbly yet urgently praying ‘that Her ‘M;zuesty will
be Sraeiously pleased to Sustain the Province in its exertions to P1‘0V1de f0‘-‘ €119
Sick and ihel-plex Fmiigration that has -been ‘poured into the Country.

All which is respectfully Submitted.
By Order.

(Signed) W. MORRIS,
r. of (2-

Executive Council 0he,nil>er,‘l

Montreal, 4th October, 184-7.! (gamma) mate Beak’ G’ P. H9)

78 ELGIN-GREY PAPERS

understanding than any I know—- Have you heard how unsound the much
lauded system of Scotch Banking has proved to be in this crisis, & how narrowly
by the assistance of the Bank of England & English Houses the West of Scot-
land has escaped such a crash as has seldom if ever been heard of———

[Endorsed]

Nov” 33/47

Extract of letter from L‘ Grey
to L“ Elgin 1

[Duplicate MS copy]
Private
0. 0.
Nov!“ 18/47

MY DEAR ELGIN

I received two days ago your letter of Oct. 29 & I was very glad to
hear so good an account of your proceedings.—~ I assure you that I did not
suppose in what you have said to me upon the subject you mention you
intended to take advantage of your personal claims upon me, but I was
anxious you sh“ know the difficulties with wh. I have to contend in doing what
I wish, for with regard tm your travelling expenses in particular I think that
on public grounds they ought to be given t[o] you——~ It is in my opinion very bad
policy to pay our Colonial Gov“ as ill as We do, since this prevents such
appointm“ being any obj ect to persons of the kind that their importance requires.
Various circumstances render it impossible to change this system, but I am
always anxious that the advantages of the important Gov“ sh” be increased,
& that at all events the holders sh“ not be put to expense in the performance
of their public duties, I had therefore no difliculty in strongly recommending
oflicially to the T” that your travelling Expenses sh“ be paid, & they are prepared
to assent so far as your expenses out of Canada that is in visiting the Lower
Provinces are concerned, but they are afraid of the precedent of taking upon
this Country the cost of your journies in Canada wh. the Province clearly ought
to pay, as it w“ tend to encourage that disposition wh. is so universal in all
the Colonies to throw upon the B3“ ’1‘reasury any charges they possibly can.
What I sh“ think the best arrangement W“ be that the 3?rovincc sh“ undertake a
portion of its own Military expenses & that.then this Country sh“ pay the Gov”
salary wh. if so paid might be fixed at a rate propor’cioned to the incomes of
men holding high positions here instead of upon the transatlantic scale wh.
is almost of necessity adopted if the charge is defrayed by the Colony. If your
salary were £10000 a. year wh. Wd not be higher than it ought to be considering
the Expenses to wh. you are subject & the sacrifice you make in living away from
your own country, the charge if thrown upon the Colony W“ be a perpetual
subject of declamation to every man who thought he could get a little popularity
by contrasting the extravagant salary of the Gov’ General with that of the
President of the United Statesw Underthe existing arrangement any fit man
accepting the office does I think a very great favor to the Gov“ wh. is not quite

““V

ELGIN~GREY PAPERS 79

the relation in wh. the parties ought to be to each other—— I felt this very
strongly before I was acquainted with you, & since from observing how you
have conducted this most important Gov“ I have thought myself most for-
tunate in having it placed in your hands, I also rejoice exceedingly tm see
that you are appreciated by your temporary Subjects who will I firmly believe
derive very Great benefit from your rule-

I have been interrupted so repeatedly while writing this that I have not time
to enter into some other subjects on wh. I sh“ have been glad to have Written
to you particularly on that of Emigrat“——My Despateh mpon this subject
I have not been able to get ready in time for this mail but I send you the Draft
of the Report1 wh. the Com” have made to me by my desire for the purpose of
being transmitted. It is not my intention to adopt exactly their suggestions,
but rather to recommend to the Provincial Legislatures to pass Laws making
it the interest of- shipowners & brokers to bring out passengers in Eyed health
by doubling the emigration tax on all ships forced by sickness to be put in
quarantine, & increasing it still more if the quarantine is prolonged. By this
kid raising the tax upon the ‘old & on women & children the Province W“ be
enabled to better meet the xburthen wh. these classes impose upon it— However
I must reserve this for another opportunity. _

I have just received the enclosed? from L‘ Campbell. I cannot find any
memorandum of my having written to you upon the subject & I fear I must
have omitted to do so, unless (wh. I rather believe) I gave you when you went
away a memorandum upon the subjeet—~ Will you be so good as to give me
an answer wh. I may send to L“ C. I believe -it is a case in wh. you can do more
for himw When does your Parl‘ meet?

[366]
Signed GREY

His Excy

The EARL on ELGIN & Knvonnnrna

[Endorsed]

Nov‘ 18/47

L” Grey to L‘ Elgin

[Original MS]
Private
MONTREAL
Nov. 12/47

My DEAR GREY

_ I have not much news to send by this mail— Fever cases among lead-
mg Persons in the community here still continue to excite much comment
and alarm. This day the Mayor of Montreal3 died, a very estimable man
Who did much for the emigrants-— and to whose firmness and philanthrophy
‘See A’DDen<1ix IV.

: J?§E.l :. collection.

80 ELGI N»GRE Y PAPERS

we chiefly owe it that the Immigrant sheds here were not tossed into the river
by the people of the Town during the summer. He has fallen a victim to his
zeal on behalf of them] poor plague stricken strangers, having died of ship
fever caught at the Shed. Col. Calvertl is lying dangerously ill at Quebec his
life despaired of— Meanwhile great indignation is aroused by the arrival of
vessels from Ireland with additional cargoes of Immigrants, some in a very
sickly state— after our Quarantine Station is shut up for the season. Unfor-
tunately, the last arrived brings out Lord Pa1merston’s tenants—— I send the
commentaries on this contained in this day’s newspapers.— My ministers are
tlfinking seriously of a dissolution during the Winter—— I see no objection to the
measure. and I have told them that if they advise it I shall not refuse my assent.
The Par“ dies a natural death next autumn and the opposition have been calling
loudly for a dissolution ever since I came to the country. Their plea is that
this Part was unfairly elected under the personal influence of L“ Metcalfe, and
that with a majority of only one or two a Ministry cannot carry measures for
the good of the Pr0vlnce~« I think therefore that if my Ministers recommend
it nobody else will find fault with a Dissolution during the winter. My ministers
know that I am determined to maintain my constitutional neutrality and that
I am not to be dragged into the lists. As you may like to see the manifesto w.
the French opposition have put forth I enclose it.

All well here,
Yours very sincerely

ELGIN & KINCARDINE
[Endorsed] ‘
Nov. 12/47
L“ Elgin to L“ Grey

[Enclosures]

No. 1
‘Q’U‘E‘..BlEC, Novm/Lana 11, 1847

FLAGRANT INHUMANITY

But too frequently this season, the press of Canada has been called upon
to expose acts of wanton heartlessness connected with the expatriation of the
hosts sent from Great Britain to this colony, starving, fever—striken, and dying.
The exposure of these facts has been unheeded at home; and this disregard of
a justifiable appeal——~not always made in direct terms, but ever—implied, by the
publication of countless cases of misery and the appalling list of mortality con~
sequent upon such indiscriminate transportation——has resulted not only in the
sacrifice of an immense number of emigrants, but the deprivation to the several
cities and towns throughout British North America. of some—nay many——of
the most valuable members of their respective communities.

1 See above pp. 67, 62, and below, Appemiim III.

._____

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 81
[Enclosure]

This proceeding——this reckless waste of life, must be checked; and if the
public authorities in Great Britain charged with the superintendencc of emigra-
tion will not, or cannot, ensure the requisite precautions for the safety and wel-
fare of all parties concerned, it becomes the imperative duty of our colonial
legislatures to bestir themselves to protect those whose interests they are
appointed to guard.

That the expatriation of the poverty-stricken of Great Britain has been
systematized and most zealously carried out is beyond dispute; and that mer-
cenary motives, alone, have dictated their transmission hither is equally certain.
In support of our assertions we have only to refer to the Lord Ashburton, a vessel
which sailed from Liverpool on the 13th of September with passengers. But
we have yet a more striking, and a more melancholy, proof to rccord;—it is
that of the Richard Watson, from Sligo, with 169 passengers, which (after a
quick run) arrived here on Sunday last.

We must premise our sad narrative by stating that these poor creatures
were tenants of Lord Palmerston, and sent out by his agent, Mr. Smith. The
tenants already sent out this year from this nobleman’s state had almost become
a by-word for wretchedness. Of these passengers, about one fourth were males,
the remainder women and children; and we have been assured by a gentleman
who saw them when they arrived in port that a more destitute and helpless set
have not come out this year. They were penniless and in rags, without shoes or
stockings, and lying upon the bare boards—~not having even strawl When the
Health Officer visited them he saw, among other visible instances of destitution,
three poor childrou—~infants we might say, from their age—sitting on the bare
deck, perfectly naked, huddled together shivering; the only covering for the
three being a scant piece of blanket thrown over the groupl The mother is a
widow, and in rags,——not possessed of a farthing, and, as We understand, not
knowing where to get one. Her youngest child is about two years old. One
poor girl (who was sent to the Marine Hospital,———whe1’o seven from the vessel
were sent) was so naked she had to be supplied with a garment made from a
biscuit bagl and we have heard from a gentleman who saw her land that this
appcared to be her only covering. Some of the men’s attire wore no semblance
of ta.iIor’s work, their shreds being tied together with cord. We have been
informed that not one of the steerage passengers owned a box.

The harrowing interest of our too sad narrative is complete when we state
that this vessel sailed for Quebec on the 27TH SEPTEMBER!

These are facts which speak for themselves. They need no COmD1e11i3- The
date of sailing itself is sufliciently expressive; as, in. the generality of seasons, the
St. Lawrence at the period of their arrival might possibly have been filled With
“’0; and those poor creatures been subjected to all the misery of intense cold,
not to speak of the chances of shipwreck.

To prove how il1—prepared are the immigrants of this year to meet the
coming severity of our climate, We are enabled to cite an example. In the
month of September 1ast—When the frost of the season was appa1‘entr—an
emigrant who had been employed in the country parts had both legs frozen;

93374

82 E’LGIN—Gl1€EY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

the one he has lost below the knee, and the other has been saved with the sacrifice
of his toes. This is sufliciently demonstrative of the fate which awaits the
multitude which will gradually be discharged from hospital this winter.

If, therefore, we have the sick and the convalescents to provide for, during
the winter season, who is to succour the paupers thrown among us?

Can it be supposed that our fellow colonists will submit to this wholesale and
iniquitous transfer of an obligation, only to be met in the shape of a tax——
voluntary or otherwise as circumstances may determine. No. And this mono-
syllablc must be expressive.

No. 2
MONTREAL

SUMMARY FOR THE MAD;

In politics we have little of importance. There are still rumours of the
approaching dissolution of Parliament; but nothing certain is yet known.

The late news from England by the “Caledonia,” has, of course, thrown
a deep gloom over our commercial affairs.

To-day this feeling of disquiet is increased by the arrival of farther
news of a similar kind by the “Washington.”

The manner in which the exportation of wretched creatures from Ireland
has been pushed to the very extreme of the season, has filled up the full
measure of disgust felt throughout Canada, at the shameful disregard of the
most sacred obligations, which can alone account for the non—interfcrence of
the authorities, at home.

So late as the 30th of October, the “Lord Ashburton” arrived at Grossc
Isle with a cargo of 475 emigrants, of whom no less than 107 had died on the
voyage. Sixty more were sick, and on board the steamer to which the pass-
sengers were transferred, five deaths occurred between the quarantine ground
and Quebec. Many of the passengers by this vessel have since arrived in Mont-
real, and have the most wretched appearance. The vessel was from the West
of Ireland, and a large portion of the passengers are said to be from Lord
Palmerston’s estates. What they- are to do here this winter, it is impossible
to say: there seems to be no other resource for them than public charity. Had
it not been that the present season is unusually mild, there is great reason
to believe that few of them would have escaped death from the cold in the
Gulph. Up to this time, however, the weather has continued fine and open;
and they have escaped one danger, only to fall, in too many instances, by the
stroke of fever. Yesterday, the 10th of November, yet another emigrant ship
reached Quebec, from Sligc.

The mortality has been that of an army: on the passage, 3,900; at Grosse
Isle, 3,452; in ships at Quarantine, 1,282; at the Marine Hospital, Quebeoi
1,000; making 9,634; and this fearful account does not include the deaths at the
Sheds and Hospital in Montreal, Kingston, Toronto, Bytown and Hamilton?
or those which have occurred unnoticed and unknown, by the way side, and in

, ___._____.~,.__—_…, -__

.5

I
F
C‘

‘I

ELGIN»G1tEY PAPERS 83
{Enclosure}

the small taverns of the country parts. In Montreal, the average number of
sick in the Hospital, during the week ending November 6th, has been 702;
and the deaths 66.

The expenses defrayed out of the Provincial chest for this object must be
enormous. We have heard them calculated at no less than a quarter of a
million; but this is probably an exaggeration, but there will still be a huge
charge for the Imperial Government to foot. Money is, still, not the worst
loss; the destruction of valuable lives is esteemed a far greater calamity. To
the numerous list of victims, we have lately had to add Dr. Racey, an old and
highly esteemed surgeon, of Quebec, and Mr, McElderry, the Emigrant Agent
at Toronto. Among the sick, We have J. E. Mills, Esq,, the Mayor of this
city, whose unremitting attention to the unfortunate creatures at the Sheds,
has at last brought him to a bed of sickness,———perhaps of death. We hear to-
day that Col. Calvert has also been attacked at Quebec.

No. 3
HAMILTON

YESTERDAY the sheds were closed against the admission of necessitous
emigrants, in accordance with orders from Mr. HAWKE, the chief Emigrant
Agent for Western Canada. The Hospital has also been closed against the
admission of ‘new cases. All the patients who can be removed, are to be sent
to Toronto. About 80 patients will remain here, being too ill to be removed.

The determination of the Emigrant Department not to afford any farther
relief to the poor and sickly emigrants, will hear particularly hard on this
city, which seems to have been made a sort of rallying point for those who
cannot get employment in this section of the country. Some idea may be
formed of the evil which exists, when we state, on the authority of the Health
Oifioer, that there are one thousand persons sick; and destitute within the limits
of the City! Many of these wretched beings are huddled together in damp
cellars without food or clothing! Disease will surely result from this lament-
able state of the poor emigrants,—eontagion will spread, and the wealthiest
and healthiest will have to take his chance with the poor and weakly. This
is not all of the evil. Every day the poor emigrants are seen coming into
the city to seek that shelter for the winter which they cannot find in the
country.

This is a state of matters which the people of this city should strongly
protest against. The inhumanity and heartlessness of parties in the mother
°°“’1t1‘Y, have been the cause of overwhelmning us with disease and poverty.
The Imperial Government has not done its duty towards us. There was no
attention paid to the number and health of the emigrants. It seemed the only
01316013 was to get rid of the poor, that they might not be a. drag on the rich.
They are bound therefore to relieve us from the pecuniary infliction~the pen~

“lily of disease we unhappily must bear.
seams;

84 ELG’IN-G‘REY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

Early in the Spring it was announced by Lord JOHN RUSSELL that no
additional inducement would be offered to emigrants, but -that the GOVERNOR
GENERAL would be permitted to draw on the Imperial Treasury for whatever
might be required for the support of the destitute emigrants, after their arrival
in Canada.

We can scarcely think his Excnnnnncv will feel himself warranted in with-
drawing support, if he were aware of the fact, that, notwithstanding indi-
vidual charity, unparalleled misery—~starvation—ori1ne-will be the conse-
quences of leaving the wretched emigrants to their fate.

No. 4

LA Mmrmvn, 15 NOVEMBRE 1847
MANIFESTE
Annmssé
AU rnornn DU CANADA
mm LE oomrmé CONSTITUTIONNEL on LA mtronmn nr no rnoeans
Ooncitoyens,

Les élccteurs de la oité et du comté de Québec, justement alarmés de la
condition socialo et politique du pays, sescnt assembles le 28 juin et le 29 juillet
dernier, et ont posé les bases d’une association destinée a veiller aux intéréts
politiques du pays et a promouvoir les intéréts nuatéricls du district de Québec
on particulier. –

Cette association est depuis cette dcrniere date régulierennent oonstituée A
Québee sous le nom de “ comité constitutionnel de la réforme et du progres,”
et e’est en son nom que nous vous invitons a vous associer sur tous les points du
pays dana le but do surveillcr et la politique générale, et les mesures d’intéret
purement local, négligées en beaucoup d’endroits par un gouvernement qui fait
de mute entreprise publique, un moyen de corruption et un prétexte pour la
dilapidation du trésor commun.

Par une des resolutions unanimement adoptées par Yassemblée du 29 juillet,
il est déclaré “ que le nombre des membres dc Yassemblée législative du Canada
“est insuflisant pour représenter completement ct fidélement les vocux et les
“besoins du pcuplc dc eette province, ct qu’il n’est point proportionné a la
“population du pays déja considerable et qui s’accroit rapidement,” et il est
“ instamment recommandé au connité “ de prendre toutes les mesures qu’il croira
“ propres 5. obtenir une representation plus nombreuso et plus en rapport avec 15
“population dos diverscs parties do pays.”

Un rapids coup—d’ocil sur notre histoire politiquc et sur notre situation
préscnte devra nous eonvaincre de la vérité de cette assertion ct de Yurgence I19
cette réforme que nous n’hésitons point a déclarer indispensable au bon gouverne‘
ment, A la paix et 1‘). la prospérité de eette province.

Sous Pancienne constitution du Bas—Canada, la majorité de Passemblée
législativc représcntait réellement la majorité des habitants; mais une minori

,,_i

~_.._

– , ,__.._..%_..,

-‘_

ELG’IN—~GREY PAPERS 85

[Enclosure]

trés—petite représentée dans la chambre par une mincrité correspondante, formait
exolusivement le conseil exécutif du governeur, exempt par-la méme de toute
responsabilité envers le peuple, composait de meme presqu’exclusivement le con-
seil législatif, et se fesait gloire de gouverner en opposition constante aux voeux
de la majorité des habitants du pays, tels qu’exprimés par la majorité de leurs
représentants.

Ce systéme de gouvernement était poussé a un tel point que par ses resolu-

tions et son adresse an roi du ler avril 1833, le conseil législatif avouait publique’—
ment la mission de rcprésenter les intéréts d’une minorité des habitants du
parlement qui suivit immédiatement; ceux des membres de la chambre d’asscm—
blée qui soutenaient 1’administra.tion prenaient le nom de “ membrcs de l’oppo-
sition.” ‘
Un état do choses a—peu-pres semblable régnait dans le Haut-Canada, et le
sésultat [sic] de ce régime a été dams les deux provinces une insurrection par—
tielle, a la suite de laquelle le Bas—Canada s’est vu privé du régime constitutionnel
ct électif, ct livré franehemcnt cette fois a une législaturc purement arbitraire,
qui durait encore a l’époque 01‘: la chambre elective du Haut~Canada discutait
et acceptait les bases d’une réunion législative des deux provinces.

Lord Durham, qui, dens cet intervalle avait été investi lui-meme de cette
autorité presque sans limites, déclara que cet état de clioses n’était “qu’une
subjugation tomporaire et forcée,” et il supputa de plus qu’il en “ cofiterait 53. la
Grande—Bretagne, au calcul le plus bas, Paddition annuelle d’un million do livres
sterling A ses dépenses coloniales, pour tenter de rendrc un pareil systéme
permanent.”

Il déclara en meme temps “ que l’ancienne constitution (dont il signala tous
les défauts) avait si mal opéré que ni l’un ni Yautre des partis politiqucs n’en
soulirirait le rétablissement, et qu’aucun ami de l’ordre et de la liberté ne saurait
désirer voir la province de nouveau, sournisc a son influence pernicieuse.”

“ Quant EL tous les plans, qui proposent de faire d’une “ minorité réelle, une
“rnajorité éleotorale, par le moyen do modes nouveaux et étranges de voter, ou
:: fie divisions injustos du pays ” (ajoutait le haut—coi;nmissaire de San. Majesté),

J9 me bornerai a dire que s’il faut que les Canadians soient privés d’un gouver-
“ nement représentatif, il scrait beaucoup mieux de le faire d’une maniere franche
“et directe que d’essayer d’établir un systems permanent de gouvernement sur
“une base que le monde entier regarderait comrne de mates fmudes électoralcs.
” Ce n’est pas dans l’Amér’1que Septentrionale que 1’on pent duper les gens par un
” faux scmblant do gouvernement représentatif, ou qu’on peut leur faire eroire
“ ‘l11’0n Pemporte BIL!‘ eux par le nombre, tandis que de fait, ils sont défranchisés.”

Ce dernier systéme ainsi qualifié a l’e’tat d’hypothese est précisément celui
qui a été inis en pratique depuis sept ans et sous lcquel nous vivons. Les termes
Wemployait lord Durham en 1839 pour fiétrir une simple proposition, s’appli—
‘luent identiquement a Pordre de ehoses qui existe en 1847.

Une minorite’ gouverne, tout oomme elle gouvernait sous 1’a11cicn régime,
W90 cette difference qu’au moyen de fraudes électorales, elle est devenue une
ma-jorité électomle, quoique faible et douteuse; et elle s’est emparée dc toutes les
branches de la législatui-e. D’injustcs divisions du pays ont été foites. De

86 ELGIN—G’REY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

vastes comtes ont été réunis et fondus ensemble; tandis que des comtés, jouissant
d’une population moindre de moitie, out éte divisés en plusieuxs. Des petites
villes, des bourgs de 2,000 ou 4,000 times ont été cloués du privilege d’elire uu
representant, et ont acquis une importance politique que leurs habitants n’avaient
jamais révée. Des eomtés dc 64,000 ou de 45,000 émes, qui envoient un represen-

, tant au parlement, voient chaque jour la voix de cc représentant paralysé par le

vote du représentant dc quelqu’un de ces petite bourgs. Les six comtes de
Montreal, de Quebec, de Dorchester, dc Huntingdon, de Saint I-Iyacinthe et des
Deux Montagnes, avee une population réunie de 145,509 ( ) ames, n’ont que le
meme nombre de representants que les einq petites villes dc Cornwall, de Niagara,
d’Harnilton, de Sherbrooke, et des Trois-Riviéres, et le comté de Russell, qui
ferment en tout une population de 16,162 ames seulement. Enfin Yadministration
aetuellc compte une ou deux voix de majorité dans Passemblée legislative, tandis
que ses partisans ne representent que 472,201 individus, et que ses adversaires
en représentent 795,177!

D’un autre cote, les elections pour le premier parlement depuis la reunion
legislative des deux Canadas, faites la plupant par la violence, le defranchissement,
le choix de Iocalités inaccessibles, Yintervention de bandes armées ct stipendiées;
ct Yelection pour la cité de Montreal pour le second parlemenrt en 1844, cu d’autres
bandes armées et organisées sous les yeux du gouvernement et aidécs dcs troupes
régulieros ont assure Yélection de deux hornmes, qui n’auraient jamais pu se pro-
curer la majori-té des voix dans une election libre et paisible; tous ces faits consti-
tuent indubitablement des modes nouvcaux ct étranges dc voter.

Ces maux ont été infligés a la masse dc la population clu pays par suite des
idées erronees, qui cnt pu résulter, chez les hommes d’état de la métropole, d’un
injuste parallels entre les races d’hommes qui habitent cette partie de la province,
d’une exageration egalement injuste dc leurs antipathies nationales réoiproqucs,
et d’une conclusion (eontredite cepcndant par les details du tableau qu’il avait
fait) en faveur d’une race centre l’autre, par le haut personnage £1 qui nous venons
de faire allusion, et qui dans le memo document que nous venons de eiter, s’el’force
en vain d’amalgamcr dos principes constitutionnels de la plus haute sagesse a de
regrettables préventions. Quelques-uns ont meme avoué le dessein de punir la po-
pulation frangaise clu Bas-Canada d’une insurrection partiellc, provoquée par
quarante-huit annees d’un étzut dc choses déclaré pcrnicieux et impose a cette
colonie par le gouvernemcnt imperial et ses agents. Des intrigues mcrcantilw:
dénoncées dans la chambre des lords dans ces termes memes, par lord Gosford, qui
avait éte lc dernier gouverneur du Bas—Canada, contribuerent aussi a la passation
de l’acte du parlcmcnt-uni de la Grande-Bretagne ct dllrlande, 3 et 4 Victoria»
chapitre 35.

Par cet acte, deux provinces entierenoent diilérentes de religion, do langagey
dc lois, do moeurs, d’habitudes sociales et politiqucs, auxquclles on avait créé 9-
dessein une existence séparée, furent réunies en une seule sans le consentcment
de l’une d’elles, et malgré Popposition formelle exprimee par les 40,000 signatllwi
apposees aux requetes solennelles des habitants clu Bas-Canada.

r

.-.. \,:_….._—.,

–‘_ ,__,

ELGI N —GRE Y PAPERS 87
[Enelosmre]

Que les états métropolitains se eroient permis de ce jouer des destinées de
leurs colonies, qu’ils pensent, pouvoir y établir aujourd’hui un régime, et demain,
un autre regime suivant que les phases de leur p1‘0pI‘e politique paraissent
Yexigcr; la force Beule pent leur garantir la durée de pareils arrangemens. Une
société coloniale ou autre réguliérement constituée et reconnue par une longue
existence politique ne saurait étre centre son gré réunie 9. une autre société sans
que cola eonstitue un de ces abus de pouvoir que rien ne saurait légitimer. Il est

bien vrai que You a inventé le terme commode de fuit accompli, pour pallier tem- ‘

porairement Pinjustice, mais on 9. vu meme apres des siéeles, le sentiment de
eette injustice se réveiller; tous les maux, toutes les miseres, toute la corruption
de la société attribuée 5. la ‘violence premiere; ct le fait accompli, cite de nouveau
an tribunal do l’0pinion du monde eivilisé.

Dans le cas présent tout o eoncouru pour rendre moins légitime un aete
arbitraire de sa. nature. Les détails de l’acte ont été aussi mauvais que son prin-
cipe. La population du I-Iaut—Canada, moins nombreuse d’un tiers, a été douée
d’une representation égale £1 eelle du Bas-Canada; une liste civile permanente 9. été
imposée it 19. legislature rendant par lé. illusoire son controle sur le gouvernement;
une dette d‘un million et demi contraetée par ct pour le Haut-Canada. avant la
réunion dos provinces a été portée sur le fonds eonsolidé de la. Province-Unie, _et 19.
langue francaise, langue de la majorité des habitanss [sic] du pays, langue
admirée de l’univcrs entiers, imposée autrefois is l’Angleterre elle—méIne, a été
eX01Ue dcs archives parlementaire, et du texte des lois.

Non seulement on a Violemment change la condition politique de plus d’un
demi million d’homrnes, tous, sujets britanniques, descendants des deux plus gran-
des nations du monde, occupant on des territoires les plus anoiennement colonisés
de l’Amérique, et plus vaste que celui de la me1’e—pati‘ie, jouissant de fait d’une
civilisation plus avancée que cclle de la plupart des pays continentaux de 1’Euro-
P6, mais encore on a soumis cette population $2, la domination d’une autre popu-
lation moindre par le nombre et qui no lui est nullement supérieure en lumiere et
en industrie.

Alors, meme, que l’on proe1a.ma.it une réunion législative, on semait les
germes d’une longue division politique. On eréait entre les sujets d’un méme
Empire, habitant désormais une meme province, une double distinction de natio-
D9-lité et de looalité. Un sujet britannique, habitant le Haut-Canada, est déelaré
Valoir plus politiquement, et a. de fait une plus grande Part (10 P0“V°i1‘ Public:
01-par la meme plus de liberbé qu’un de ses co-sujets résidantdans le Bus-Canada.
La masse entiére de la. population du Haut—Canada d’origine britunnique est <‘1é-
elarée supérieurc 3;, la masse de la population du Bas—Canada, d’orine [sic]
franfiaise, est dotée d’une plus forte proportion du pouvoir public, d’une P1115
Brande part d’indépendance et do libérté. La. nouvelle constitution décrétaiten
droit, et a établi on fait, l’opp1’ession du Bas-Canada. comme loealité, Yoppression
(les Canadian-franga,is comme race. I .

Lies!-‘-rit de parti a fréquemment attribué les plaintes des opprimés 5. un dean‘
de domination de leur part, 91; c’est en leur inSPi1‘aDl7 13 Grain“ diet” hymn”

35 ls‘ LGI N ~GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

nisés, a leur tour, par ceux meme qu’ils tyranniscnt; que les chefs d’une oligar-
chie efiraient et dozninent Ieurs partisans. “Uinjustice n’est point naturelle a
l’homme (a dit un grand écrivain) et ea n’est qu’en lui faisant croire que sa
liberté est en danger qu’on pewt Pamener 5. attenter a la liberté d’autrui.” Aussi
parce que les Canadiens—franeais, maltraités comme tels, ont dfl se plaindrc et
faire allusion a leur origins, puisqu’on en fesait une demarcation d’infériorité, on a
attribué leurs plaintes a la jalousie nationale on leur a supposé des vues exclusives
que dément toute leur histoire politique: on a exeité contre eux les préjugés natio—
naux.

Ils n’étaient eependant point seuls a se plaindre. Plusieurs hoinmes d’origine
britannique dans le Bas-Canada, distingués par leurs connaissances et leur expe-
rience, reclamaient les libertés de tous, no croyant point que Poppression put
étre home a quelque chose, et ne se consolaient point do so voir ravir une portion
de lcurs droits, en songeant que leurs ooneitoyens d’une autre origine était plus
maltraités qu’eux.

Leurs provisions étaient aussi sages que leur sentiments étaient généreux.
La degradation politique de la majorité des habitants du Bas-Canada n’a pu
étre opérée, qu’au detriment dos intéréts locaux do cette partis de la province,
et toutes les classes de la société en ont également souffert. Ceux qui dans
Yadministration provinciale ont prétendu représenter une minorité du Bas-
Canada n’ont de fait représenter que les intéréts ou les caprices de leurs
collegues; ils ont été des instruments clans leurs mains, toujours préts a etre
sacrifiés a l’aeo1’oissement de Yinfiuence de ces derniers. Le jour est venu of:
la minorité des habitants du Bas—Canada cloit comprendre que ses intéréts
bien entendus sont les intéréts de celui do la prospérité morale et matérielle
du pays, objet qui ne peut etre atteint que par les sacrifices de tous préjugés
et de toute antipathie nationale; par un effort commun pour le développement
des vastes ressources qu’o£fre cctte contrée a tous ces habitants. Elle doit
étre aussi convaincue que Pégalité politique est une condition indispensable
a cette harmonic et a ce common effort d’ox‘1 depend le bonheur de tous et que
des avantages scctionnaires bases sur des fraudes électorales ne peuvent tourner
eomme ils n’ont tourné en efi”et qu’au detriment de ceux 5. qui ils sont destinés
a servir do leurre et d’appat.

Sept années ne sont pas encore écoulées et l’ordre de chose fondé sur une
base injuste, donne déja des sujets de plaintes aux hommcs de toutes les ori-
gines, de toutes les croyanees, de toutes les opinions, de toutes les localités.
Partout 10 mal est tollement incontestable qu’il ne reste plus de prétexte pour
ealomnier ceux qui se déclarent mécontens. Il n’y a point do principes qui
ticnnent ainsi les hommes qui se sont empare du pouvcir; i1 n’y a point de
denomination politique qui puisse s’app1iquer a leurs partisans; il n’y a point
d’épithete injurieuse qui puisse étre adressée a la masse du pays qui les répudiei
Il y a pour toute distinction d’une part une corruption sans example, do Pautre
une honnéte et universelle indignation.

Une seule chose aurait pu prévenir un résultat aussi deplorable, une stricte
et sincere adhesion aux prinoipos de gouvernement suivis dans la mere patrie,

,,__..___.__..,

..‘.__

Io‘LGlIN—GREY PAPERS 89
[Enclosure]

et sans lesquels toute constitution ccloniale quelque soit d’ailleurs la base de
la representation ne sera jamais qu’une parodie, un instrument impuissant pour
le bien, également fatal ct aux colons, aux mains de qui on l’aura confié, et a
la metropole qui leur aura fait un tel present.

Avec Papplication de ces prineipes, meme sous une repartition electorale
vicieuse l’opinion veritable du pays peut se faire jour, et les vceux de la majorite
réelle sc faire rcspecter de la majorité factice. Nous en avons eu une courte
experience.

Les resolutions adoptées par Passemblée legislative le 3 septembre 1841,
contiennent un expose dc ces principes; elles font époque dans nos annales
parlementaires et sont congues dans les termes suivants:——

1° Resolu “que le plus important et le plus incontestable des droits poli-
tiqucs du peuple de cette province est celui d’avoir un parlement provincial
pour la protection de ses libertes, pour exercer une influence constitutionnelle
sur les départements exeeutifs de son gouvernement et pour législater [sic] sur
toutes les matieres du gouvernemcnt interieur.” –

2° Resolu “que le chef du gouvernement exécutif de la province, étant
dans les liniites de son gouvernement le representant de son Souverain, est
respcnsable aux autorites imperiales seulement, mais que néanmoins nos afiaires
locales ne peuvent etre conduites par lui qu’avee Passistanee et au moyen, par
l’avis et d’apres les informations d’oificiers subordonnes dans la province.”

3° Résolu “que pour maintenir entre les différentes branches du parlement
provincial Fharmonie qui est essentielle 2‘). la paix, an bien-étre et au bon gouver-
nement de la province, les principaux aviseurs du représentant du Souverain,
constituent sous lui une administration provinciale, doivent etre dos hommes
jouissant dc la confiance des represantants du peuple, offrant ainsi une garantie
que les interets bien entendus du peuple, que Notre Gracieuse Souveralne a
declare devoir étre en toute occasion la regle du gouvernement provincial seront
ficlelement representés et défendus.”

4° Resolu “que le people de cette province a de plus le droit d’attendre
dc Fadministration provineiale ainsi composee, qu’elle emploiera tous ses efforts
a ce que Pautorite imperiale dans ses limites eonstitutionnelles soit exercee de
la maniere la plus conforme £3. ses voeux et a ses interets bien entendus.” ‘

Il n’y a dans ee document important aueune reserve pour des cos quz
seraient point jugés ofirir une importance adequate; et l’0n )7 3 l?°ul3‘5″f”’1t
omis de pourvoir Pi l’¢mtag0n’£sme qui pouvait se déclarer entre le représentant
de la Souveraine d’une part, et ses conseillers jouissant de la confiance des repre-
sentants du peuple de Pautre. L’assemblee legislative qui a adopté ces reso-
h1l’=i0nS par une majorité do 56 voix centre 7, 0‘? 19 g°l1Vem°mF“l’ e”°”“_t1f
d’alors, qui, par un de ses membres, avait fait proposer ces resolutions, perms-
saient egalement eonvaincus de Yimportance de toutes nos afiaires locales, et,
bien loin de s’imaginer que le représentant de la Souveraine put entretenlr aucun
mauvais vouloir contre ses conseillers, aussi 10!-léiiicmps q11’i13 3_°}1‘f”“°“l7 de 13
‘mnfiance publique; bien loin surtout de eroire que la responsabilite du gouvcl‘:
Heur envers les autorités métropolitaines doive diminuer en rien la responsablllte

90 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

de ses conseillers envers le peuple de cette colonie; on chargeait, par la derniere
de ces resolutions, Padlninistration provineiale d’employer tous ses efforts pour
que l’auto7*ite’ impériale, dans ses limites constitutionnelles, fat exercée de la
maniére la. plus conforme auto voeuac ct auto intérets du people.

L’un et l’autre de ces résultats ont éte obtenus sous le gouvernement de sir
Charles Bagot, et tandis que, d’une part, la plus grande tranquillite, la plus
grande confiance régnaient d’un bout a l’autre du pays, Padministration qui fut
formée par ce gouverneur tant regrette, tout en znaintcnant avec le gouverne-
ment métropolitaiu l’harmonie et les bons rapports si désirables en toute cir-
constance, a su par sa fermeté et son patriotisme assurer des concessions impor-
tantes de la part de ce gouvernement; et, bien que quelques—unes aient eté
aceordees depuis qu’elle s’est retiree du pouvoir, ellcs n’en sont pas moins pour
la plus grande partie son ouvrage.

Une majorité puissante dans Passcmblée legislative assurait un gouvernement
ferme ct moderé, concedant progressiveznent an parti qui 1’avait porté au pouvoir
les justes réformcs qu’il sollicitait, et ralliant autour de lui par sa sagesse ceux
meme qui auraient pu redouter son action politique. Une confiance reciproque
régnait entre le representant de la Souveraine et ses conseillers oonstitutionnels,
forts de Yappui des representants du peuple; enfin une harmonie parfaite existait
entre les membres de cette administration. Ceux—ci, loin d’étre uniquement
préoccupes de rendre leur position collective et individuelle la plus durable
possible (ce qui les aurait amenés a des sacrifices de principes d’un cote, et de

Yautre a des intrigues personnelles dans le but do se soutenir les uns les autres), .

des qu’ils ont vu que le successeur de sir Charles Bagot leur refusait le droit de
consultation dans certaines affair-es qu’il prenait sur lui de considerer comme
n’étant point d’une importance suflisante, et avouait un avantage meme, qui de
sa part no pouva-it signifier rien autre chose qu’une determination de se passer dc
leurs avis; ces conseillers, disons—nous, ont, des ce moment, fait le sacrifice de leur
position collective comme administration, offrant simultanément leur demis-
sion; et ils ont tous, 2‘), Yexcoption d’un soul, fait le sacrifice de leur position
individuelle en perséverant dans cette demarche.

Les diflicultés qui s’eleverent entre le gouverneur et ses conseillers, dans le
simple expose des faits qui avaient éte la cause de leur retraite, démontrerent
quel bescin ont ceux—ci, pour remplir fidelement leur mandat, de la confiance
entiere de leurs constituants. Le gouverneur pretendait que ses conseillers
avaient exigé de lui des stipulations ineonstitutionnelles, qu’ils avaient émis la
pretention de lui imposer leurs avis comme des lois, qu’enfin ils ne visaient a rien
moins qu’a Pusurpation absolue de la prerogative royale. C’était d’ailleurs,
selon lui un conflit d’opinion sur une théorie, une difliculte que l’on avait suscitée
mal-A-propos, et que lui meme n’avait point cherchee. Les conseillers, all
contraire, prétendaient n’avoir insiste que su.r le droit d’étre consultes d’abord,
d’etre ensuite informés de la determination du gouverneur apres que celui-oi
aurait pesé leur avis, libre a lui de ne pas lc suivro, et libre Ea. eux de ne pas
acoepter la responsabilité de sa decision, en ne demeurant pas au pouvoir. I18
afiimnaicnt ole plus ” que la difference d’cpinion entre le gouverneur et eux-memes
n’existait point simplement en theorie: qu’elle avait amene non-seulement defl

—————-~._…_._.—…4 -3

23————, ,——?__,

ELG’IN—GIBEY PAPERS 91
[Enclosure]

nominations é, des charges contre leur avis, des nominations et des ofi‘res d’emploi,
qui n’avaient été en aucune maniere portées 23. leur connaissance qu’aprés que
l’oceasion de dormer leur avis $3 cet égard efit été passée; mais encore la determi-
nation de la part dc Son Excellence de réserver pour Yexpression du plaisir de
S5. Majesté un bill introcluit dans le parlement provincial 5. la. connaissance et du
consentement de Son Excellence, comme mesure du gouvernement, sans informer
les membres du conseil exécutif qu’il serait probablement réservé. Ils se sont
trouvés (ajoutaient-ils dans le mérnoire rédigé par M. Lafontaine) dans la
situation anormale, d’aprés Ieurs propres declarations et leurs promesses solen-
nelles et publiques d’étre responsa.bles de tous les actes du gouverncment exécutif
an parlement, et en meme temps privés non-seulement de Poeeasion d’ofirir leur
avis relativement Ex ces actes, mais encore de la connaissance de leur existence
jusqufi ce qu’ils en eussent été informés par des voies privées et non-ofliciellcs.”

De prime abord des hommes, qui n’auraicnt pas joui pm-faiternent de la con-
fiance de la inajorité du pays, auraient lutté avec désavantage contre la parole
et les protestations du gouvemeur; et pour avoir fait leur devoir, ils auraient
peut—étre été punis par un Vote défavorable dans Passemblée législative. Comme
an contraire, la, majorité qui avail; soutenu les ex—ministres pendant leur admi-
nistration, Pavait fait par conviction et non par servilité, ils reeurent de cette
majorité, apres ce que l’on appelait leur disgrace, un témoignage d’estime et de
confiance que n’a.uIait certainement pas obtenu, dans de pareilles circonstances,
un ministere fort seulement d’une ou deux Voix dc majorité, acquises ct retcnues
PM Pintrigue. Ce témoignage si flatteur est consigné dans la résolution suivante,
passée dans l’a.ssemblée législative le 2 décembrc 1843, par une division (is 46
voix contre 23:

Réso1u——“ Qu’il soit présenté une humble adresse is. Son Excellence le gou-
Verneur général, pour lui exprimer humblemcnt le vif regret qu’éprouve cette
chambre en consequence de la rctraite de certains membres dc Mdministration
proviucialc sur la question du droit qu’ils réclamcnt d’étre consultés relativement
aux nominations aux emplois, que nous déclarons, sans hésiter, appartenir 33 la
P1‘é1‘0gative de la Couronne, et pour assurer Son Excellence que la défense de oe
Principe leur donne droit 3:, la confiance de cette chambre, en cc qu’e1le est stricte-
ment eonforme aux principes émis dans les resolutions qui ont été adoptées par
cette chambre le 3 septembre 1841.”

Des assertions calomnieuses centre ses anciens conseillers, une intervention
directe dans les élections de la. part clu gouvemeur, qui n’he’sita pas 5. faire de SOD
Ilom un cri de parti, lui procurerent de la part du corps éleetoral une approbation
apparcnte quoique numériquement tres faible. I1 obtint ainsi du nouveau parla-
ment ce qu’il n’a,va.’1t pu obtenir de Pancien. Ce fut dans cette occasion que la ma-
lolité, Timmense Inajorité Lie la. poplilation du Pays: 91119 51 39 P19«l“d1”e_P1“5_ que
lamais de l’inégalité ot de l’insuiiis9.nce de la representations. Aprés D.VO1l‘ mls de
95% les vrais principes de gouvemement, on se servit avec avantage des moyens
déli employés pour faire triompher la minorite’ de 19. maj orité, et il est a.u2o1!rd’hu1
constaté que si, avec un gouverneur sincere et impartial, une striete adhesion aux
Principes britanniques peut, en quelque sorte, faire oublier le vice fundamental de

92 ELGI N —GRE Y PAPERS

[Enclosure]

notre constitution, il n’en sera pas moins Ioisible 5. tout gouverneur mal dispose
de se servir des éléments de corruption qu’ofire la répartition électorale pour
donner lui—m@me la victoire a une paiti contre le vccu de la masse de la population.

Un tel acte parait tellemcnt odieux, qu’on serait tenté d’en croire Ia répétition
impossible; et rnalgré les efiorts qu’a faits Padministration actuelle pour se
maintenir au pouvoir, malgré qu’i1 lui ait été pcrmis d’ouvrir la troisieme session
du parleinent avec une seule voix de majorité dans Passemblée et la voix de
l’orateur du conseil législatif, membre lui-meme de cette administration pour tout
appui dans ce dernier corps: nous ne nous attendons cependant point, lors d’une
prochaine élection générale, aux scenes de violence et d’intimidation qui ont
déshonoré le gouvernement en 1841 et en 1844, iii a Pintervention directe ou
indirecte du chef de l’exécutif dans la lutte entrc ses conseillers et l’opinion
publique. Mais les dangers iznmédiats ne sont pas les seuls auxquels on doive
parer: et il nous sernble prudent, au contraire, do profiter de Yheureuse eircons-
tance, qui éloigne toutc apparenee d’une allusion oifensante au représentant dc
Sa Majesté, pour dcmander une réforme, qui rendra impossibles a I’avenir les
abus que nous venons d’cxposer.

L’AngIeterre ellc~méme a eu comme nous un gouvernement responsable en
meme temps qu’une repartition électorale vicieuse. Ses hommes d’état, ses ve’rita-
bles patriotes n’en-t jamais considéré sa constitution comine parfaitement deve-
lcppée tant qu‘elle n’a, pas été assise sur la base solide de la réforme élcctomle.
L’ancienne constitution du Bas—Canada, vicicuse a cause du manque de response.-
bilité de la part du pouvoir exécutif, a (if: succomber, et la nouvelle constitution
oii ce vice se trouve remplacé par Pinégalité et l’insuli”1sance de la representation,
ne saurait étre plus heureuse.

L’histoire dos trois sessions du parlement qui va finir, pendant lesquellcs le
petit noznbre des représentants, et le trafic honteux que l’on a fait des petits collé—
ges électoraux, qui ici comme en Angleterre portent le nom de bourgs—pourris, ont
fourni a une administration qui avait admis elle—méme son impuissance et son
impopularité, les moyens de prolonger son existence et ole se renouveler dans
presque tous ses départements sans toutefois s’améliorer dans aucun d’eux: cette
histoite présente malheureuseinent nu peuple de cette colonic un spectacle trop
deplorable pour qu’il ne recherche point les causes d’un tel désordre politique, et
qu’i1 ne demande pas a grands cris le seul rcmede efficace.

Les Inaux qui résultent de ce désordre no sont pas iniaginaires. Tous les
départements du service public en sont affectés. Tous les intéréts d’une grands
partie de la population sont négligés. Uinstabilité des leis, Yincertitude con-
tinuelle qui regne sur le sort des hommes en pouvoir, Yincertitude plus grande
encore qui cxiste sur le sort des mesures, qu’ils proposent les unes apres les autres,
sans autre objet Ie plus souvent que d’acquérir ou de conserver des partisans,
leurs propres hésitations, leurs avcux continuels de leur faiblesse, leurs continuels
efforts pour se procurer Padjonction d’h0mInes tirés des rangs de leurs adversai~
res, les changemen-ts continuels dans les diverses départements du service public,
les vacances fréquentes causées dans Yassenlblée législative, tout cela ne pout
que déeonsidércr, aux yeux du peuple, les lois du pays et ceux qui sont chargé-‘J
de les fairc exécuter.

__,_.__.,_…_….._….,

j-—..__.-—. F?-‘x.

ELGI N~GRE Y PAPERS 93
[Enclosure]

Les interets matériels d’une grande partie du pays sont cntierement negli-
gés. Le besoin de partisans, qu’eprouve un ministere faible ct peu scrupuleux,
est cause que les deniers publics, au lieu d’etre dépensés la oil cela produirait de
véritables améliorations et une source de revenus pour la province et de prospe-
rite pour ses habitants, sont au contraire dépenses la on l’on cspere former un
capital politique, et aclieter un appui temporaire aux hommes en pouvoir. Le
Bas—Canada et le district de Quebec en particulier demandent en vain do nom-
breuses améliorations indispensables aux développemcnt de leur commerce et de
leur industrie; ils demandent aussi en vain Ia concession des terres de la cou-
ronne a des prix moins éleves, et a des conditions de paiement plus faciles; cette
faveur cu plutot justice premiere est constamment ajournée et pendant ce temps,
des sommes immenses sont votées chaque annee pour etre dépensées dans une
autre partie de la province. Uexcédent des scmmes depensées dans le Hunt-
Canada pour les travaux publics, joint 31 Pexcédent de sa part de la dette publi-
que contractee avant l’union donne contre le Bas-Canada une balance de
£2,622,128: et le credit et les ressources de cette province sont pour longteznps
engages au paicment d’une dette publiquc énorme, qui s’éléve deja a £4,248,689; et
dont il sera bientot difiicile de fournir Yinterét sans rccourir a des taxes directes.

Dans cette dettc figure une somme de pas moins dc £139,570, dépensée en par-
tie sur le canal de Welland sans appropriation préalable. D’autres somrnes ont été
aussi dépensées de cette maniere, au mepris des droits du parlement et de la cons-
titution, pour indemniser des officiers publics que le gouvernement a jugé a
propos d’élirniner.

Les mesures importantes que réclame notre nouvelle position sous le rapport
du commerce sont a peine comprises; et tandis que dans tous 168 P9-YS 0iVi1i5éS
on s’occupe d’etablir ou de preparer la liberté du commerce, un nouveau tarif de
douanes plus éleve que l’ancien a été le fruit des meditations économiques des
hommes d’état de cette colonic. Lord Grey, dans une dépéche récente, a invite
les provinces anglaises du Nord-Américain a se concerter sur les importants sugets
des douanes, des postes et les moyens de communication entr’elles; et le gouver-
nement de cette colonie est le seul qui paraisse avait fait peu de cas de cet appel.
Les malheurs de l’Irlande nous annongaient une emigration extraordinaire et par
le. nombre des émigrés, et par les calamités qui devaient Paccompagner; cepen—
dant le gouvernement a laissé vcnir le moment du danger, sans avolr fall‘: 168
PTéPa1’atifs que la simple prudence indiquait. .

La legislation faite depuis trois ans est insuflisante, incertaine et contradic-
toire. Dans ce court espace de temps, le Bas~Ganada a eu Poul‘ 5°“ °°”f‘P_te
Systémes nouveaux d’education et deux systémes nouveaux de mun1’c!P9-11*/9%
Chaque année le gouvernement p1’0P059 de 1‘9«PP919T 18 10i <111’i_1 alfait fa” }’f‘SSe’
Pallnée precédente, pour en substituer une nouvelle. L’oI‘g3mSat1?D munfclpale
511 Pays, 61‘: Yinstruction publique, qui constituent les deux plus Pl-llssants Instru-
ments clu prcgres intellectuel et materiel sont ainsi continuellement remxs en
question; et apr-es avoir lui-meme propose cle substituer la cotisation compul-
soire a la cotisat-ion volontaire, le gouvernement est Pubhquellfent 339″}? eh ave“
193 Plus fortes apparences dc culpabilité, de favoriser et d’_exc1ter resistance 5
ses proprcs lois, dans lo but de depopulairiser ses 8dVerS811″€S P011’010l11eS-

94 ELG’IN—GItE Y PAPERS

[Enclosure]

Les questions si importentes pour le Haut-Canada de la vente des terres
réservées pour le clergé, et d’un emploi plus liberal des clotations de King’s
College n’ont pas éte’ résolues dans le sens des protestations des ministres hors
des chambres; et la derniére dc ces questions discutée cheque annéc, est restée
dans le meme état. L’histoi1’e des variations du gouvernement sur cette derniére
mesure n’est pas non plus la prcuve la moins convainczmte de sa faiblesse.

Les revenue des bicns appartenant au ci-devant ordre des Jésuites ont été
apprcpriés de maniere a mécontenter toute la population du Bes~Cz-made. et
principalement la population cetholique, et ont servi it payer des dépenses qui
avaient été jusques-15» défrayées £1 meme le fonds consolidé, cc qui équivaut 5.
un partage de ces revenus entre les deux sections de la province. Les frais de
l’administration de la justice dans le Haut—Cenada ont été portés sur le fonds
consolidc contrairement aux dispositions de Paste d’Union déjé. si injustes envers
le Bas—Canede. Les propriétés du gouvcrnement, qui, dans les villes du Bas-
Canada avaicnt éte jusques—Ie taxées pour des obj cts municipaux, ont été exemp-
tées dc toute taxe 5, l’avenir. Querante mille louis ct daventage ont été votés
pour indemniscr les habitants du Ha.ut—Canada des pertes qu’ils ont faites pon-
dant Yinsurrection, tendis qu’une loi passée pour compenser les pertee de la
meme nature dans le Bas-Canada, cst restée sans execution. Une autre loi
passée pour venir au seoours de ceux des habitants dc la cite’ de Québec dont
les maisons avaient été détruites par les incendies de 1845 est restée une année
entiére sans exécution, et a été subséquemment changée A leur désavantage.
Enfin toutes les spclietions imaginables, ct quelqucs—unes meme, qu’il était
difficile d’imeginer, ont été commises au prejudice des hebitants du Bas—Ce.nade.

La nomination aux emplois a présenté le spectacle de la plus déplorablc
pertialité et la prérogative de la couronne dent ii avait été tant parlé a été
constemmcnt prostituéc par 10 choix d’hommes notoircment incapablcs. Les
tribunaux du Bas-Canada. ont été charges du fardeau inutile et meme dangereux
cle quelques hommee de la réputation professionnelle la plus burlesque; et il
semblc que le mcilleur titre a de h-autos dignités judiciaires, soil; maintcnant une
inoapacité absolue de remplir touts autre charge. Dee juges ont été tirés des
jurisdictions inférioures pour étre trainés dans les luttes politiques eomme mem-
bres du gouvcrnement, ct des membres du gouvernement, fatiguée de la lutte, ont
trouvé dans la judicature une retraite 1ucra.tive. Les tribuneux ont été ainsi
exposés aux influence de parti, et le sanctuairc do la justice prcfané ct dégradé
dans Yopinion publiquc.

Non eeulcmcnt le respect pour les lois, pour le gouverncment, pour les
tribunaux, pour toutes les institutions 9. été considérablement ébranlé cl’un bout
$3. Yautre dc la province, mais encore la moralité de ses habitants a été exposée
53. Pinfluence pernicieuse des plus tristcs exemples. Le rcfus d’une enquéte
sur les violences commises A la, dcrniérc élcction pour la. cité de Montréal, Ia
décision d’un comité do Yassemblée Iégislative sssermenfé pour juger d’une elec-
tion contestée, donnée en favour d’un homme que le comité déclarait ne pas
avoir obtenu Ia majorité des voix, et qui, Ea, sa grande surprise, est devenu
membre de la légisiatuxe: la nomination d’un mcmbrc siégcant dans un autre

ELGIN—G‘REY PAPERS 95

[Enclosure]

comité, charge de decider d’une autrc election contestée, a trois emplois lucratifs
cumules sur sa téte, avant quc cc comité cfit fait son rapport final; le vote
donné par Yhonorable William Draper sur une question vitale decidee par une
majorite de deux voix, en meme temps qu’il déclarait publiquement que dans
quelques heures il allait accepter un emploi judiciaire qui, d’apres la. loi, rendait
ea place (is députe vacante; la confirmation de Yelecticn d’un autre représentant
faite en vcrtu d’une autorité que la chambre elle—meme avait déja declares nulle;
les diificultés frivoles soulevees sur la competence (in représentant du comte dc
Champlain, diificultés qui ont prive ce cornté de sa voix en parlcmont pendant
presque touts une session: le retard apporté dans Fémanation d’un ordre pour
Pélecticn d’un représentant pour le comté dc Dorcliester, 9. la place d’un des
membres dc l’administration nommé a un emploi judiciaire a la veille d’une
session (ces quatre derniers faits dcnnant au ministere deux voix légitimes, for-
mant ainsi une majorite artificiellc et illégale dc quatro voix), tous ces actes
sont propros a persuader au peuple de cette colonic que tout est pcrmis aux
hommes publics pour a-cquérir ou conservei‘ des emplois lucratifs sous le gou-
vernenient. De la chaque incliviclu est invite a conclure que tout lui est aussi
permis dans sa sphere d’action pour acquerir, conserver ou augmentcr son bien-
étre et celui do ea famille: et Yobliteration complete do tout sentiment de morale
et de justice serait la consequence de tcls cxcmples, si par un heureux prodige
on ne Voyait souvent Phonneur et la vcrtu bannis des hauts range de la société,
se réfugier et brillcr avco plus d’(:clat au sein de la conscience populairc.

Enfin, le principe de la responsabilité du gouvcrnement excutif [sic] recon-
nu en droit, est tourné en ridicule et démenti dans la pratique par les contra-
dictions les plus fiagrantes.

En droit, on a declare que le chef de Yexécutif devait étre entouré de
conseillers responsablcs a 1’opinicn publique.

En fait, vous avez vu pendant neuf mois un gouverncur s’isoler de tous
conseillers, et former lentement et par agglomeration, un conseil, qui, en 8DIl0I1-
Qant au bout do cc temps sa propre existence, a dfi recouxir s une lutte elec-
torale marquee de sa part par la fraudc et la violence, pour essayer seulemenii
de vivre.

En drcit, on vous dit que le gouverneur représentant du souverain, politi-
Cluement inviolablc comme celui qu’il représente doit demeurer etranger aux
Clllerelles des partis.

En fait vous avez vu, une election génerale faite avec le nom d’un gouver-
119111‘ pour cri de guerre, et des hommcs qui se disent britanniques dans leur
principes et dans leurs sentimens, voter pour soutenir lord Metcalfe et sa
Zwlitiquel Figures-vous un électeur de Londres ou de Manchester votant pour
la Reine Victoria at so poliiique! _

E11 droit, on vous dit que Padministration provinciale est rosponsablc et
seule responsa.b1e de toute la legislation qui so fait sous ses auspices.

En fait, vous voycz chaquc jour cette administration rejcter sur Popposition

19′ Tesponsabilité do ses propres actesi

96 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

En droit, on vous dit que les conseillers constitutionnels du chef de l’cxé-
cutif doivcnt jouir dc la confiance publique.

En fait, vous voyez ces consoillers se maintenir au pouvoir longtemps apres
avoir rcconnu eux-memes leur impuissance en oiffrant une part de leur respon-
sabilité a leurs adversaires, en negooiant avec eux de la formation d’une admi-
nistration plus eificace, et longtemps apres que le gouverneur a lui-meme oificiel-
lernent reconnu leur impopularité, en invitant un des chefs dc Popposition a
se jcindre a Padministration lui et quelqucs uns de ses amis a des termes que
1’on déclarait devoir etre également honorables ct pour les anciens, et pour les
nouvcaux ministres.

En clroit on vous dit que vous avcz le meme gouvernement constitutionnel
que possede la Grancle—B1’etag,ne, et tandis que les hornmes d’état de ce grand
Empire se retirent devant l’opinion pulolique, lorsqu’ils ne disposent point d’une
majorité assez irnposante pour commander le respect a lcurs advcrsaircs politi-
qucs, vous avez entendu dans cette colonic, un procureur-general, ministre diri-
gcant du cabinet, déclarer qu’une ou deux voix de majorité en valcnt vingt ou
trente ct de fait le gouvernement est conduit an moyen d’une majorité ostensible
d’une ou deux voix, veritable minorité si l’on en retranche les voix des ministres
et si l’on tient compte des statagemes mis en oeuvre pour former cet appoint
aitificiel.

Un état do choses, tel que celui que nous venons de peindre semble fait pour
décourager ceux qui seraient tentés d’y porter reznede; mais on doit so souvenir
que partout 01‘; 1e principe électif est admis a quelquc degré que cc soit, on peut
obtenir les réformes nécessaires sans secousse violente et sans sortir du oercle
de la constitution.

Lorsque l’un’1cn fut imposée au Bas-Canada sans son consenternent, la plus
grande énergie fut deployee par la population pour resistor 53. cette mesure dans
les limites do l‘ordre et de la légalité. Le protet solenncl do ceux des represen-
tants du Bas-Canada, qui avaient éte librcment élus, fut entré dans les régis-
trcs de 1’assemlo1ee legislative, dans un amendement propose a Padresse en
réponse au discours du gouverneur-general. Le mot d’ordre du parti libéral
dans le Bas—Canada, fut la modification des details injustes de l’aote d’Union,
sans quoi le rappel de cet actc devait étre immédiaternent agite. La reconnais-
sance subséquente, par la mere-patrie, des principes du gouvernement constitu-
tionnel, dans toutes scs colonies, du No1’d—Américain, et la mise en pratique de
ses principcs sous le gouverncment dc sir Charles Bagot, firent esperer qu’on ne
tarderait pas a obtenir les changemcns, qui, souls, pouvaient rendre supportable
lc regime de l’Union, et épargner au pays a peine reinis d’une violente secousse,
une nouvelle agitation. Le mouvement retrograde que lord Metcalfe voulut
imprimer a Popinion publique nécessita un mouvement contraire du parti
liberal et 1’élection générale de 1844 donna pour résultat moral (quoique l6
gouvcrneur efit obtenu une majorité de deux ou‘trois voix ct par consequent une

approbation apparcnte de sa conduite) 1’affirmation la plus energiquc des prin-
cipes mis en question; et a 1’heure présento Padmission comrne théorie en esl?
universelle; en meme temps que la mise en pratique n’en est rien moins qu’efl3′

.-—~o-——.—q—_—

ELGIN-GREY PAPERS 9?
[Enclosure]

cace, puisqu’une majorité parlementaire d’une ou deux voix est oe que 1’cn
trouve de mieux pour sauvegarder Yinviolabilité du représentant de la souve-
raine. Au nombre des modifications de l’acte d’Union demandées des Porigine,
se trouvait la réforme électorale, nous croyons avoir démontré combien cette
mesure est nécessaire a Poperation du gouvernement responsable. Déja deux
des vices radicaux de l’acte constitutionnel indiqués par le programme liberal
de 1841, peuvent étre considerés comme effacés. L’acte de la legislature provin-
ciale qui pourvoit Ia. une liste civile permanente a regu la sanction royale et en
meme temps que le parlement Imperial mettra cette loi on operation par le
rappcl des dispositions do l’acte d‘Union, qui oontienncnt sous ce rapport une
usurpation des droits du peuple dc cette colonic; nous avons l’assurance que la
clause indigne de la civilisation moderne, qui proscrit la langue francaise de la
legislation et des archives du parlemcnt scra aussi rappelée. Bien que relative-
ment 2‘). la premiere de ces mesures, il restc encore a regretter profondément que
Pexécutif ne soit pas, comme il devrait l’étre, dependant de subsides libremcnt
votes chaque année; la reconnaissance du droit de la législature colonialc de
voter ces subsides n’en est pas moins une amelioration importante.

Ce que la fermeté ct la sagesse du parti liberal ont obtenu sous ces deux
rapports, joint a la reconnaissance de la responsabilité des aviseurs du chef de
Pexécutif doit étre pour tcus les libéraux, un indice de ce qu’ils pourront obtenir
par une organisation plus active, et par une expression plus forte de l’opinion
publique en favour des réformes que réclame la condition presents de nos
affaires.

Ces mcsures selon nous, sont dans l’ordre politique et constitutionnel.

1° La reforme électorale nécessaire a toute la Province, la plus grands
inegalité politique étant le résultat do l’insuffisance de Pinégalité de la represen-
tation et de Yinfluence indue accordée a de petites localités sujettes a la corrup-
tion et 9. l’intimidation.

2° La mise en pratique des principes constitutionnels rcconnus par les
resolutions de 1841.

Dans 1’ordre économique et materiel.

1° Le libre echange avcc les pays étrangers; et la libre navigation du St.
Laurent qui ouvriront au monde civilise une contrée 2‘). peine connue des autres
nations, et faciliteront le développement de ses vastes ressources; double liberté
rcndue nécessaire et striotement équitable par les mcsures financieres adoptées
Par la Grands-Bretagne elle-meme; ct par le grand exemple q11’9119 ‘‘l°17-T-‘° 5“
monde entier.

2° L’amortissement progressif de la dette publique, qui, oontraircment aux
dispositions législatives, et aux engagements Pris défi 19 Principe: Va Slauéfmen‘
tant chaque année. I1 devrait étre en outre représenté au gouvernement unpe-
rial que Pabandon du tout ou d’une partie de ses réclamations antérieures a
‘UI|ion ne serait qu’un acte do justice; justice d’abord pour toute la colonie,
dont le commerce ne trouve plus sur les marches de la Grands-Bretagfle 13 PTO-
tection qui Yavait engage a cntreprendre et a continuer dc giganteflfluefi l7T3V9’“X

m7—7

98 ELG‘IN~G’REY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

publics; justice surtout pour les habitans du Bas-Canada qui ont été rendus
solidaires de cette dette par le fait seulidu parlemcnt impérial et sans une ombre
de droit ou d’équité.

3° La concession dos terres de la couronne it des taux moins élevés et Ea. des
conditions de paiement plus faciles; en pctits lots at directement aux colons, qui
clement s’y établir.

4° La-réforme du département des postes, réforme, qui a été si hcureuse
en Angleterre et dont lo loien sc fait si vivement sentir dans ce pays oil des taux
de postc exhorbitant surtout sur les journaux et les publications venant de1’étran-
gel‘, imposcnt une taxe odieuse sur Yintolligence, taxe qu’une mauvaise adminis-
tration de ce département, sur lequel il n’existe point do controls effectif, rend
infructueuse pour le trésor.

Pour attirer Pattention publique sur ces mesurcs, pour s’entend1’e et se
ooncerter sur leurs détails, pour les discuter et les expliquer an peuple dans des
assemblées publiquos; pour on presser ladoption au moyen do petitions; une
organisation du parti liberal dans toute la. province. D’9.i11eurs an moyen de
cette organisation, co parti devra triompher aux prochaines elections, et le choix
d’hommcs entiércment dévoués an programme que nous venons de tracer est la
meilleure manifestation qui puisse se faire en favour de ce programme ct le
gage le plus certain de son accomplissement. Malgré Yinjustice des divisions
électorales actuelles, la derniere éleotion et tout ce qui s’est passé depuis, nous
engagent 5. croire que tel sera en efiet lo résultat d’une éleotion libro at paisible.

Nous no saurions trop lo répéter, le sucoos ne peut s’obteni1′ que par Punité
(Faction, par une organisation forte, constante, éclairée. C’est dans oe but que
lo Comité Constitutionnel de la réforme et du Progrés, institué par la voix publi-
que de Yancienne capitale du Bas-Canada, non pour domincr, mais pour ouvrir
la marche, a résolu d’exposer ouvertement son opinion sur le passé et ses vues
pour 1’avenir, d’attire1′ forternent Pattention de tous ceux qui veulent 1e bien
de leur pays, sur une Iigne de conduite qui lui semble dictée par la justice, par
la prudence et la légalité, et pour Yadoption do laquelle il appelle avec instance
leur concours sincere, leur zéle incessant, leur vigilance la plus constants.

Pour arriver 5. la prompte et complete organisation du pays en une vastc
association constitutionnelle de la réforme et du progrés, voici la marche que la
branche centrale et primitive de Québec croit devoir suggérer et dont les détails
sont contenus dans les instructions qu’el1e adressora prochainement 5. toutes les
personnes influentes des diverses localités.

A la réception de ces documents les personnes marquantes ou zélées de
cliaque paroisse devront réunir les électeurs de leur localité, se constituer immé-
djatement en une assemblée préparatoire, afin de prendre en considération Pobjet
important de Yorganisation demandée, puis nommer un président, un vice-
président, un secrétaire, un trésorier et un comité dc paroisse, etc. Ces officiers
et ces comités de paroisse formeront un conseil de comté qui, B. sa premiere
réunion, élira un président, dcux vice-présidents, un secrétaire-archiviste, un
secrétaire oorrespondant, et un trésorier-général. Ces conseils de comté dont les
assemblées devront so tenir autant que possible dans un lieu central prendront

ELG’IN—G’REY PAPERS 99
[Enclosure]

en consideration les projcts do réglernents qui leur seront foumis par l’Association
centrale de Québec, et les transmettront ensuite ii. toutes les associations do
paroissc qui les adopteront avoo ou sans changement. Des que cette organisation
d’un comté aura été complétée, il sera nécessaire d’en fournir tous les details a
l’a.ssociation de Québec qui s’appliquera toujours a tenir les comités an courant
de ce qn’e1le jurera propre a. les intéresser, et qui en attendra do meme tous les
renseignomonts utiles a la cause générale. Cos relations entre Yassociation mere
et les branches des campagnes devront étre aussi fréquentes que possible afin
d’entretenir la bonne harmonie entre les libéraux du pays en leur permcttant de
se consultor dans toutes les circonstances diificiles. Il est facile de conoevoir que
chaque district étroitement uni de cette Inaniére par une organisation toujours
préte, aura sans cesse a sa disposition les moyens do combattre efficacement la
corruption, d’éviter les divisions, los défiances réciproquos, résultat funeste et
inevitable de Pisolement. Outre les avantages qu’elle offrira dans les luttes
électoralos, cette organisation présontera dans les tems ordinaires et meme aprés
la victoire dos avantages inappréciables en donnant aux électeurs les moyens do
so consulter entr’eux sur les besoins do leurs localités, et en leur fournissant un
intermédiaire naturol aupros de leurs représentants qui souvont n’ont aucun
moyen de connaitre Popinion de leurs constituans in do leur fournir les renseigue-
mcnts dont ils peuvent avoir besoin.

Les comités ainsi établis seront on outre un excellent moyen de travailler
an progres moral ot materiel dans toute Yétendue de la province. Depuis
quclques années, des citoyens rospoctablos, en tote desquols so distingue le digne
olorgé du pays, ont fait d’immenses efiforts pour opérer une régénération sociale,
qui aura pour elle tous les voeux, et dans les objets qui seront plus particu1iere—
mcnt de son ressort, tout l’appui do l’assoolation. Déja nous devons a cet esprit
d’amélioration les progres de Pinstruction primaire, la diminution sensible des
ravages causés par lo vice hideux de Yintompéranco, le perfectionnement do
Yagriculture, Yétablissement do caisses d’épargnes dans les villes; et, s’il reste
beaucoup e faire, malheurousement sous tous ces rapports, il n’en est pas moins
consolant de songer que dans un tros-court espace do temps Yattontion publique
a été attirée avcc quelquo succes vers do si nombreux et de si importants objets.
Plus que tout autro moyen, l’établissement rapide des terres publiques nous
aemblo proprc 5. amélioror la condition du Bas-Canada. Nous avons déja parlé
do is concession de ces terres; mais il nous parait aussi important d’engager la
Population surabondante dos deux rives du St. Laurent 3?. tourner elle-meme ses
regards vers les localités oil so trouve son avenir. En reoommandant ce point 5;
1a consideration la plus sincere et la plus immediate des comités qui devront
S’organiser dans chaque comté, nous croirons avoir rempli une partie importante
Cle notro mission. Co grand objet ainsi que toutes les améliorations locales d’une
utilité publique qui seront projetées dans chaque comté, devront former une
Pattie essontielle de la correspondance entre le comité central et ses difiérentes
branches.

Dans Paccomplissement des devoirs que cette association s’impose dans les
efforts qu’e1le devra faire pour réalisor ses projets, aucune consideration no down

9337-xi

100 ELG’IN—GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

intimider les citoyens qui le composeront: ni les difiicultés do l’organisation, ni
les entraves qu’on pourra mettre a ses progres, ni la grandeur meme de l’entre—
prise, ni les considérations d’intérét personnel on d’amitié, ni enfln cette mauvaise
honte, cette mauvaise opinion d’oux-memes, qui empéche un grand nombre
d’hommes de joindre leurs travaux a ceux des autres, comptant leur propre
adhésion pour chose inutile et indifférente. Le jour est venu on chaque homme
se doit tout entier a son pays: les destinées de plus en plus brillantes de ce
continent, appellant is clles tous les talents, toutcs les volontés, tous les courages,
et nul no saurait refuscr sa part d’efl’orts et de sacrifices, sans se rendre grande-
ment coupable.

L’histoire, ct l’histoire contemporaino surtout, nous apprend que quelquc
longue ct diflicile que soit la lutte dos peuples contre les obstacles qui s’opposent
a leur développement, une sage et persévérante énergie leur assure a la fin le
succes. La prospérité croissants de la vaste république qui nous avoisine, et qui
étend déja la civilisation ot la liberté d’un océan a l’autre, nous montre ce que
peuvent lo patriotisme et l’csprit d’association. Les luttes politiques, clont la
Grande-Bretagne a été lo théatre, ne sont point d’un onseignement moins utile.
L’émancipation des catholiques, la réformo électorale, le rappel des lois des
céréales, toutes ces mesuros, qui, dans le cours do ce siécle, ont inarqué les progrés
intellectuels de cette grande nation, ont été le fruit des efforts persévérants et
combinés des citoyens unis entre eux par le dévoucmont aux mémes principes.
Moins heurouse, la France a payé plus cher et de son plus beau sang les libertés
dont elle jouit, et dont, elle aussi, elle vout étendre la base par une réforme
électorale. Enfin, plus pres de nous,-les libéraux de la Nouvelle—Ecosse viennent
de nous donner un exemple qui s’applique d’autant mieux a nctre condition que,
la-has comme ici, on 9. voulu étoufier dans leur bercoau des libertés naissantes
auxquelles on semblerait n’avoir donné le jour qu’a regret.

Pour nous, pour les libéraux des deux sections de la province, un effort
commun et énergique devra nous assurer a jamais les droits que nous réclamcns
tcus ensemble comme sujets britanniques. Les talents déployés dans cette noble
lutte par les chefs du parti liberal dans le Haut-Canada, et les nombreuses
manifestations publiques, qui ont eu lieu dans cette partie de la province, sont
un indico assuré du succes qui nous attend.

La liberté civilc et religieuse dans toute son étendue, comportant avec elle
Pordre, la moralité, la culture do Yintelligence, la prospérité matériello, forment
16 plus haut degré de félicité dent une société puisse jouir; mais elle n’est le prix
que de Pénergie concentrée et persévérante do toute une nation, et des plus
généreux Bl? de8 plus rudes sacrifices de la part do chacun des individus qui 19-
composent.

Notre sort, l’avem’r de notre patrie est donc entre nos mains, et notre
Inémoire sera responsable envors notre prostérit-é [sic] filo la some do bonheur

plus ou moins grands que nous lui aurons léguéo.
Quebec, 8 nov. 1847.

ELG’I N —~G’RE Y PAPERS 101

[Duplicate MS copy]
Private
0. 0.
Dec’ 3/47
My DEAR Enom,

I rec“ your letter by the last Mail the other day, & I am very sorry indeed to
hear of more deaths by the emigrant fever, & that Col. Calvert is among those who
have caught it. I hope poor man he may recover, tho’ I begin to fear he is some-
what of a Charlatan—— What is your opinion of the value of his fluid—-1

I at last send you my long oflicial answer to your Despatchcs about
emigration-2 I hope you will be able to adopt my recommendation & pass a
Provincial Act effectual for checking abuses & yet not so rigorous as to create
remonstrances here wh. wd compel me to disallow it. You will see that this
Despatch is written with a view to being presented to Parlt hero, & I presume
you will also communicate it to yours. -—— I will send the extracts from the news-
papers wh. you enclosed to Palmerston, but I think it will turn out the emigrants
complained of were not from his estate but sent from the same part of the
Country by a person who is agent for other properties besides his—— I can see no
possible objection to your dissolving your Parlt if such sh“ be the advice of
your Ministry.— Especially as I am happy to find that you seem to have
succeeded so well in causing it to be generally understood that you have nothing
tm do with the miserable party struggles that are going on——

I have not yet had time to read the French Manifesto——

Our new Parl‘ you will see opens more quietly than c‘’ have been expccted——

[&0l
(Signed) GREY.
His Ex?
The EARL or ELGIN
[Endorsed]
Dec‘ 3/47

L“ Grey to L“ Elgin

l0riginal MS]

Private
MONTREAL Dec‘ 9. 1847.

MY DEAR Grusr

The Dissolution which I led you to expect in my letter of the 12”‘ Ult. has
taken place. I have acted in this matter on the advice of my Council and I think
the measure on the whole judicious- It is difficult to conjecture what its
Political effects may be. Both parties are sanguine— My own opinion is that

‘Sec 1, .57; 62 d bl Append‘ III-
zllhisadggaltjclli with itsagncloglfrzs canvaseiamizlie subject tliorouglily, and v

were made. See Appembw IV.

alunble suggwtiona

102 ELGI N —GRE Y PAPERS

little change will take place in their relative strength. So much discredit has
however been thrown on the composition of the late House of Assembly on the
ground of alleged interference on the part of the Gov‘ Gan‘ at the last General
Election that the administration will acquire a considerable accession of moral
influence if, after an appeal to the people, it retains the parliamentary Support
which it now enjoys. Numbers are however at present so nearly balanced in
the Assembly that the loss of a very few seats will turn the tables against it, and
the opposition calculate on this result.

With respect to the employment of Immigrants on Public works you must
allow me to observe that money is indispensable to all schemes of this nature
and in the present condition of the market this commodity is not procurable
on colonial Securities. Provincial Debentures if negotiable at all are not negoti-
able on terms on which the local Parliament would sanction an issue. Want of
funds, attributable in some measure to Immigration expenditure, has obliged the
Gov‘ to arrest the progress of works which are already far advanced towards

completion» Very sincerely yrs

A ELGIN & KINCARDINE.

[Endorsed]

Dee’ 9/47

L“ Elgin

[Original MS]

Private

MONTREAL

Dec’ 24. 1847.

Mr Dans GREY,
I cannot yet give You much information respecting the probable result of

our Elections. I am inclined to think that the opposition will be the winners,
by a small mlajority. Meanwhile considerable excitement has been produced
by the appearance of a manifesto from the notorious L. J Papineau who has
been requested to represent two constituenoies~— This document is in a nolo
episcopari strain——contains a pretty frank declaration of repu-blicanismv-
expresses the writer’s hatred of the British Gov‘-—his distrust of Responsible
Gov” and concludes that the time is not yet come for his reappearance on the
stage—— Whether he will be elected or not is uncertain in the face of this quasi
refusa1—— The French Liberals are a good deal disooncerted by the tone of his
address-—-on the one hand they do not like to proclaim that their sentiments are
at variance with those of this redoutable chief who has still a hold on Canadian
sympathies-«on the other hand it is awkward to profess antimonarchical doctrines
and a contempt for Responsible Govt at the time when the said Responsible Gov‘
is likely to bring them into plaoe—— Besides it is doubtful whether Upper Canada
liberalism may not be alienated by the assertion of such prinoiples——I enclose
the document that you may judge of its merit for yrself.

We are doing what we can to reduce Immigration expenditune, but We
cannot yet put an entire stop to it. It will hardly be possible to get rid during

__.__._. ._…_———q

ELGIN—-GREY PAPERS ‘I03

the winter of those who were in hospital when the winter set in, for to turn them
out at this season is to consign them to destruction:~ An Immigrant with a
shaven head is an object of terror in this neighbourhood——- Meanwhile the
Gov” are beset by applications for aid to support the paupers whom winter has
driven back into the towns~—-

I do not see how Great Britain can refuse to make good tm the Province
what she has expended in this service during the current year. But for the
future if Canada be Ipermitted to enact such laws to guard herself against the
evils of a pauper and diseased Immigration as she may see fit, I think the
Mother Country may very properly decline to advance anything on this account.
The suggestions contained in the report of the Emigration Commissioners of
which you have sent me a draft seem to be reasonable,1—.

Many of the candidates in their addresses to the Provincial constituencies
advert to Immigration as a grave matter on which legislation is called for. After
the General Election is over it will I trust be more easy to frame some intelligible
proposition on this subject-— The difficulty of dealing with it hitherto has been
much enhanced by the position of parties in the legislature and the weakness
of the Government——

Yrs very sincerely

ELGIN & KINOARDINE
[Endorsed]
Dec‘ 24/47
L“ Elgin

[Enclosure]

Ansnssn AUX itmor-nuns mas Comrms on I-Iunrmonon rrr on
SAINT MAURICE

Messieurs du Comte de Saimf—Maurice.

I1 ne peut rien y avoir de plus consolant pour le patriots, apres une absence
forcée do huit ans, loin du pays de sa naissance, que de s’y voir au jour du
retour Yobjet d’une bienveillance aussi inaltérable, d’une confiance aussi inal-
térée, que celle dont m’honore mes compatriotes, et dont spontanément vous
donnez une preuve aussi éclatante que celle qui résulte de la demande que vous
me faites de la part du Comte de Saint—l\/Iaurioe, de vouloir le représenter dans
le prochain parlement.

Des calamités épouvantables ont inondé le pays; la minorité victorieuse et
Vindicative 1’a puni mille fois an dela de ce que permettait la loi; la dictature
téméraire de lord Durham, condamna a l’exil et a Pexpatriation des accuses non
entendus, et il le fit sous des fornnes et des conditions tellement arbitraires
*’l11’en Angleterre meme, oh il n’y avait pas un de ses hommes d’état qui fut
P1115 populaire que lui, avant cet inexplicable éeart, un cri universel de surprise
aocueillit ses ordonnances. Des plus mauvais jours encore succéderent a ceux-
l3’~- Un seul parti pouvait parler, il calomnia.

1 See below Appendiw IV.

104 ELGI N ~GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

La défense la plus modeste de Phomme 1e plus innocent le condamnait an
baillon et ‘a la prison. Les persécuteurs furent—ils plus heureux que les victimes?
Qui sur la terre peut lire dans le secret des consciences?

Tous vos patriotes les plus émiuens, morbs et vivans, déportés ou préscns;
furent pendant une longue suite d’a.nnées, indignement calomniés: mais le men-
songe fit grundir votre confiance en eux, et les maux qu’ils ont souflerts vous les
ont rendus plus chers. Eh! que leur importe ce que l’on dira at ce que l’on
pensera d’eux dans l’Ang1eterrc, illuminée par des diutribes d’une presse locale
pensionnée et passionnée: leur mission était pour vous, comme elle leur venait de
vous. Votre approbation consacre leurs noms, la. oil ils souhaitaient que leur
mémoire soit cliere et respectée.

De tous ceux que la. passion de nos adversaires 23. déchirés, personne n’a
eu meilleur part que moi P1. leurs furibondes déclamations. Je n’étais ni plus
ni moins fautif, ni plus ni moins méritant, qu’un grand nombre de mes collegues,
mais leur bienveillante indulgence nfayant longtemps et souvent porté 2‘). In
charge la plus honora-ble du pays, la présidence par voie d’élection sur l’é1ite du
pays, j’étais plus que d’autres en évidence aux regards des amis et des ennemis
politiques. D’ennemis individuels je n’en eus pas beaucoup, je pense, car volon-
tairement, je ne fie jamais de msl ni ne donnai d’offense £2. aucun individu
comme tel. Mais nulle animosité n’est plus virulente surtout chez les hommes
qui ont plus d’estoms.c que de téte, que celle qui résulte des divergences po1i—
tiques, st j’avais marché jusqifaux antipodes de la station ou la plupart des
toriss ont pris racine. J’avais pareouru cette demi—circonférence de notre monde
politique en bonne et grande compagnie. A nous tous les insultes et les violen-
ces n’ont pas été épargnées. Mais la récompense est plus grands encore que ne
fut la violence. Le peuple a réélu pamtout o1‘1 ils ont consenti 5 l’étre, les pros~
crits proclamés. (Test ainsi que le peuple a répondu aux chants de triomphe de
ses oppresseurs.

Depuis mon rctour j’ai dit, quand quelques fois l’on m’a parlé dc retourner
21 la vie publique, qu’z‘a. men age, apres mes services passes, aprés de longues et
pénibles agitations et trente années de travail et d’anxiétés, je croyais avoil‘
droit 5. ma retmite; que c’était le tour d’une plus jeune génération de continuer
l’ceuv1’e commencéc; que la. putrie avail; bien droit en tout temps aux services de
ses enfants, mais qu’elle devait égaliser le fardeau; que cl’aub1’es pouvaient faire
aussi bien que moi, puisque graces au zéle des fondateurs de nos beaux colleges;
Péducation était plus générale st plus forte a.ujourd’hui qu’elle ne Pétait lorsque
je suis entré dans la carriere qu’une jeunesse instruite et patriotique doit par-
courir Ia. son tour. Malgré ces protestations sincéres les deux Comtés ruraux
les plus populeux des Districts de Montréal et des Trois-Rivieres veulent m’ap-
peler $3. Phonneur de les représenter. Ohl les Canadiens sont reconnaissans du
bien que You 9. voulu, et que l’on n’a pas pu leur procurer, :3, cs degré qu’ils ont
droit, et qu’ils auront les services §. tout. risque de ceux 9. qui ils en demanderont
I1 n’est permis 2‘; personne qui sail; apprécier le caructerc d’u.u peuple uussi
vertueux et aussi souffrant, de ne pas lui céder, si P011 n’a. que des considé—

. _____._.___‘

ELGI N —GREY PAPERS 105
[Enclosure]

rations personnelles a lui opposer. Aussi cc n’est pas sur mon amour du rcpos
que je m’appuic pour dire aux électeurs de ces deux grands comtés que je souhaite
ne pas entrer au parlcment. Je ne le fait que d’apres les considérations d’un
ordre public que je vous expose au long, et dont je vous laisse les juges.

MESSIEURS DU COMTIE DE HUNTINGDON

Quand une deputation d’homrnes influens du comté de Huntingdon, le pre—
mier en population du pays, et qui n’est le second d’aucun autre, en lumiores,
en richesse agricole et industrielle, mais smtout en dévouement patriotique, en
sacrifices faits, en souffranccs éprouvées, en dévastations souffertes autant que
quelque autre partie que ce soit de la province, a cause de son dévoucment patrio-
tique, viennent s l’occasion des premieres élcctions qui se font tlepuis mon retour
an sein de la patrie, apres huit ans d’abscnce sur la terre étrangerc, me prier
d’accepter la candidature a l’honneur do les représcntcr en parlcmentz lorsque
sur les objections que je leur oppose, ils répondent, non sculemcnt par des raison—
ncmens, mais qu’ils en appcllent aux souvenirs et aux sentimens les plus tou-
chans, et que quelques-uns d’eux me disentgpour la sainte cause de la patrie,
nous avons soulfert en commun, nous dans nos familles, comme vous, dans la
votre, nous dans nos personnes comme vous dans la votre; nous sommes revenus
de l’exil et de la déportation dans les colonies pénales, ou nous avons été mal
traités; vous, vous avez pu échapper a la vengeance de nos persécuteurs, et
le savoir, fut pour nous une consolation dans nos soufi°1‘ancos; vous, vous avez
trouvé un asile protecteur au temps dc Forage, dans la terre classique de la
libcrté, l’heureux pays qui nous avoisine, la glorieuse et puissante confédération
des Etats—Unis, puis ensuite dans la terre hospitaliere, polie, savante d’o1‘1 sont
sortis nos ancétre, dans la belle France, l’institutrice, depuis longternps, des
Deuples européens qui veulent a sa suite avancer dans la voie de la Iiberté et
du progres, dans la vole de la plus haute civilisation; au nom de nos épreuves
passées, comme hommes qui n’avons perdu aucune de nos convictions, qui n’ab—
iurons rien de notre passe, qui croyons que vous n’avez pas plus changé que
nous, nous vous prions instamment de consentir 5, nous représentcr; nous connais~
sons assez le comté pour pouvoir vous assurer que nous exprimons ses VOSUX
Presqwunanimes et que nous y porterons la joie si nous y portons votre accep~
tation: leur donner un refus qui serait base sur des considerations personnelles,
SUI l’amour du repos, aprcs de longues années d’agitation, serait une hontc et
une lacheté dont je no serai pas coupable. Si je le donne, ce refus, ce no sera
@118 d’aprés la consideration du plus grand bien qui peut résulter ou de mon
élection ou de ma retraite. J ’incline 5. croire que ce dernicr parti, je ne dis pas
Dour toujours, mais pour le moment actuel, est le plus convenable. Je dois SJ.
votre bienveillante démarche, je dois 23. noon passé, de ne pas me rebiror sans d9
Pllissantes raisons; je me vois forcé par votre insistance de les rendre publiques
etde vous en laisser les juges.

Comment cette confiance dont vous m’honorez s’cst~elle forméc chez vous‘?
C5 119 peut étre que par Pobservation de ce qu’ont été trente années de ma

106 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

vie publique; une luttc presqu’incessante, énergique mais consciencieuse, contra
un gouvernement mauvais; rnais bien moins coupablc alors, qu’il no Fest devenu
depuis.

Ce gouvernement mauvais, n’est pas a men avis celui des Murray, Haldi-
mand, Craig, Dalhousie, Oolborne, Thompson et autres, sous lcsquels nos pores
et nous avons successivement soufiert; c’est celui de 1’Ang1eterre qui a ehoisi,
approuvé, recompense ces hornmes a la suite des actcs d’arbitraire et de violence
qu’ils ont exerces contre la colonie, d’ou il est naturel de conclure, qu’i1s ont
éte deciles Ea. se conformer s leurs instructions: C’est celui do 1’Angleterre qui
censura les Prévost, Sherbrook, Kempt et Bagot, qui crurent pouvoir faire un
peu flechir la rigueur de leurs instructions, au desir d’etre moderérnent justes
pour nous.

Qu’il fut mauvais n’est plus une question controversible. Le problems
d’abord resolu par les plaintes des populations, l’a éte dans lc meme sens par
les denunciations pleines d’a-merturne autant que do verite qu’ont fulminé contre
Ie systems dont nous nous plaignons, les representans de la royauté. Le rap-
port de lord Durham, les correspondances dc lord Sydenham, dans ces parties
on ils examinent la conduite et les pretentious opposées de l’exéeutif et de la
representation dans les deux Canadas, comportent une réprobation contre toutes
les administrations subséquentes a Yintroduction du systeme representatif aussi
formelle qu’en aient jamais exprimé les patriotes les plus ardents. C’est lord
Sydenham qui dit. “Quand je regards s cc qu’ont eté lo gouvernement et I’adrni—
nistration de la province, mon seul étonnement est qu’ils aicnt éte endures si
longtemps. Quant Ea. moi, je sais que quelque fort que soit mon antipathie pour
les institutions et la domination Yankees, je n’aurais jamais comloattu contra
elles, ce qu’ont fait des milliers do pauvres diables, que les families en pouvoir
(le family compact) ne laisse pas que d’appeler rébelles, si ce n’avait éte qu’en
vue dc conserver un gouvernement tel qu’ils l’avaient.” L’ecrivain ennobli, par-
tial a l’ordre aristocratique qui lla comblé de bicns et d’honneurs, hostile et préjugé
contre les sages institutions des Etats—Unis, les plus parfaites dont ait jusqu’i
present éte dotée Phumanite, dit donc avec plus d’autorite qu’aucun colon ne
Pavait jamais fait, que le gouvernement attaqué ne méritait pas d’etre défendu.
Y a-t—il une grande difference cntre le gouvernement qui attaqué ne mérite pas
qu’on prenne les armes pour le defendrc, et celui qui mérite qu’on les prenne pour
lc renverser? L’écriva.in en question n’a pas cherche a etablir une telle distinc—
tion; l’eut il essayé, elle serait sans doute si exigue et si subtile qu’elle e’chap-
perait a l’observation de beaueoup de bons esprits.

Nous avons vécu sous un regime deplorable, c’est surabondamment admit?
et prouve. C’est a ceux qui ne peuvent plus se dégager des consequences qui
decoulent de leurs admissions, 5. démontrer que l’ordrc nouveau est mcilleur que
l’aneien, que les réformes qu’ils ont indiquées étaient sincercs et suflisantes, que
le gouverncment responsable tel qu’il a fonctionné, n’a pas éte un mot jeté 811
hasard, une vaine theorie nullifiee par la pratique et par les explications des lord
Russell, Sydenham et Metcalfe; que l’aete d’Union accompagné ds cette con-
cession a éte donne pour que Finfluenee populaire se fit efficacement respecter D81‘

ELGI N—GRE Y PAPERS 107
[Enclosure]

les gouverneurs. Moi je ne orois Ea rien de tout cela. Si je croyais Ea, des dispo~
sitions libérales chez les hommes qui ont passe Yacte d’Union des Canadas, je
pourrais étre tenté d’acce’der §. votre demande de rentrer dans la. vie publique,
malgré la fatigue, les dégofits, les persecutions qu’y ont éprouvés, tous les repre-
sentonts qui ont cléfendu avec intégrité vos clroits eh vos intéréts, parse qu’alors
Yadmettrais qu’ils permettront au parlement provincial une legislation oonforme
$3. vos voeux, eonforrne A la grande voix de la majorité, et que la. perspective de
pouvoir aider a faire du bien an cher pays de notre naissance, l’emporterait sur
Yéloignement que doit avoir tout homme qui n’a cl’autre ambition que celle du
bien public, Ev. assumer la responsabilité morale qui pese sur ceux des représentants
coloniaux qui avec de Finfluence pour faire gofiter leurs opinions, aiznent leur
patrie do naissanoe ou d’adoption et ses Iibertés, plus qu’ils n’aiment une
métropole éloignée, avec ses monopoles, ses privileges et ses partialités.

Lord Russell qui a fait passer l’acte d’Union ne l’a. pas fait pour nous dormer
un meilleur gouvernement que celui qulil supprimait. Ce n’était pas par une
iniquité aussi patente que l’on voulait preparer un avenir de justice, cle concilia-
tion et de contentement. Les documents ofliciels places sous ses yeux et sur~
chargoant les tables du parlement, établissaient que dans le Bas—Canada, la
proportion de ceux qui repoussaient ce projet étaient de neuf oontre un. L’acte
ne nous est pas moins impose par la coercition. Un aussi flagrant mépris pour
les sentiments connus et exprimés des populations, est le renversement des
premiers principes de toute morale politique, il déclare nuls et dérisoires les mots
droits des colonies, aux jours de leur faiblesse. Dans ces provinces et hors de
ces provinces, il n’est pas un colon qui s’il se respecte et sa dignité d’homme et
de citoyen, ne sente qu’il est lésé, que toute son existence sociale est dégradante,
quand elle dépcnd d’une législation transatlantique, sourde aux representations
presqu’unanimes des parties intéressées établies en Amérique; pas un qui ne ‘dfit
s’affieher comme un mécontent aussi longtemps que subsisbe cette inique egresslom
S’i1 faut obéir s une mauvaise loi pour n’6tre pas puni, clu moins ne faut-il pas
airner l’antorité qui l’impose, ni garder un honteux silence. I1 faut dire et faire
bout ce qui est légalement possible pour la faite abroger.

Avant l’acte d’Union, il y avait une opinion publique forte. Des éleotions
générales ne donnerent jamais d’inquiétude sur leur résultat. Le parti populalre
était assure de sortir de chaoune d’elles mieux uni et plus nombreux. L’attitude
pleine de fierté que conservait la représentation vis-:§.—vis de Pexécutif et l’indé—
pendance des débats parlementaires, préparaient les population-s non seulement
de cette province mais aussi cellos des provinces voisines, a entrevoir dans un
avenir indéterrniné mais certain, le jour de pleine liberté qui luira successivement
sur chaque portion du continent Américain.

Avant que les chartes de ces colonies eussent éte déchirées par la puissance
des bayozmottes et par l’intervention du parlement d’outre mer centre ceux des
Canadas, le peuple y était fort, représenté en dernier lieu, dans l’une des provinces
P8-P qustre~vingt—huit représentants, dans l’autre par soixante et quelques: S1
P011 Wait honnétement voulu avec Facte d’union, concéder en vérité le golfwme‘
ment respousalole, l’on eut respecté des droits acquis, laissé E1 cl-ID-01119 l31’°V1″1°‘3 35‘

103 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

representation, ‘crop nornbreuse alors pour étre facilement intirniclée on achetée.
Mais la reduction du nombre, mais 1’srrangement- artificieux et artificiel de la
representation, prouve a quiconque ne vent pas fermer les ycux a la lurniere
ni son entendement s Yévidence, quel a été le machiavélisme des ministres qui
en conoédant on théorie le pouvoir aux représentants, se rnénageaient des res~
sources pour que les gouvemeurs leurs agents, eussent des chances de corrornpre
is. set source partie de la representation dans les sept petits bourgs ou villes du
Haut-Cans-da, et dans plusieurs comtés de la Province Unie ou une trés faible
population de colons nouveaux Venus, débiteurs de la couronne, n’ayant pas
encore d’affection locale, sont tout prédisposés Ea. soutenir aveuglément les pré~
tentions de chaque gouverneur quelles qu’ellcs soiont et fesant naitre chez ceux-
ci lo désir de gouverner personnellement on avec quelques alfidés secrets et irres—
ponsables, désir qui n’eut pu naitre, si le seul systeme rationel, de proportionner
apres chsque recensement la représentation 9. la population, avait été établi.

Mais, objcctera.-t—on, pourquoi demander ce qui sera refusé. Pourquoi?
parce que la demunde est juste. Pourquoi? puree qu’elle sers. refuse, ct qu’un
tel refus prolongé, constatera la mauvaise foi avec laquelle a été concédé le
gouvernement rcsponsable, qui comporte s’il n’est pas une leurre et une décep-
tion, que l’Angleterre a renoncé s toute intervention subséquente dans notre
législation, qu’elle n’a aucune predilection ni aucunc antipathie, pour quclquc
systeme politique que ce soit que voudront se dunner des rnajorités, dans toutes
celles do ses colonies nuxquelles elle a fait cette concession.

Tout ce que j’ai dernandé en chambre en 1836 avec une si vaste majorité
de mes collegucs, appuyés que nous étions par une égale proportion dans la
masso du peuple, je le redemande en 1847, et crois qu’il n’y a pas dc contente~
mcnt possible aussi longtemps que l’on n’aura pas satisfait 9. ces justes réelama-
tions. Quelques unes d’e11es Voulaient un contréle absolu par la representation
sur chaque obole prélevéc dans la province. C’était de tous les droits a.pparte—
nant aux colonies le plus solidoment établi par les autorités des légistes commc
pour l’histoire coloniale. L’union l’a. ra.vi. Pourquoi done taut tarder ‘a so
plaindre de l’union? L’on voulait pour le méxne corps un contréle eflicace sur
tous les fonetionnaires publics par Yétablissernent d’un tribunal independent
qui put les juger, les punir, les distribuer, dans tous les cas dfinoapaoité, d’abus
de pouvoirs, do prévarications prouvées contre quelqnes uns d’eux. Pour que
la. meme autorité qui s.u.1’ait choisi avecrpartialité u.n fcnotionnaire nccusé I16
put avec partialité lui choisir ses juges, 1’on voulait qu’ils fnssent électifs.~—Pro—
mulgeur Pinamobilité [gm] des juges sans par le meme acte créer un tribunal com—
pétent £3. les punir dons des ens prouvés d’inconduite, c’est avoir été an pays, la
derniere, lc faible, l’insuI’iisante protection que lui laissait le droit do Pexécutif
de les déplacer quand Pexcos de leur torts aurait été suifisamment établi per 185
représentans. Dans Yélcction de la seconde chambre qui aurait constitué C8
tribunal, se trouvait aussi un principe d’accord avec oelle des représentants, qui
aurait fait cesser 1e scandale perpétuel que donnait Yantagonjsme systématique
qui a constamment existé entre celle qui était nornmée par et pour le pays, 65
cellc qui était nommée par et pour 1’Angleterre, £2. qui seul revient Yhonneur 011
la honte dc cc qu’ont été les conseils Iégislatifs.

.E’LGIN—GIBII Y PAPERS 109

[Enclosure]

Que ces avantages et bien d’autres qui sont indispensables an bien étre des
sociétés, tel que Yindépendance des shérifs pour assurer celle des jures, n’aient
pas été plus facilement obtenus apres qu’avant 1’union et l’octroi prétendu du
gouvernement responsable, certes je n’en suis pas surpris et n’en fait reproche
:‘r personne. L’Angleterre ne vcut pas encore nous les donner, et le pays est gar-
nisonné pour qu’il ‘ne les prenne pas. Mais s’ils nc sont jarnais demandés ils ne
seront jamais offents. Il faut les conquerir par un, deux, trois refus, jusqu=’a ce
qu’on rougisse la bas de refuser si longtemps justice ici. Les corps ne sont res-
pectes qu’autant qu’ils sont consistants et persevérants-. Un peuple on ses
représentants ne peuvent pas mettre trop de calme ct de lenteurs dans lcurs
deliberations, ni trop (Pinflexibilité dans leurs determinations. Hésitez avant
de résoudre; apres l’avoir fait, persistez. Le rappel de l’acte d’u.nion doit étre
dernande parce que o’est le voeu du peuple forrnuandans km] ses requétes de 1822
st 1836; parce qu’a part Pinjustice de ses dispositions, le principe en est stupidem-
ment vioieux en placant sous une seule legislature un si vaste territoire qu’i1 ne
peut etre assez bien connu pour que les représentants décident en connaissance
de cause de l’in1portance relative des améliorations locales demandées de toutes
parts, des allegués contradictoires des populations sur une grande variété de
mesures; et pourtant dans les pays nouveaux, dont les besoins grandissent et
varient incessamment avcc le rapide accroissement de la population et des
défrichements, la inasse des travaux parlementaires se rapporte s des rnesures
de details qui exigent une profonde connaissance des besoins et des ressources
dc toutes ces localités. Aussi, depuis 1’union, les hommes les plus éclaires, les
plus dignes du titre et des fonctions de législateurs s’abstiennent-ils presque
constamment de voter, ceux du Bas-Canada quand il est question de mesures
qui conccrnent le Haut-Canada, et reciproquement ceux de cette province quand
il s’agit de mesures qui concernent celle-ei. Cela est juste et prouve la folie de
cette union legislative. Mais ce qui est juste pour les esprits honnetes et elevés,
nc le parait pas toujours a des hornrnes étroits et égdistes, ct trop souvent ce
seront des znediocrités passionnées et présomptueuscs qui passeront des lois pour
Ies sections de la province unie dont elle no connaitront ni la jurisprudence ante-
rieure, ni la condition sociale, ni les désirs actuels. Aussi, la legislation indigeste
Gt précipitee des dernieres années est-elle un chaos sans liaison, sans durée,
variant d’une session 5. l’autre a ce degré que si ce mal continue avee celui de la
tardive distribution des statuts, le mepris de la loi deviendra général P81‘ 1’imP05′
sibilité de la lire avant qu’elle soit ehangee. Depuis l’union la representation
6817 diminuee de pres de rnoitie, et les impfits sont plus que redoublés. Ceux qui
194 demandaient prophetisaient pour elle u.n resultat inverse, disant qu’elle don-
nerait plus de force et d’autorite a la representation, diminuerait grandemcnt
les depenses et par la allegerait le commerce du poids des taxes qu’il portait
Pmphétes trornpeurs et trompés, ont~lls A s’app1audir de leur sagacité? Leur
Wmmerce est-il bien mieux encourage, bien plus brillant sous la protection (In
tarif dc dix A vingt pour cent, que sous celle du tarif de deux a dix par cent?

Comment so fait-il done qu’u.n acte qui a fait du mal 5. tout le monde, 5. ceux
qui 1’ont deinandé, a ceux qui l’ont repoussé; eontre lequel le bleme et le mecca-
tentement sont universels dans le Bas-Canada; ne trouve pas dans Penceinte legis-

110 ELGI N ~G.REY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

lative une voix, une seule voix qui fasse écho aux plaintes presqu’inccssantes qui
sont entendues au—dchors. C’est que quelqucs hornmes sous tcus autres rapports
d’un grand mérite, les libéraux du Haut—Oanada avec qui ceux du Bas-Canada
doivent agir de concert, réduits au désespoir par les injustices de la faction tory, du
family compact, so sont trompés, ont demandé Yintervcnticn du parlernent anglais
en faveur de cette fatale Union, imaginant qu’ils Yobtiendraient a des conditions
équitablos, et que reunis aux patriotes du Bas~Cana.da, ils assureraient a la pro-
vince unie un gcuvernement juste et liberal tel que les provinces séparées ne
Pavaicnt jamais connu.

Sous Pangoisse de leurs souffrances, ils oubliaient ce principc dc stricte morale,
do ne pas faire a autrui ce que nous ne voudrions pas que l’on fit contre nous,
Contrairement 5. nos vocux qu’ils n’ignoraient pas, ils dcmandcrent a une puissance
dont Pintervention n’avait jamais en lieu que pour diminuer les Iibertés coloniales,
qu’elle voulfit bien aggrandir les leurs. Ils ont éte trompes dans leurs attente. L’on
s’est appuyé do lcur demande pour intervcnir, mais l’on n’a pas pris conseil que
des preventions aristocratiques anglaises pour regler Yétroite mesure de liberté
restreinte qu’on leur accordait. Ces vieilles sooiétés ouropeonnes herissées do me-
nopoles politiques en faveur d’un petit nombre de privilegies, entoures par une
immense majorité de prolétaires, ont des préjuges A coup sur, des besoins pout
étre de gouvemements absolus ou aristooratiques fortement constitués. Dans la
jeune Amérique, on les populations entiéres peuvent etre propriétaires, on les
substitutions n’ont pas eta-bli dc fortunes hériditairos, o\‘1 chacun commence la
sionne at avec un travail modéré pent s’assurer une mediocre aisance, l’on a des
instincts et des besoins d’institutions dérnocratiques. De la Penseignement, que
l’on doit toujours oraindre et no jaznais demander Pintervention de la métropole.
L’histoire des treize colonies séparées leur donnait les avertissemcnts les plus
clairs sur les dangers de leur démarche. Néanmoins eux souls (jarnais les torics)
pourront et voudront nous aider a faire cesser nos communes miseres des qu’ils
auront reconnu la deception pratiquee contre eux. Ils ont om de bonne foi que
lo gouvcrnement responsable donnerait tous les memes avantages que nous cher-
cliions a obtenir par la demands de deux charnbres electives. Pour faire cette
demande nous avions Pexemple de quelqucs-unes des anciennes colonies, dent les
heureux et librcs citoyens ne recurent jamais un gouverneur d’Ang1eterre, mais les
elfirent tous, ainsi que les membres des deux chambres, les shérifs, et les magis’tratA5
019 ‘E01113 grade. En dornandant un ordre do choses qui avait existé, nous savions O6
que nous demandions. En recevant lc gouvernement responsable avec taut d’elle-
gresse nous ne savons guéres ce que nous avons recu. Les colons ont cm que o’était
cette plcine responsabilité qui plus d’une fois en Anglcterre a force le souverain
a recevoir pour ministres, ceux que dans d’autres temps il avait dit etre les
ennemis de sa couronne cu qu’avec pleurs et desespoir il avait refuse de recevoir
comme tels: Mais bientét les ministres ont dit que dans une colonic cette responr
sabilité n’était pas tout-Earfait la meme que dans une métropole. Ils ont dit (:8
qu’elle n’était pas et ils n’0nt pas dit ce qu’e1le était. Elle est donc une énignle
interpretée diversernent par celui qui l’ofi’re et par celui qui la regoit: des lors, une
source fertile de malentendus, do plaintes et de récrirninations mo, entre les

ELGI N—GRE’ Y PAPERS 1 1 1

[Enclosure]

gouverncurs ct les rcprésenta.nts. Pour les électeurs dans tout le pays, elle doit
étre ce que la chambre d’asscmblée 1’a définie. Elle a pendant un trop court inter-
valle, heureusement fonctionné sous sir Charles Bagot, elle a cessé de le faire
depuis. Son successeur, bientét aprés son arrivée, écrivit qu’il y avail; antago-
nisme entre lui et des ministres qui avaient 1’appui et la confiance d’une grande
majorité des représentants. I1 eut des affidés secrets. S111‘ 1’avis de personnes irres-
ponsables, il donna des emplois sans consulter celles qui étaient responsables de ces
choix envers le pays. Ils sentirent que les intéréts de la colonic étaient lésés par
cette conduits, et quelle ébait injustement offensante pour eux, ils résignérent. La
chambre les approuva. C’était le tribunal légitime qui en premiére instance était
compétent £2. décider cntrc eux ct lui. I1 eut dfi les rappeler %» leur poste. II no le
fit pas, so mil: en collision avec la chambre ct dés lors cessa d’étre propre 5. con-
tinuer 1‘administ1’ation du pays, qui dans les élcotions générales confirma le vote
d’approbation qu’avaicnt rcgu de leurs collégues les ministres résignataires. Le
pays n’a. pas et no doit pas changer do sentiments. C’est un enseignement qui a été
jusqu’ici invariablement donné A tous les gouvcrneurs, et qui doit étre oontinué.
Les représentants sont Ia seule autorité dans le pays, dont les aflections, los pas—
sions si 1’on veut et les intéréts soient identiques avec ceux du peuple. Quelquefois,
rarement, en matiéres moins importantes, ils peuvent se tromper puisqu’iIs sont
hommcs; mais ils 1e feront sans aucun doute moins souvent que les autres autorités
qui sont hommcs aussi, hommes intéressés 51. so soustraire A la. surveillance, all con-
t-réle dc Yopinion publiquefbion plus que des mandataires qui dépendent d’elle di-
rectement, qui dépendent dc Yélection populaire. C’est done un devoir de prudence
et de reconnaissance de se rallier toujours 5. la majoribé des représeiitants.

Dans les cas de conflit la piiobabilité est bien plus forte qu’i1s ont raison,
Phltét qu’un gouverneur élevé dans un ordre social autre que lo nfitre. (latte
présolnption raisonnable que pa,r.1’a,pport 5. nous, ils sont dans l’erreur quand ils
sont on lutte a.vec nos représentants, est devenue plrus forte que ja.m.a.is, depuis
qu’ils vicnncnt de leur gré, avec one mission aussi illibérale que cells de faire
fonctionner un acbe aussi injuste d-ans son principe, comme dans ses dispositions
de détails que Pest 1’a.ote d’Union. Il faut done soutenir dans V0116 00m’0é
comine dans tous les autres du pays des candidate qui vous seront connus pour
vouloir so ralrlier £2. un mjnistére qui a lui/cé avec énergie contre le gouvernewr
Mobcalfe et contre la pratique inconstitution-Ibelle d’essayer it gouvernxzr par
d’autres aviseurs que ceux que lui avait donné le pays. II faut que vous vous
efforciez dc reporter les mémes hommes au pouvoir. Si 12 gouvefnement 1‘9SP011’
sable est une vérité, le temps est venu on ils pourront fairs: beaucoup plus de bien
We 36 n’en espére, moi, qui le regarde comma une tromperie. Eux qui croient 1‘;
Sa sincérité et dés Lors Ea, son importance réelle auront Poccasion oomme ils en ont
19 désify d’av.anoer la cause de -la réforme. Si de nouveau un gouverneur par lui-
méme ou par le oonseil législatif dlont i1 restc toujours le maitrc, cherchait A
enbraver les mesures libérales qu’ils auraient proposées, alors ils seront un peu
plus turd que moi désillxusionnés sur Iva valeur des dépéches de Lord Russell; at
°°7-‘llmenoeront alors une opposition plus éne1’gi0l1w qu’e1Le ne 1’a encors é‘oé-
D8118 tout cc qu’iIs ont fait en Chambre, dans les conditions qu’iIs ont 1111868 A

112 ELG-’IN—G’I£EY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

leur entree dans le ministere, dans le noble désintéressement avec lequel ils ont
remis leurs charges, je les approuve. Je suis surpris at aflligé du modérantisme
qui les 3. empéché de repnezndre la consideration d’aucunes des meswres qu’ils
avaient approuvées en 1836, empéché de jamaie agiter la question du rappel de
l’acte d’Union. Ills sont génés par la nécessité de ménagcr les libéraux du Haul’,-
Canada qui we peuvent si facilement reconnaitre qu’ils sont tombés dans une
erreur fatale tant qu’ils nourriront le plus mince espoir de faire fonctionner
avantageusement le gouvernement responsable. Toute division entre les libéraux
de toute nuance doit étre soigneusexncnt évitée, et c’est pour cela que je doie
hésiter a me rcndre a votre invitation spontanée dc rentrer dans la vie publique.
L’on ne peut rien de plus honorable pour moi que votre démarche, et j’ajoute
rien de plus consolant aprés le deuil intarrissabbe que nous ressentons de Pincendie
et de la devastation cle tnnt dc portions du pays, de l’exécution sanglante, de
l’exil, de la deportation, de la ruinc et des souffranccs d’aprés des sentences mili-
taires illégales cl’u.n si grand nombre de nos cuncitoycns les plus chers et les plus
rcspectés, que cette manifestation de votre part qui prouve que vous étes demen-
rés les memes honnnes politiques que vous étiez en 1836, et que vous croyez que
je suis demeuré le meme que j’étais an» jour de notre separation forcce, inébran-
lablement attache aux réformes que je demand ais valors apres trente ans d’études
politiques les plus assidues dont j’ai été capable.

Je ne orois pas qu’aucun de ceux qui les ont votées aveo moi, commc moi
librement et volontairement, aient de rcgarder cette épcque, comma l’une
des plus honorables de leur vie publique, q~u’ils aient répudié aucune des doctri-
nes qu’ils pmfcssérent, qu’ils aient renoncé Ea. aucunc dos réformes qu’ils sollici-
terent. Ils se rapetissenaient trop, que d’attribuer a Pinfluence de quelqutiutre
homme que ce ffit, aucune des d‘éte.rmination=s qu’ils ont prises et qu’approu-
verent la majorité de leurs concitoyens. Ils ont pu juger prudent d’ajournesr la
consideration des reform-es dennamdées par la crsinte d’aliéner de la bonne cause
quelques membres et gnand nombre de ooncitoyens, autrefois tories et depuis
consciencieusement passés dans les rangs réformistes, ct surtout par la crainte
de blesser la section libéralc dos représentans du Haut-Canada. Mais ils n’ont
sans doute pas renoncé it 1’-espoir dlbbtenir, ni a la volonté d.e demander damples
réformes au premier moment qu’i‘l.s jugeront oonvenable.

Tout cc qui nous les dommera, dans quelque arrangement politique que ce soit,
nous est bon. Puisque la. majorité des représentants Veut encore essayer d’une
combinaison qui a été si ineflicace depuis quatre ans, réunissovns-nous a cette
majorité; que mil dissentiment ne trouble l’unité do lcurs efioris. C’est parce
qrufen approuvant leur action et leur-s réformes projetées je ne puis également
applaudir $3. leur silence, que je vous declare honnétement que je ne crois pas
qu’il soit utile pour vous ni convenable pour moi de rentrer dans la. vie publique;
dans un moment on le plus grand nombre de ceux qui Font suivie avec courage
et constanoe, tandis que huit ans de séjour sur la terre étrangére m’en ont séparé,
pensent qu’ils ne doivent pas encore désespérer du gouvernement responsable.
Puisscnt-ils ne pas se tromperl Puissent—ils réussir; personne ne les applauolira
plus sincerement que moi. Ils pensent que le jour n’est pas venu cu ils doivent
so reporter 5. 1836, et reclemander des aujourd’hui les réformes que nous deman-

— _.__……——-—:-‘

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 113
[Enclosure]

dions alorsz moi je pense que ce joru-1’ mt vexm. A raison seuiement de cette
diversité d’opinion, je vous declare done ma pensée sincere et entiére; non seule-
ment je ne désire pas entrer dans la vie pubiique, mais je désire n’y pas entrer.
Je crains do n’y pas faire dc bier», quand» je differs sur des points essenhiels de
ceux xavec qui j’ai si longtemps agi dse concert, dont je conneis, dont je respecte
le dévouement A la patrie. Ils représentent la majorité vraie du pays, ils repré-
sentent les comtés popusleux. J e ne oompte pas les sufirages, je les peso. Le vote
du représentant d’un bourg de quatre cents émes, n’a pour moi que la centieme
partie de la. valeur morale du vote du iieprésentam d’un comté de quarante mille
fimes. La représentation de tous les corntés pcpuleux, doit done étre proch9.ine-
ment augmentée, du mo-ins Ia. proposition en étre faite. Ce ne peut étre que
pour des fins d’i.ntrigue et de corruption que 1’on oonserverait une aussi cho-
quante disproportion dams J-a. rexprésentation que oelle qui existe entre des localités
qui different on population comma de cent 5 un et qui chacune élisent u.n mandw
taire a.u oonseil national. Contre cet abus et taut d’wut1’es que j’ai déjia. signalés,
uu peu plutét ou un peu plus hard, i1 faudi-9. protester. L’on pensc, centre mon
opinion, qu’i1 est trap tot pour Ile faire, que Ie ministere ulibéml me. pass été assez
Iongtemps au pouvoir pour rle banter; que s’i1 y est porté par le résultat des pre-
sentes éleotions, il obtiendra sans agitation Ia correction des abus. I1 est donc
de stricte jrustice do lui dormer‘ .1’o»c»casion de prom/er, qu’il peut comme il est
certain qu’il veut faire beaucoup de bien. Me jeter dans la vie publique, malgré
les représentations que je vous flais, sea-ait peut—étre ume erreur qui aurait r1’a.ir
de dissidenoe dans les rungs réformistes.

Le respect pour vous et pour moi, m’obligeait s vous donner les raisons de
mon refus, $1 les rendre publiques, ‘a ne pas laisser dire qu’i1 procéde d’égo’isme ou
d’indifférence. II precede de ce que je ne vois que peu de chances de promouvoir

‘ des aujourd’hui ie bien public en la maniére qui me pamitrait la plus efiicace,

par une opposition forte plutét que par un ministere qui sera géné par les
instructions venant d’Ang1ete1’re si 1’on y conserve Ia manie de s’im1:o.iscer comme
DD-r Ie passé dans les deliberations coloniales; par une opposition forte qui aurait
1111 programme avoué de réformes import/antes soumises A Is. consideration du
peuple telles que l’éta,ient les resolutions votées par la chambre en 1836, on tel
‘Nest 1e manifesto que vient réoemment de formuler le comité constitutionnel
de la réforme et du progrcs 5. Québec.

Avant la fin de la prochaine session parlementaire, Ie doute raisonnable qui
pent exister aujourd’hui chez beaucoup d’amis sinceres du pays, de savoir si lo
mslrche que je préfére est la. meilleure ou la moins bonne, aura été réeoiu défim-
tivement. Les probabilités sont si grandee que nos amis politiques vont se
t-Fouver plus forts dans ie prochain parlement qu’i1s ne Pétnit numériquement
dans le dernier, que je les vois an pouvoir et is Yoeuvre. S’i1s réussissent $3. falre
16 bien pour iequel vous, eux, et moi, soupirons, leur marohe aura été Ia meilleure.
S’iIs ne réussissent pas, alors tous ensemble, peuple et représentants, constituants
at Oonstitués, ’11 n’y aura plus 51. diiférer de délibérer sur les moyens d’0T§aDi391’
P°PD0sition le plus vigoureuse possible, I-estrcinte dans les Iimites de 19. légalifié

9%7_.g

114 4 ELGIN-GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

Ne concluez pas de la nature et de la longueur de cette communication, qui
n’envisage que des réformes politiques et des changements organiques dans notre
fautivc constitution, que je sois indifferent aux améliorations matériellcs du pays,
5 la multiplication des canaux, des pants, des routes, des chemins de fer, des
phares, des quais, etc. Tout individu ou associations qui investissent des
capitaux dans des travaux de ce genre, méritent bien de la société, et doivent
facilement obtenir de la législature des lois qui leur sont nécessaires pour l’exécu-
tion dc leurs louables entrcprises, tout en sauvegardant la société contre des
profits immodérés. Des entreprises qui sont au—dessus d’utilité publique des
facultés d’individus doivent souvent étre encouragécs par Yétat; mais qu’alors la
science et la conscience, Yintégrité et le savoir, donnent d’avance des estimations
correctes de la nature et de la valeur des travaux publics a entreprendre, pour
que oe scient les plus nécessaires qui aient la préférence. Car toute absorption
de capitol dans une entreprise folle, en suprime d’uti1es.

Quant a la liberté du commerce, s celle de la navigation du St. Laurent,
je les souhaite et les appuie de tous mes voeux. Disciple des ma premiere jeunesse
dc l’école d’Adam Smith, ct de tout temps ennemi de tout monopole et privilege,
politique ou commercial, je ne vcux pas qu’une inclustrie ou une classe de citoyens
suit surchargéc au profit d’autres classes ct d’autres industries. L’imp6t nc doit
étre que le minimum de ce qu’il faut recevoir de tous et chaque citoyen, propor—
tionnellement a sa fortune et a ses consommations, pour fournir aux justes
dépenses d’un gouvernement économe et strictement surveillé.

J ’ai parlé dos réformes constitutionnelles aveo plus de détail et d’ardeur que
des améliorations matérielles, parce qu’el1es sont d’un ordre plus élevé, parce qu’il
faut dc libres institutions politiques, éminemmcnt protectrices de la propriété de
chacun, pour faire aimer le travail qui Inoralise et enrichit les nations et leur
donne le moyen de multiplier ces améliorations matérielles, comme le prouve leur
développement prodigieusement rapide chez nos actifs et iudustrieux voisins;
parce que cl’autrcs enfln, ne vous en entreticnnent pas assez; parce que les
améliorations matérielles sont d’ailleurs a l’ordre du jour, qu’il n’y a‘ nul désaccord
quant a convenir de leur puissante eflicacité a prornouvoir le biemétre des sociétés
qui les facilitent.

Enfin je terminerai par m’entretenir avec vous d’un sujet qui ne Ie cede en
importance a pas un de ceux qui ont déja été traités, celui de Yéducation populaire
la plus générale possible. Dans 1’état avancé de la civilisation moderne, le p1’étr6;
le juge et le maitre d’école, sont les fonctionnaires qui oontribuent le noieux, 16
plus et a moins de frais, au mainticn de l’ordre dans la société, qui de jour en jour
a mesurc que Pinstruction est plus répandue, est plus aisément gouvcrnée par la
force brutale, par la force armée. Plus vous payerez do maitres <:l’écoles, moins vous payerez d’hommes de police et de soldats, et dans le civil, vous aurez des fonctionnaires plus éclairés ct moins payés, a mcsure qu’i1 y en aura un plus grand nombre que Piustruction aura qualifiés. La compétion [sic] réduira les salairesi Les gouvernemens 33. bon marché ne peuvent so trouver que la ou il 37 a beaucoup de bons maitres d’écoIes. II n’y a pas cl’argcnt micux employé qu’a cette utilfi dépense, en vue de s’en épargner beaucoup d’inutiles. ELG’IN—G‘REY PAPERS 115 [Enclosure] Vous ne doutez pas qu’un riche qui voit un pauvre soufirant de la faim, ne soit obligé de lui donner la nourriture qui calmera sa soufirance. Mais l’esp1-it a ses besoins oomme le corps a les siens. L’cn reznplirait mal ses devoirs d’homme si l’on n’aidait qu’aux seuls besoins du corps, sans jamais venir en aide 33. ceux de Yesprit. Oh! puissent ceux qui ont le tort d’étre indifi’érents a Yenseignement général, se donner le plaisir de voyager aux Etats-Unis, d’y voir oombien les cultivateurs y sont généralement plus a l’aise; combien sur de rnauvaises terres, ils rccueillent plus que nous sur de bonnes; pourquoi leurs terres plus maigres se vendent dix fois plus cher que nos terres plus grasses. Ils entendront une réponse uniforme: nous le devons a notre bon gouvernement et a nos bonnes écoles. Ils reviendraient de leur promenade changes et conveincus, amis ardens des bonnes écoles et du bon gouvernement. Je suis, Inessieurs les Electeurs, avee un profond respect Votre obéissant serviteur, L. J. PAPINEAU. [Duplicate MS copy] Private 0.0. M D Jan’ 28/48 Y ear ELGIN I rec“ by the last mail your letter of Dec‘ 24 enclosing M’ Papineau’s manifesto—— It is in a most republican tone, & I must add that it shows a marvellous ignorance of the real interest of his countrymen—— If they were to act upon his undisguised preference for the United States & join their Union, the Yankees W“ not long show the consideration We have done for French feel- ings & prejudices-— I shall be anxious to hear whether the Elections ended in leaving your Council in a minority, & if so what sort of a. new Administra- tmn you may succeed in making. _ It is vexatious that by the difficulty of the difiiculty mm with the Unwed States We are compelled to communicate by the very slow route of N. Brunswick With regard to emigration I am not able by this Mail to answer your Deslmtch of Dec” 8 enclosing the Report of your Executive Council, but I hope by the Next Mail to do so in a manner Wh. upon most points will be satis- ff‘°i’°1’Y~ We are now considering & I think shall be able to settle by the “me Parl” re-assembles next week the amendments to be proposed in the Pasflengers Act; A very good letter from M‘ De Vere wh. I transmit to you ommallyl has convinced me that upon one point We must go further than I supposed in Legislation & we shall probably determine upon proposing that WW9? Sh“ be given to the Queen by Order in Council to establish rules with ‘De Vere’s letter, dated 30 November 1847, was enclosed in Lord GreY’s despatch Of 27 finuaryi 1848. Tliese documents throw so much light upon eondritions at the time and 011 r;;7GI‘ey’s attitude, that they are published below as Appendix 4% 116 ELG’IN—GREY PAPERS respect to ventilation &c & to require Ship owners to pay for an Oflicer to be appointed by the Emigration Com” to enforce obedience to the rules so made- We think that for about £20 a voyage we can get warrant officers of the Navy or non commissioned oflicers of the Army gladly to undertake this duty—— You will see that in my ofiicial Despatch I have disclaimed throwing any blame upon the local authorities-for some of the defects in the arrangements they have made described by M” De Vere, I cannot help however privately express- ing my suspicion that you have not had very eflective assistance from your Council in managing this business, & that they have been too intent upon their own party interests to take as much pains as they ought to have done— Surely it w“ have been possible in a country [w]here timber is so plentiful & so cheap to have provided better accommodation for the Emigrants on their arrival at the quarantine stations—& tho’ I am aware that it must be difiicult to obtain the services of a sufficient number of steamers in Canada, I w“ have thought the frightful crowding of the Emigrants in the Steamers going to the West wh. is described by M‘ De Vere might have been preventcd—~ If you anticipate a want of Steamers next season had we not better take measures immediately to supply you with some more either from the U. States or from this Country? The’ steamers suitable for this service ed not of course carry coals enough to steam across the Atlantic, I sh‘ think they might go safely enough under sail at the end of April or beginning of May & that they might arrive in time for the greater part of the season—- » I cannot agree with you as to its being reasonable for Canada to expect that the whole cost of the emigration of the present year sh‘ be defrayed by this Country—- No doubt the expense has been heavy & the evils occasioned by the fever very deplorable; but after all a still larger number of Irish emigrants have gone to the U. States, & on the other hand looking to a series of Years there can be no doubt that Canada has gained enormously by emigration, & that even in this last Year the stimulus given to her Trade by the arrival of so many passenger ships, & the very large expenditure by this country has helped to swell her revenue & to enable many individual merchants & others to acquire ‘ great gains. The Colony cannot expect to have the advantage of an extensive immigration without paying something towards its cost, & if we come to com I sider how the charge ought fairly to be divided we must not forget that the Mother Country pays very largely for the Naval & Military protection of the Colonies, & also that in the general abolition of protecting duties the retention of that upon timber for the sake of the N. American Provinces is almost 3 solitary exception. The present arrangement of these duties, by far the most objectionable of Sir‘ R, Peels financial measures, may be reckoned to cost 115 not a great deal under a million annually. Hence I am disposed to think that if we take upon this Country half the Expense incurred last Year, leaving the Province to pay the remainder with the assistance of the emigration tax, wh. 15 of course paid by the Emigrants themselves we shall act very handsomely l30W9«1‘d5 Y011~ In N. Brunswick where in proportion to their means the burthen has not been much less than in Canada they do not seem to expefit -—-—.___¥,_ __‘___ ELGIN~G’RE’Y PAPERS 117 more than this——-‘ In future the Colony ought not to lock for even so much assistancc— Is there any chance of the Assembly assenting to any measures for rendering the settlement of the territory more regular? I know well how strongly public opinion in all the Colonies is in favor of cheap land, but I am more & more satisfied how great an error this is & that land wh. costs very little money is really very deer in comparison with that for wh. settlers pay a great deal more money but receive in return not only the land but the advantage of the improvements wh. the payments required from them aiford the means of effecting. [5501 (signed) GREY [Endorsed] J an’ 28/48 Lord Grey to L“ Elgin [Original MS] Private » MONTREAL Jan? 7, 1848 My Dear GnEr,————The election prospects of my Ministers are not brightening-——— Two or three seats have been lost by them in Upper Canada-«and, in Lower, they are almost sure to lose more. It is therefore more than probable that this General Election will be followed by a change of Council. Meanwhile M. L. J Papineau is elected by acolamation notwithstanding his nolo Episco- pari1——his republican addresswand the extreme desire of the leaders of the French Party (Who fear lest his introduction into public life at this moment should spoil their game) that he should not enter the House of Assembly at P1‘eSen’tr~— I have searched in vain I regret to say, through the French organs 05 Public opinion for a frank and decided expression of hostility to the anti~ British sentiments propounded in M. ]?’s acldress~ A commentary on this document, couched in almost all cases in the same or similar terms, has gone the round of the French Press,—‘ regretting that M” P. s“ have so had an opinion of the British Govt and of Responsible Gov” ’~—‘ hoping that he may be mis~ taken ’-«end ‘ recommending that a further trial should be given to the system before extreme measures are resorted to ’—-—Deprecating in short, M‘ P’s present appearance on the stage, but intimating that if the General Election does not bring their Party into power, it will be proper to rally round him and to espouse his political creed. There is too much reason to fear that his sentiments are P0Dl1lar with a considerable section of the French Canadians who take their Political opinions from writers and speakers who derive their inspirations from the hocopocus of Yankeedom and democrats of Franee——- The next Session of 918 Provincial Par’-‘ is likely I think to be an interesting one and to throw Gomsiderable light on the prospects of British North America-— 1See above p. 102 17. l 118 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS I am getting some infoimation about the settlers in the Newcastle D‘ who were located there at the expense of Gov‘ which may be useful though it makes me delay my reply to y‘ despatch on the subject‘— Yrs very truly ELGIN & KINCARDINE [Endorsed] Jan’ 7/48 v L“ Elgin An“ by L“ G. Feb’ 11 [Original MS] P1″£’ua,te Monrnnnn . J an’ 22. 1848 My Dear GREY,—The issue of our elections is no longer doubtful. Even in Upper Canada the Ministers have lost largely—-—and they have no chance what- soever of maintaining themselves in the New Parliament—— I do not think that they will even meet it, and in a few days I expect them to tender their resigna- tions in a body. I shall accept them, and at once address myself to the recognized leaders of the opposition La Fontaine Baldwin &o. How I shall get on with these Gentlemen remains to be seen. Looking to their antecedents and to the avowed sentiments of some of their supporters it is not improbable that I may have difficulties to encounter, but I trust that they will not prove insurmountable—- One circumstance weighs on my mind in connexion with these changes—— It is the position of Mm Daly.—— I cannot provide for him here except by asking , Major Campbell to resign the Civil Secretaryship in his favor, a measure which might be attended with the most prejudicial effects. On the other hand his case is one of great hardship~— He resigned a permanent oflice on the introduction – of Responsible Government, at the request of the Governor for the time being” By supporting Lord Metcalfe at the period of his rupture with his first council he rendered himself especially obnoxious to the Party who are now about i50 come into power. Deprived of ofiice he has no means of subsistence——- I must beg you to take his case into consideration and see whether you can do any- ‘vhiflg for him No one in this Colony has in my opinion similar claims upon H31‘ M3305?/y’s Gov‘. Whatever may be thought of Lord Metcalfe’s policy On the occasion to which I have referred it was approved by the British Minister I of the day. M”Daly supported what the Governor General & the Colonial . 1 O“ 13 N°V9Dlb01‘, 1847 Lord Grey wrote to Lord Elgin, requesting information regardinil emigrants brought out_ to the Newcastle district in 1825, under the superintendence of Pei-91‘ Robinson(G‘-re>y 1» Elam, 18 November, 1224.7, No. 137 G. 129; p. 861). In reply, Lord Elgin
911 P115‘! Particulars as to the number of acres settled, the number of inhabitants and the
va ue of rateable Property. (Elgm to Grey, 15 March, 1&8, Na. 30, Uopy, ex .501 p. 191.)

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 119

Secretary held to be the cause of loyalty & British connexion on the score both
of justice and of policy it were much to be regretted that his exertions on this
behalf should be the occasion of his ruin. _

This change of Government occurs at an unconvenient moment inasmuch as
it defers legislation on the subject of Immigration, and, what is worse, precludes
me from offering any assurance as to what may be the sentiments of the local
Government upon it— on the other hand, there is reason to fear that provisions
of an objectionable character might have been forced by the opposition into any
Immigration Bill introduced by my present Council. I have at least some
chance now of forming a stronger Gov‘ who will be able to carry their measure—
The difiiculty will be to get them to agree upon a proper one.

Notwithstanding the condemnation of my present council pronounced by
the constituencies, I am far from thinking that their successors will have an
easy task—— M. Papineau who has more personal influence than any other
individual in Lower Canada returns into public life with the avowed object of
proving Lord J. Russell 9. deceiver, and Responsible Gov‘ a delusion and a
snare. He hates Great Britain, and is believed to be somewhat jealous of those
who have become the leaders of the French Canadians during his eclipse. If the
system of Govt established in this Province workes satisfactorily, his vocation is
gone, and he is proved a false prophet, It will therefore be his object to
prevent this result-on the other hand, I am disposed to believe, that with
a certain class of the liberals of British origin, there exists a genuine preference
for what they deem British or constitutional practise as opposed to Republican-
ism. Whether it will be possible to bring the views of these Gentlemen who look
at our Institutions through an American medium into perfect harmony with those
of British Statesmen sitting in Downing Street, may be doubtful—— But there
is obviously room for antagonism between those who hold that British Institu-
tions, rightly interpreted, are the best in the World, and those who are pledged
to prove that they are among the worst.»-

Between these two political sections M. La Fontainc and his followers are
now plaeed.—— Circumstances, perhaps conviction, will induce them for the
moment to take rank with the latter–

On one point I apprehend some diEiculty——- There will be an attempt
I fear to deal harshly, Yankee fashion, in some instances with subordinate
0flicials——for the twofold purpose of punishing political opponents and providing
places for political friends-

I have delayed my reply to the confidential despatch which you addressed
170 me some months ago on the subject of the appointment to oifices in Canada,1
being desirous to satisfy myself thoroughly with respect to the working of the
Wfilrem before committing myself to a formal opinion on the subject. I am
dislmsecl to believe that the less you meddle in Canadian app“ even by the issue
Of Royal warrants the better. (excepting in the case of appointments to the
Legislative Council.).——- You cannot effectually control them. By seeming to
endeavor to do so you enable on the one hand designing colonial administrations

‘See above 12. 38 d’: note 5.

120 ELG’IN—GREY PAPERS

to make you share the odium of obnoxious nominations, while on the other
you rouse that jealousy of imperial interference which has heretofore pro-
duced such mischievous eflects in Canada. I would allow the responsibility
of appointing to office to rest upon the Provincial Ministry & to weigh upon
them as heavily as possible. An intelligent Governor and a watchful opposition
will generally succeed in preventing abuses from growing too rank.

Yours very sincerely

The ELGIN & KINCARDINE
EARL Gnnv

[Endorsed]
J an’ 22/48
L“ Elgin

[Duplicate MS copy]
Private BELGRAVE SQUARE
Feb’ 22/48

My Dnm ELGIN,

I received by the last mail your letter of the 22“ J any with the intelligence
of the impending change in your Council— I confess I look to the elieets of
that change with no little anxiety, but I entirely concur with you as to the
principles on wh. your course in these circumstances must be guided— I C811
have no doubt that you must accept such a Council as the newly elected Parli
will support, & that however unwise as relates to the real interests of Canada
their measures may be, they must be acquiesced in, until it shall pretty clearly
appear that public opinion will support a resistance to them— There is no
middle course between this line of policy, & that wh. involves in the last resort
an appeal to Parl” to over-rule the wishes of the Canadians, & this I agree with
both Gladstone & Stanley in thinking i1npracticable— If we over-rule the Local
Legislature we must be prepared to support our authority by force, & in the
present state of the World & of Canada, he must in my opinion be an insane
politician who w“ think of doing so— It does not however follow that you are
by any means powerless if your advisers insist upon an improper course of
proceeding the line to take is freely to place before them the objections to it
but to yield if they insist up to the point when they have put themselves so
clearly in the wrong that public opinion will support you in resistance, taking
the greatest care to carry concession to them as far as possible (on the principle
of giving them rope enough to hang themselves) & to have their advice & your
objections to it always recorded in writing upon subjects on wh. you differ, :30
that if at last you come to a rupture there may be no doubt as to the grounds
of it.—— I cannot help believing that the advantages of the present connection
are so entirely on the side of Canada that by following this course you will be

ELGI N -GRE Y PAPERS 121

supported in resisting everything tm wh. you cannot consent with honor & con-
sistently with the real interests of this Country.—— If not I do not see how
separation can be prevented.~—I cannot however as yet see any ground for
despairing of your getting on reasonably well with the new council you may
form, even if that council sh“ of necessity include Papineau himself to wh. in
spite of his manifesto I sh“ not object if his being included in the arrangement
sh“ be insisted upon by the leaders of a party wh. can command a Majority—-
Your influence with the Members of your Ministry wh. will befounded on the
conviction (I trust generally entertained) that you are no partizan of their
opponents, & have no other object but to promote the true interest of the Prov-
ince will I trust enable you to restrain them from any really objectionable
measures~

I will endeavour if possible to find some employm‘ elsewhere for Mm
Daly but I fear this will not be very easy.

I will also follow your advice as to the form of appointments but to enable
me to do so I think you had better give it to me oflicially in the shape of a
confidential Despatch.1

You will see by the newspapers that the political horizon here has become
very much over-cast & that we are involved in storms of wh. it is diflicult to
foresee the end———

signed GREY.

The EARL or ELGIN &c
[Endorsed]

Feb? 22/48

L“ Grey to L“ Elgin

‘On June 1, 1848, Lord. El ‘u wrote a confidential despatch on this subject. He pointed
out that with the exception 0 two newly-created oflices, all commissions granted for some
yearsbnok had receded the receipt of the Queen’s warrant. For this reason, any attempt
to raise the le al) question would lmperil the validity of every judicial or administrative not.
Even if the snhject was viewed as a matter of expediency, diificulties arose for “I regret to
any that I um unable to suggest any mode of proceeding by which the practise of awaiting the
recall“? of Royal Warrants previously to the completion of appointments to ofiice could be
made to harmonize with the working of the constitutional system now established and in
full and satisfactory operation in this Colony.” The delay involved would be productive of
embarrassment. Then, too, there was the danger that dissatisfied persons in the colony would
address themselves to the imperial authorities. This would place the Colonial Sccretary_1n
fin awkward position as he would be obliged to refer the case back to the colon)’: Which
‘would involve additional delay; or he would have to ignore such pleas and remonstrances
. °W17Jg the responsibility on the Provincial Government, and thus cormtituting himself
111 some sort their ministerial ofi‘icer.” The result of such policy would “ not only involve
delay but also awaken the jealousy of the Colonists on the point on which they are 1308*
“”3°*iPfib10~” Clo employ such a system to the appointment of Executive Councillors would be
mrl”.°“li’«1‘lY unsatisfactory-—-“I am confident that Her Majesty is not likely t0 be €“‘1Vi59d
50 Wlthhold her Assent from any appointment of this nature made by the Gov’ Gen‘ of Cl“-‘H1541
“H1083 under very extraordinary circumstances. 3’ Finally he urged that “Ro.jInl

“rants should not henceforward be issued for appoinlzncnis to Judicial or Administrative

9.99 in Canada. It is better in my opinion that the local Government should bear the
“ml-‘Y1ded weight of the responsibility attaching to the exercise of Patronage of which they
‘Em In point of fact the dispensers than that they should by the use of forms which have
11 19 Practical significance appear to devolve on others a portion of the burdeu——-.” Wgth
E3573 to the Legislative Council however he felt that this power should still remain W131
the irmpcrial Government and thdt Commishions (as Legislative Councillors), should await the
receipt of the royal warrant. (Elam to Greg, 1 June, 1848, Oonfldenfial, 001W, G. 461, p. 2.30.)

1’22 ELGIN—GItEY PAPERS

MONTREAL

[Original MS]
Feb. 5, 1848

My DEAR Gnnr,

My despatches arrived yesterday by Express from Boston—and of course
I supposed Wd return by the same route— At the moment however of the
departure of the Halifax mail I am informed that there is doubt as to whether
they will be allowed to pass through the States— I send this line therefore to
say that I have nothing particular to communicate except that I have summoned
our Par‘ for the 25“

All well

Y. very truly

The ‘ ELGIN & KINCARDINE
EARL Gnnr
[Endorsed]
Feb 5/48
La Elgin

[Original MS]
Private 7
MONTREAL
Feb. 5, 1848.

My DEAR GREY,
In my last I apprized you of the result of our Elections—— My Ministers

admit that they are beaten. and the Press is unanimous in this sense—— I left
it to them to determine whether they would meet Par‘ or resign at once–
Stipulating that if they adopted the former course Par‘ should be summoned
without delay. They have resolved to meet Par”, which I am glad of, as their
immediate resignation would have been attended with inconvenience. Par‘ is
summoned for the 25°“ of the month. There will be, I doubt not, a division
on the address shewing a. great majority against the present Gov”—~ The council
will resign in a body——

Before engaging in the work of forming a new Ministry, I am very desirous
to carry through a bill on Immigration embodying the principles which you
have suggested——— A measure of this description is so loudly called for by the
Province that the dominant Party will hardly, I think, venture to obstruct its
progress through the Legislature—

My council are aware that I am unwilling under existing circumstances
to make appointments by their advice except in urgent cases— I trust that I
shall be able to prevent them from oflering recommendations to which I should
feel it my duty to refuse my assent.

M.

ELG’IN—GREY PAPERS ‘ 123

This Province is about to pass through an interesting crisis— I shall be
required to accept as advisers persons who were denounced very lately by the
Secretary of State and the Gov’ Gen‘ as impracticable and disloyal. In these
sentiments however I have never either overtly or covertly expressed concur-
rence- nor have the most extravagant asserters of Responsible Gov“ hitherto
accused me of stepping out of my constitutional position——~ The onus probandi
will therefore rest very heavily on my new counsellors if they cannot act with
me and put forth pretensions to which I am unable to accede—.

As it is, I believe, the general opinion, that this attitude of neutrality has
been assumed by me, not from indifference or incapacity, but from choice, and
in deference to constitutional principles, I have I think placed myself in a
favorable position to meet the crisis. The working of the system of Gov”
established in these Colonies is about to be subjected to a trial under conditions
Which are on the whole advantageous— It is probable that some influential
persons at least will say, “we have all along struggled for an administrative
system analogous to that which exists‘ in the mother Country and now that it
is fairly conceded to us we are satisfied.”—-But we must not decieve ourselves—~
Britain and British Institutions have no hold whatsoever on the affections of
certain classes of the inhabitants of this Province—- Powerful influences are at
work dragging it towards the United States—- Under these circumstances a
sanguine estimate of the probable effect of the most judicious and liberal Policy
would hardly be warranted.

Feb. 17, 1848–

I had proceeded thus far with my fortnightly epistle when I learnt that
the Messenger who had brought up y: despatches from Boston was doubtful
as to whether he might not be interfered with on his return by the American
authorities—— As I had nothing very particular to communicate I thought
it better not to run this risk—tho more so, that nothing is so likely to bring
the Yankees to reasonable terms as the proof that we are altogether inde-
pendant of them- Unfortunately however this intelligence reached me when
It Was too late for me to make up 2. bag for the Halifax route.-—

Y’ despatches, on Responsible Gov“ addressed to Sir J. Harvey, and to
me 011 Ernigration,1 have been published, and found their way hither. They
are, I think, likely to do good. The liberals do not altogether like the doctrine
about pensions and the inaznmoveability of Subordinate ofiicers. They cannot
however deny that y arguments are weighty,- and the tone in wh you have
Expressed yrself gives great satisfaction— I am told that even Papineau when
:7: read y. clespatch on Responsible Gov‘ was staggered, 85 for a moment admitted

at Perhaps Perfide Albion might be sincere.—-

‘For these dcspatches see below Appcndia: VI.

124 ELGI N—GRE Y PAPERS

I am much annoyed at being obliged to dun you again about Immigration
expenditure,1 — particularly in connexion with the payment of the April Divi-
dends on the guaranteed loan. But I cannot help myself— My Ministers have
No Money, and I suppose they like to shew (which they can do without violating
truth) that they w“ have left the finances of the Province in good order had it
not been for this most untoward drain. I do trust that henceforward (after a
reasonable Immigration law is passed) the British Gov‘ May wash their hands
of all connexion with Immigration expenditure—-—and let the system support
itself——- Nothing can be worse than cross accounts of this description between
the Colony and the Mother Country——- Meanwhile I enclose a note of claims
against the Province, which I think it might be well that you should state as
an offset against the claims set up by the Province when you come to settle
their accounts finally—— Very truly yours

ELGIN & KINCARDINE

1On 17 February 1848, Lord Elgin wrote to Lord Grey, enclosin a minute of Executive
Council, with reference to the financial difiiculties of the Province. iord Elgin stated:—“It
is with much regret that I again call your Lordship’s attention to this subject, but the
accompanying statements exhibit the amount of the advances already made by the Province
in this service, 85 the Einbarrassment which is likely to ensue unless further aid be promptly
2giXll11lSCle8l‘;)d from Imperial Funds.” (Elgin to Gray, 17 February, 18/;8, No. 15, Copy, 0’.

, p. .

The Minute of Council commences by reciting the circumstances under which a loan of
£408,949.1.l, for the construction of public works, was authorized by the Imperial Government.
The Council then reviewed the steps taken to ensure provincial solvency, and state that there
existed in 1847—J‘a surplus balance more than suflieient to meet casual and unforseen
demands of an Ordinary cliaracter.” Failure to meet present obligations is laid to the burden
imposed -by the emigration of 18_47. On this subject the Council rema.rlzed:—

“— to Say that that expenditure has been large is to convey no idea of its character
or eifect. As a legitimate charge upon the revenues of the Province incidental to its position
as a colony, it has been distinctly repudiated by the Colonial Legislature: as a disbursement
on behalf of Great Britain it has been in a very rent measure unexpected and unprovided
for; while Such has been the pressing character of 1: e emergency, that men on whom the duty
has devolved ‘to grapple with the difficulty, have hesitated to acknowledge the obligations it
imposed, or Shrunk from the task of making provision for its relief :—It has not been a. ques-
éion of discriminative charity between the industrious and the idle, the deserving and the
dissolute, the whole mass of the imported population involved in one common calamity has
pressed dis one resistless claim: the right to be Svucecured.”

The Council next pointed to the provincial vote of £20,000 which was characterized as
an advance to meet the emergency. Once more it was stated that Provincial expenditure on the
emigran/ts was regarded as an advance against the time when the full extent of the bill was
known and “—-it will be in the power of the British Government to relieve the Province
of all pecuniary responeihilit -——.”

Finally, the Council hel that the amount in the Bank of England, at the credit of the
Province, was insuflicient to meet the dividends on the loan due on Apnil 1; and that the
Provincial funds were insufficient to purchase the exchange required.

In a second minute of the same date, the expenditure on the emigrants was stated to be
£130,607. The proceeds of the tax on emigrants was given as £19,000.9.2, and advances by the
Imperial Government as £55,358.6.8. This meant that the consolidated revenue had advanced
£5(i24.5/. Nor was the expense at an end, since the province must still meet the cost of the
emigrant hospitals at Quebec, Montreal, Kingston, and Toronto. A large number of orphans
had. still to be rovided for. The Council claimed that ggovincioal means were exhausted “—‘
and that iinme iatc Steps are necessary to procure Fun from England if further adx-aiices
are to be Made, and indeed to provide for the current expenses and Actual Service of the
Province.” It was recommended that Drafts, not exceeding £20,000 stg., should be drawn 011
Messrs. Glyn, of Halifax, on the security of Provincial Bonds held by that company–: “but
the Committee with confidence rely upon the Home Government not permitting that Province fill
Sustain any pecuniary Sacrifice in this Matter from s depreciation of her Securities, by it
forced Sale, or to Suifer any discredit to he nl:l1TOW’A’] on her engagements through her elforte
19% Lvrogridg against the pressure of an Emigration of so alarming and so unprecedented a
c arac er.

This minute concludes with recommendations as to sanitary regulations which should be
adopted for future emigrations. These recommendations were embodied in a draft bill. The
Council requatenl that this bill should he tnaneinitted to England,_ to Emigrant Agents‘ and to
shipping firms “ in order that they may ‘be prepared for the Legislative Measures Vv‘h1ol1_‘W|1u
probabl be adopted with reference to it, and enforced during the ensuemg season of Emlflm’
t-ion.” (‘£’anadcz State Bank, H. 11. 259).

ELGIN-GEE Y PAPERS 125

Mem. of Sums due by the Provincial Government to the Imperial Treasury-

Indian a-nnuities.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. £l0.000
Duties on Cattle imported for the Troops.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 8.000
Balance of Loan made to Lower Canada in 1837.. .. .. .. . . .. .. 4.000
1322.000
[Endorsed]
Feb/ 5/48
L‘ Elgin

[Duplicate MS copy] ‘
Private BELGRAVE SQUARE

March 22/48
My DEAR ELGIN,

Tho’ the Mail does not go for two days I will take advantage of being con-
fined to the house by a bad cold to begin at all events an answer to your very
interesting letters of the 5”’ and 17”‘ of FebV—— This is indeed a most important
crisis in the history of Canada & the experiment you are Now trying will
probably determine not only whether its connection with this Country is to
last, but also whether it is to have the advantage of a mixed & well regulated
Gov“ or is to be given up to Extreme democracy,” The more I see of the
Nature of this last Gov‘ (without looking to the Monstrous absurdities now
perpetrating in France but judging from your neighbours in the U. States) the
more persuaded I am that the Canadians are infinitely more interested than we
are in the result— To us except the loss of prestige (no slight one I admit)
the loss of Canada W‘ be the loss of little but a source of heavy expense &
great anxiety, while to the Canadians the loss of our protection & of our
moderating influence to restrain the excesses of their own factions W“ be one of
the Greatest that can be conceived, I trust that there is good sense enough
Bmong the Majority to make them understand this, & thus to enable you to
proceed in your great experiment, it is a great comfort not only to myself but
*0 my colleagues to be satisfied that if it fails in your hands failure must have
been inevitable, as I have no doubt that you have played this great game as
well as it ed be played & that the principles upon wh. you have acted are not
only.the rights ones but have been most judiciously appliedi—— I am very
glad also to hear that my Despatch on responsible Gov“ has been Well taken—
In Nova Scotia Sir J. Harvey seems tm have settled his change of administra-
tion satisfactorily but I cannot help thinking that there is a difierence in the
capability of the Anglo Saxon race for self Gov“ from that of the other
European races. .

The Bill you have sent us home for emigration is indeed a formidable one,1
1101‘ is this a convenient Year for meeting such demands; I cannot yet tell Y011
how I shall answer it, as it is too large a question for me to settle by myself

‘See above p. 12/: and note.

126 ELGIN—G’REY PAPERS

& I must give it more consideration before I can even make up my own opinion,-
the present inclination of my mind is to pay the whole Now as part of the huge
charge for the Irish famine, but at the same time to take no vote for Emigration
expenses in Canada for the future leaving the Province to meet them from its
own resources adopting such precautions as it thinks proper by Legislation. 1
rather gather from your letter that this is the course wh. you w“ recommend.~—
One thing the Colonists sh“ consider that if they are too unreasonable in their
pecuniary demands, we shall be driven into meeting them by re-imposing the
duty on their timber and making it equal to that on Baltic Timber, they sh“
remember that this is nearly the only diiierential duty we have left & that by
applying the principles of free trade to them we ed easily raise from £500,000
to a Million a year without any sensible burthen on ourselves. I confess I
think that now the Canadians have self Gov“ so completely granted tm them
they ought also to pay all its expenses including military protection, the only
exception being the Governor Gencral’s salary wh. for many reasons sh“ be
charged upon this Country (if we were relieved from the other expenses of the
Colony) & sh“ be raised to at least double its present amount, so as to make
the Olfice an object to leading men here. These however are views rather of
what ought to be than of what I have the least notion can be, tho’ I have very
little doubt that means might be found of enabling Canada to pay for most
efiective military protection without imposing any real burthen upon her—— This
I think c“ be done in connection with emigration. What I sh“ like Wd be to
send out some of the many thousand emigrants Who now go annually to
America under the restraint of Military discipline to be employed not merely
as soldiers but as pioneers to prepare some of the neglected lands of Canada
for settlement. The wild western Irishman now goes out to Canada utterly
ignorant of every useful kind of labour, & till he gets gradually instructed, is
fit for no employment requiring more than brute strength. But he is a singu-
larly teachablc animal, & one very easily brought under discipline if well
managed. Now if a couple of thousand of these men were enlisted annually,
subjected to regular instruction as our Sappers & Miners are, both in the
Military exercise & in labor, & employed for 7 Years in opening roads or if you
please in constructing railroads, receiving while employed fair wages from wh.
a portion sh“ be stopped to pay at the end of their engagement for a comfort»
able cottage & lot of land wh. sh‘ be given to them;—it seems to me that the
Colony might pay these men & get back by the sale of Land at an advanced
price on the sides of the roads so constructed & in the neighbourhood of the
Settlements so formed, far more than had been spent, while at the same time
the general revenue W‘! be increased by thus dcvelopping the Natural resources
of the Province and increasing the population—— Of course these Men W“ be
accompanied by their Wives & W“ be from the first placed in the Cottages *0
become their own at the termination of their agrcement.—~ This Country might
fairly pay for the transport of such a force to Canada leaving it after its arrival
a charge upon the Colony, in a few Years a very large force wd thus be formed
& as it was no rm] existing Garrison might by degrees be withdrawn, or at least
reduced to a very small amount—~ Men so sent out sh“ at the end of their 7
Years engagement be put upon the footing of the enrolled pensioners here:

’ ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 127

being called out for exercise 12 days in each Year & being also liable to be
i required to serve in the Province in the case of war or disturbance— A very
effective reserve force w‘1 thus be gradually created & at an exceedingly small
cost—~ These are very crude ideas wh. it is rather hard to have inflicted upon
you in their present shape, nor had I any intention of doing so when I began
writing, I am however strongly impressed with the conviction that the prin-
ciple of what I have suggested is right & might be worked out into a practicable
measurer
‘ You must by this time have rec” the news of the French revolution, & this
mail will carry out to you the news of the changes by wh. it has been followed
almost all over Europe.——these are indeed marvellous & fearful times, & it
is impossible to look forward to what may be the events of the next few
months without the greatest apprehension. These events will not I fear be with-
out their infiuence even on the other side of the Atlantic & they will probably

;‘ cause much excitement among the French Canadians.

l&cl
GREY
[Endorsed]
March 22/48
’ L“ Grey to L‘ Elgin

[Original MS]
Private
MONKLANDS.
March. 2 18Ii8.
My Dnuv. GREY,

Par‘ has met at last. I am glad of it— for since the close of the Elections
my time has been spent neither agreably nor profitably. After their result was
ascertained, Ministers, Who never denied that they were beaten, expressed a
desire to meet Par” before retiring -—- I consented at once to their so doing,

‘ 011.condition that it was summoned without delay. This was, I apprehend,
under the circumstances, the proper course : but it has not been unattended
with inconvenience and diliioulty—- During the interval every Act of the
Ministry has been the subject of invidious comment. Their position, with oer»
thin death staring them in the face, has been, it must be allowed, one of con-
siderable difliculty and some temptation. I have had by no means an easy

‘ ‘ifisk in determining when to give them the rein & when to withold assent to

their recommendations —— More than once since I last wrote the sky has been

!°W°1‘ll1g and I have had my fears lest my connexion with them should terminate

“1 81! explosion. These incidents have occasioned me a good deal of trouble

find anxiety, but they hardly deserve to be made matter of record. Meanwhile,

1“ Tefillect to more important interests the situation has been most unfavorable.

have been obliged to prepare for Parliament with a Ministry whose fall at
the very opening of the campaign is inevitable; and who naturally desire to fall

123 E’LG’IN—GREY PAPERS

softly. At such an epoch neither Imperial nor Provincial interests are likely,
it may be feared, to occupy the largest place in their thoughts. But, in truth,
bad as things are now in these respects, they have never been much better since
I came here. My Ministers have always been struggling for existence… Catch-
ing at straws—— living from hand to mouth. Any thing like a large or Generous
policy has been altogether out of their reach. I know not what the future may
bring forth: but I confess that I regard with hope rather than apprehension
the prospect of coming in contact with a more powerful Party, and with men of
more decided views,

I await with some anxiety y‘ oflicial communication on the subject of our
Immigration expenditure — I cannot conceal from you that I consider the line
of argument which you adopt in your private letter’-1 in favor of saddling the
Province with a portion of this outlay, a dangerous one in the present temper
of mens’ minds. It may be true, that Canada is not worth keeping on the
terms on which alone she can be retained .— When You count the cost of her
military establishments and ask ‘ where is the quid pro quo.’ it is very possible
you may obtain no suificient answer. But, pardon me for observing, if you
attempt to redress the balance by requiring the Colony to bear burdens which
she does not choose to bear, you engage in a contest of which the issues are
by no means certain. The position of Canada as respects British sympathies
and antipathies is most anomalous and cannot be measured by ordinary rules.-
Disailection is not here as in other parts of the Empire a purely negative senti-
ment —~ It is the creature of positive preferences and hopes. The question
practically present to men’s minds is not ‘Do we hate England enough to
renounce our allegiance and to affront all the inconveniences and perils of
seperation’—but rather, ‘Do We love her enough, is her connexion suflicicntly
valuable to us to induce us to refuse to clasp the hand which is stretched out
towards us by a great neighbouring and kindred nation, with whose prosperity
and rapid advancement as contrasted with our comparatively slow progress we
are constantly taunted by British Statesmen? ’—

A People so circumstanced must be handled with caution and I am not sanguine
of the success of any attempt to persuade them that they ought to pay heavily
for what they regard a grievous calamity entailed upon them as a consequence
of their dependant position = more especially when this attempt is accom-
panied by an intimation that the prerogative will be exercised to prevent measures
of precaution adopted by the local legislature from becoming law, if they shall
exceed the limits prescribed by Imperial authority—- Your advice on such 11
subject is recieved with suspicion. You are supposed to be considering the
interests of an 0ver—peopled metropolis : or, what is still worse, of Irish Land~
lords, a class of persons who are by no means in favor on this side of the Atlantic.
My own opinion is, that the British N.A. Colonies should be left as much 93
possible to themselves to take measures for the prevention of diseased Immi-
gration, and for meeting the expenses of the service. If, under the influence Of
temporary excitement, they were at any time to subject Immigration to improper

1See above 12. 125.

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 129

restrictions, the injury which various Provincial interests would thereby sus-
tain would ensure a prompt return to a more judicious and liberal Policy.
Between this, and the adoption of an entirely artificial system of Immigration,
or, as it is more pompously styled, Colonization, the cost of which wd be defrayed
by the Mother Country, I see no safe & practicable course. However I am
doing all I can to induce the Legislature to pass an Immigration Bill as nearly
as may be in conformity with the suggestions contained in Your Dcspatch on the
subject. I shall probably be able to send it by this mail as it comes out of
the furnace of the Lower House.

Par‘ met on Friday——— a division took place on the Speakership in which Sir
A M°Nab the Ministerial candidate was beaten by 54 to 19.1 I M. Morin
(French) elected— So much for the position of of my Ministers in the new House.
on Monday I delivered my Speech. Since then, they have been discussing the
conduct of certain returning Officers——- an Immigration ‘Bill—&c &c. Tomorrow
(Friday) the debate on the Address commenees.—

You will observe that in the last paragraph of my Speech I remarked that,
among other advantages, Canada possesses “the blessing of Peace secured tm
her under Providence by the patriotism of her Sons and her connexion with a
State which is both just & powerful” I inserted these words advisedly and
they have had the efiect I intended to produce— At a Caucus Meeting of the
liberal Party held yesterday for the purpose of determining what the amend-
ment should be, I have reason to know that M. Papineau made a most violent
SDG9011 on this clausewdenouncing Britain in no measured language – This
brought out Mm Baldwin who dissented altogether from these views, & spoke in
terms of loyalty and attachment to British Connexion. My object is attained,
for the blot is hit, & the amendment agreed on is, in this part, an echo of the
Speech. . ..

I enclose the copy of a curious letter which has come to me from the States.
It is anonymous–in some places misspelt which may be the result of design~——.
It came in a parcel addressed to Mary, packed up with wonderful care, and
Prepaid. It is certainly written by some one who knows the carte du pays for
the statements are accurate enough in so far as I can test them.

However, we have not made Papineau Speaker, and, I trust, that we shall
be able to keep him at the head of a factions minority: but it will require
Some skill and luck to do so.

For the present I drop the curtain; when it rises again a fortnight hence
I shall have the pleasure of introducing my new set of dramatis persona

Very sineely Yrs.
ELGIN & KINCARDINE
The
EARL GREY
[Endorsed]
March 2/48
L“ Elgin
933′!-9

130 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

Copy
To the R‘ Hon”‘° The EARL or ELGIN
Governor Genl of Canada.

Sm,
As the new Legislature is about to meet, and important changes likely to
take place in the Appointment of public Ofiicers, I respectfully offer Some
Suggestions for your Lordship’s Consideration. This Letter, I will leave with
M‘ Barclay the British Consul, & I trust that your Lordship will have leisure
to read it.

Among the Candidates for the Presidency, Mes” Taylor, Cass, Clay &

Polk, are the most prominent. The importance of managing the Matters in
Canada, So as not to influence the choice of M‘ Cass, through a Union of
Northern popularity with certain Southern interests, cannot, I think, be over-
stated.
. Mr Cass came very near an Election in 1844-; Ohio, though favorable to
the Wilmot proviso, has again hoisted his name, a large Party in this State
may be brought to support him, & your Course may (I do not Say will) Secure
his Election.

When in France he paid court publicly to Louis Philippe, privately to the
Republicans, who hope to succeed him. He professed to be friendly to France,
& opposed to England; his property consists chiefly of lands near Detroit, or
bonds for Sale, & other real Estate in Michigan. No state in the Union shewed
more anxiety to get rid of Britain than Michigan. M’ Cass at heart shared
their views.

When M” Papineau was in France, he was most intimate with M‘ Cass,
that intimacy continues. M‘ Marcy, another of M‘ Papineau’s friends, tried
hard to elect M’ Cass instead of M‘ Polk. If M’ Cass is nominated by the
party, & your Legislature elect M” Papineau its Speaker, & there be violent
debates in the assembly, the Embers of the old war feeling of 1838 will be
quickly fanned by the democratic party leaders. Cass & Canada will be the
private watchword, & your debates will be copied & Commented upon, & placed
before the people, from Iowa to Maine, as a proof that Canada is ready to
revolt —— M’ Papineau is lcnown all along the lines as the head-rebel of
Canada —— he has just issued an address just as inflammatory as his Speeches
were in 1836 & /37 —— his Election would therefore be injurious to the return
of Clay or Taylor, & might do much for Cass. In 1840 M” Van Buren, believed
to be the Peace Candidate, did not get the vote of a Single frontier County
in any State opposite to British N. America.

M‘ Papifleau adopted the Case Policy in Washington in 1838. He did
much to assuage the fears of the Slave holders by the assurances that Britain
was more abolutionist than the Canadians, who would, he said, gladly give UP
the Slaves to their owners, if 9. Separate Power, or be ruled by the Constitution
if admitted into the Confederacy. I know that M’ Poulett Thomson remarlifi
in his letters to Lord Russell, that England could lick the Yankees. But 1119-)’
not Events in Europe Give her work at home, & would not a War hunting presi‘
dent be dangerous in such a Case? Why play the Game of one’s Enemies?

C’ Cl

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 131
[Enclosure]

You have made a sort of O’Connell of M’ Papincau; recalled his Son, who
took the oaths to this Government; given the Patronage of the Crown Exten-
sively among his Relatives, & held united as a Ministry the Ultra Conservatives
of Upper Canada & the more Ultra Republicans of the Lower Colony. This
may be proper, but do not forget for a Moment, in the Papineaus & Vigers you
See the most treacherous Enemies of your Countrymen & of your race. Well is
old Papineau, his father, described by Colonel Baynes in his letter to Sir Isaac
Brockl as a “white livered runagate” the System which called to Oflice2
together, in 1844, Mess” Robinson, Draper, Papineau, Prince,3 Sherwood, Viger,
Morris, Burns &c., was indeed a curiosity. Nevertheless a Government in
Opposition to public Sentiment would be fraught with dilficulties, altho’ to
have in the Chair of the Assembly, or in any other more important oflice, the
man who denounced “Pitt, & the other bribed & pensioned & long buried
framers of the act of 1791 ”, “the blood stained dictator, Colborne “, & “the
more hollow hearted but not less vindictive dictator Durham,” whose “suit
was composed Exclusively of individuals full of ,vice and depravity ”, will
he injurious.

Have you no hold in him, through the oflices with which you are fattening
a nest of Serpents to Sting you when they desire? Gratitude is out of the
question.

One thing is clear to me. It would be wise to humour the new house to
do Something handsome in the way of public Schools — help on real reforms
dc reserve knotty questions till after next November.

No two men are now on better terms than Mess” Papineau & Bidwell.
Sir Francis B. Head set the latter down as the Enemy of England. He is So,
45: hates the European cordially: M‘ Papineau has written to him to Settle
in U. Canada again; & he is inclined to do So, & to get into the Legislature, to
aid in Exciting disaffection. It is intended to bring in a bill for his Conven-
fencei to repeal the U. Canada Statute which requires persons who have resided
1n the U. States to be Seven years in the Colony ‘before they can be elected.
It might be resemed if it passed the two Houses.

At. the Massachusetts, Berkshire County, Jubilee, Aug‘ 22, 1844, Governor
BHEES spoke thus—— “I call upon Brother Bidwell, a true son of Berkshire for
3 Speech” —— page 158 —— ofiicial account. page 159 — M. S. Bidwell then
(Lan1d:g’:1l1:’1t(l}.\’;1s§)l1e)tt$;‘ see, Brock, F. B, The Life and correspondence of Sir Isaac Brock
is EL Elgtot all those mentioned by the writer of this letter were appointed to oflice. _ T11e_f0i10Wi11g
mini8bem§)f(é:’l.;$ha%pointmenf/s merle by Sir Qharles Metoalfe, suvlficquent -to the resignation of his
1 somber’ “use exception of D. Daly) in November, 1843.

so g9”’te1:;bZlf§;§find W. II. Draper, members of Executive Council;

: _ – Draper, Attorn G ne 1, W t,
¥)V1lIm.rn Morris, Reeeivg Ggneidl, es
‘yrs? _P-aprneau, Cormnvimioner of Crown Lands,
7 0G,bbei’x‘:itJY}1‘g,£‘l;lorney General, East;

E’ 13- Vi 91‘, President of the Cmmeil,
to 1)e:g,’;%e§ irgfiod, Solicitor General;
lwéggiafll Robinson, Inspector General.

John Prince received no appointment.

132 ELG’IN—GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

took the Stand & Said- “ I have come here Simply to enjoy one of the clearest
“ wishes of my heart that of visiting after So long absence in a foreign land, the
“Scenes & friends of my childhood. I come, I know with the Same S87Lti-
“ ments db feelings which are experienced by the thousands around me — a son
“ of Berkshire —— it is the proudest title I ever aspired to —~”

The Speaker of two Assemblies in Upper Canada, Considers himself to
have been a foreigner there — He addressed the Crown —— “We your
Majesty’s dutiful and loyal subjects,” one year, & had the feelings & Senti-
ments of a worthy Massachusetts Yankee, another.

To invite a cunning man like this back to Canada, is to prepare to place
Strangers over the heads of Canadians & Immigrants.

That the tory party, Some thro’ incapacity, others thro’ design, Slyly aided
by M’ Bidwell & his friends, Some taking one Side, & others the other, before
the rebellion, it would be Easy to demonstrate. The difficulty you have to
encounter, is how to keep the people on your Side, and yet prevent the influence
of those who hate Englishmen from becoming More Extensive than it is.

Your diiliculties are only commencing, and may Heaven Conduct you safe
through them. Mildness & firmness, with Steady & Well directed efforts to
benefit the Country, will do much ; at present the Americans are weakening,
instead of Strengthening their institutions, so far as they are based on justice
& Equity.

If M’ Papineau’s Course in the Assembly shall be of a piece with his recent
letters, it may do muchniischief. By referring to his past Statements &
humble military career he might be ashamed, for he is a poltroon, but Lord
Dalhousie helped him on to popularity by refusing to treat him as Speaker
when elected.

[Duplicate MS copy]
Private Bnnonzivn SQUARE

April 7/48

My DEAR ELGIN

I send you by this mail a Despatch upon the Emigrant Billl wh. long before
this I conclude from your last letter that you have passed. You will see that
in urging some amendments I have abstained from saying positively that the
Act W‘! be left in operation thinking that some doubt on this point might possibly
a little facilitate the passing of the amendments, but I may tell you privateli’
that we have no thoughts of disallowing it, not at least whilst this seasonfi
emigration is proceeding, whether We may not disallow it at the end of the Ye?-T

‘The following objections and suggestions to the proposed not were made by Lord Gray
in this despatoh:—-

1. Obicctions to Olauae 5~on the ground that it required (11) the Master of each vessel to clsclflre
the name and age of every passenger; and (1)) to designate any lunatic, idiot, (leaf, dumb‘
blind or infirm person and to state if such person was accompanied by relatives allle 9°
care for him; and also to designate all ehildren without relatives on board, and all Widows’
or women with children but without husbands. Masters failing to comply with s116l§ 99”‘
ditious were subieet to a penalty of £5 for each case which he failed to report. S’uuaest1oM”f
(41) that the oificial customs list be taken as sufiicient evidence of the name and M5 °

_,._

ELGIN~GREY PAPERS 133

postponing till then any decision, so as to make the Assembly reconsider the
whole subject before next season I will not say (I am writing in the morning
before I go to the Office where I know I shall not have a moment, & I therefore
have not the act to refer to so as to be sure that I am right in my recollection
that its operation as it stands is for two Years) but I think it not improbable
that we shall take this courso—At all events however for the present we shall
not interfere with it—-This determination & the very high rate of emigrant
tax the Legislature has chosen to impose, strengthen my opinion that
our best course with regard to emigration expenses will be to pay the
whole for last Year & nothing for this leaving the Assembly to make the
arrangements it thinks proper—I cannot however say positively yet that this
will be our course. You may conceive that the present state of afiairs at home
makes it very difficult for me to get the opinion of the Cabinet upon any subject
on wh. I cannot decide alone. You will see by the Newspapers in what an
agitated state we are, the condition of Ireland is becoming more & more alarming
& in England though the Great body of the people are sound it is impossible to
disguise from oneself that in many places there is a very bad spirit abroad, &
that from the distress it is likely to spread—— The state of Europe has had a
most disastrous effect upon our trade— It was just beginning to revive & there
were all the signs of a prosperous Year coming on when everything was abso-
lutely paralyzed by the breaking out of the French revolution— The consump-
tion of Eiuope is now so very important a part of our trade that its sudden
cessation is a most serious blow. Over the whole continent confusion seems to
get worse & worse but things seem to me hopeless only in France. Do you get
the Economist in Canada? If so I hope you have read a most admirable article
wh. appeared in it last week on the prospects of the different European
Countries-« It will I trust prove a great safety to Canada in this general wreck
Of authority that you will have had a Ministry partly consisting of French
Canadians when the News of all these startling events reached you— I am
waiting anxiously for the sequel to your last interesting letter with an account
of the beginning of your political changes-

[Endorsed]
April 7/ 48
If’ Grey to L“ Elgin (signed) GREY

passengers, the Master being required only to add the names of any passen ers eznbarked sub-
sequent to the delivery of such list to him; (7)) that the Master of 0. s ip was EL private
individual with arduous duties to perform and should not be _held responsible for a duty
which by clause 6 was very properly imposed upon a provincial ofiicer.

2- Obicciinns to clause ’l’—on the ground that (cl) the amount requred to be paid for emigrants
“thought likely to become chargeable” was too high; and 7)) that the emigrant tax in
general might be too high. Sag;/cstia1i3-(m) that the subject e reconsidered; and (13) that
this security should not be required from those who, though not able to cam their OWD
living were proceeding to Canada. to join relations who were able to support them.

3- Obiection to clause Z4-—-on the ground that it “Would appear to be inconsistent with geneml
Driuciples of Law and with the rights of other parties ’ to require_tliat “in case a Vemel
be lost on the Coast of Canada, the Wreck shrill be liable for the mainteiiance of Passengers,
and for their conveyance to their dtnsrtination.”

Lord Grey also urged that the Legzislature should endeavour to pass. such. a lawns would

secure uniformity of legislation on this subject, in British North America. He pointed. out

hat it would be highly detrimental if the Canadian law should be piade more Sliflllgent

:3-§rn(§l10SG of the anther colonies or of hhe United States. (Gray to Elam, Agml 6, 1848, N0~
, .150, p. 352 .

134 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS

[Original MS]

Private
MONTREAL March 17. 1848.

My .DEA.R GRnY,—I agree with you in thinking that the realization of the
views which are not obscurely shadowed forth in M Papineau’s manifesto would
in all probability be attended by results little satisfactory to his compatriots
but——, however difficult it may be to reconcile the course he is now taking with the
belief that he is a disinterested Patriot, or even a zealous assertor of French
Canadian interests, it is by no means impossible to account for it on the sup-
position that he is a selfish man, prompted by motives of personal ambition,
and that blind antipathy to England, which he shares with certain fanatics in
France, and the United States, and which is in his case aggravated (as is not
unusual with characters of this stamp,) by the signal lcnity which he has experi-
enced at the hands of the British Gov‘ He is a dangerous man however, and
has much influence among the French Canadians; who remember that he cheered
them on to the fight, & forget that he left them in the thick of it

A circumstance somewhat significant as indicating the quality of this Gentle-
man’s patriotism occurred a few days ago—-«An agricultural Society for Lower
Canada has been lately cstablished—I take an interest in it—Major Campbell,
my secretary, one of the most enterprising seigneurs in the Province, presides——
It is supported by the leading men of all Parties—- The priests give it special
encouragement— A journal, undefiled by the remotest allusion to politics, is
published in French for the information and instruction of the I-Iabitans— One
individual only in Lower Canada has refused to take this journal, and returned
it to the Publisher. That individual is L. J. Papincaul-

The Parliamentary campaign has not opened favorably for M. Papineau.
To have been forced to swallow in silence a paragraph in the address in reply
to the speech from the throne in which one of Canadals choicest blessings is
ascribed to her connexion with a State which is both just & powerful, must
have been a.deep mortification to him—- the deeper and bitterer, because this
necessity was imposed on him from the impossibility of finding in the most
liberal Assembly ever elected in Canada an individual who would second his

amendment. I trust too that this lesson will not be altogether lost upon our
republican neighbours who are crowing loudly over the alleged anti British
tendencies of our new House of Commons.

Permit me however to observe——this result, be its importance great 01′
small,-—~cou1d not have been atchieved had I pursued any other course of policy
than that which I have steadily followed since I came here. It is not without
much pains & circumspection that I have succeeded in impressing the leading
men of all parties with a thorough conviction of my impartiality and sincerity
and of my readiness not only passively to endure; but, within constitutiona
limits, to give active support, to any administration which might commend itself
to me as possessing the confidence of Par*— After all that had occurred it W35
by 110 11103518 6353’ ’50 bring the public to ‘believe that I neither fear nor distrust
any class of Provincial Politicians, and yet I am confident that if I had adopted
on such points the views which I inherited, three fourths of the members £0’

ELG’IN—GREY PAPERS 135

Lower Canada, with a section more or less numerous of Upper Canadians, would
have united with M. Papineau in any amendment expressive of disafifeotion
and distrust of England which he might have proposed. A declaration of this
nature at the present time would have sounded like the blast of a trumpet
through the Union—

As it is, I start fair with the new men——- and by every thing which I have
done since I came here the ground is laid for a good understanding— The late
Ministers tendered their resignations in a body on Saturday the 4“, immediately
after the division on the Address which took place on Friday. I recieved and
answered the address on Tuesday, and then sent for Mess. La Fontaine & Bald~
win. I spoke to them in a candid and friendly tone. Told them, that I thought
there was a fair prospect, if they were moderate and firm, of forming an adminis-
tration deserving & enjoying the confidence of Par°~——that they might count on
all proper support and assistance from me. La Fontaine’s manner, (to whom
Baldwin seemed desirous to yield the first place,) is naturally somewhat stiff,
but he soon thawed; and our intercourse has ‘been entirely frank & satisfactory—~
In the programme first submitted to me MW Suilivan’s name did not appear. I
expressed regret at this, which they assured me they shared, adding that they
had omitted him at his own desire, as he disliked politics, and thought that the
oflice destined for him must «be given to another to conciliate a certain class of
Supporters—- They dwelt much on diificulties arising out of pretensions advanced
in various quarters, which gave me an opportunity to advise them not to attach
too much importance to such considerations, but to bring together a council
strong in administrative talent, and to take their stand on the wisdom of their
measures and policy. These remarks had their effect; they took back their
Programme, and returned the next day with M’ Sullivans’ name included—
I consider this a point of importance, for MW Sullivan is not only an able man,
but more British in his feelings than any politician almost whom I have met
with in Canada.—-

I am not without hopes that my position will be improved by the change of
administration. My present council unquestionably contains more talent and
has a firmer hold on the confidence of Part and of the Poeple, than the last-
Thcre is I think moreover on their part a desire to prove, by proper deference
for the authority of the Gov. Gen‘, (which they all admit has in my case never
been abused), that they were libelled when they were accused of impracticability
and antimonarchical tendeneies——— They will of course be exposed to PT93§u1‘0
from without, but, so long as their views are sound, and their hearts in the right
Place, they will be better able to resist such pressure, and to give a right direction
‘I0 legislation, than their predecessors, who seldom ventured on a division without
the Prospect of defeat. The late Gov” had to win a character for P5«’°1‘i°’E15F‘1:
and to‘ rid themselves of the imputation of undue subserviency to Gubernatorial
influences, and it was therefore hardly possible for them to treat with moderation
and fairness questions in which the interests of the Colony and the Mother
Country seemed to be conflicting. They had established too, it would appeal‘
30 have been imagined, by the part which they took in Lord Metcalfe/s contest;
5 90145 of undifinable claim on him and his successors, which subsisted: 01′
‘”33 Supposed to subsist, long after they had virtually abandoned the flag Under

136 ELGIN-«GREY PAPERS

which they won that battle. For, candor obliges me to declare my belief,
that, notwithstanding the issue raised by Lord Metcalfe, they used patronage for
party purposes with quite as little scruple as his first council: and MW Draper’s
last speech in Parliament, giving an account of certain transactions which had
taken place between Lord Cathcart and himself, contained the most arrogant
assertion of the rights of Ministers in this matter ever propounded in the Cana-
dian House of Commons- I make these observations to you confidentially, not
with the view of inducing you to give publicity to my opinions on these delicate
& knotty points, or of disparaging the services of Gentlemen with whom I have
acted amicably, & who have succumbed in fair fight, but, in order to put you
in possession of facts the knowledge of which is indispensable to a right under~
standing of our political position, & to remove impressions respecting men & local
parties, which notwithstanding the high sanction of Lord Metcalfe’s name I
believe to be both erroneous and dangerous.

You will observe, I think, a more liberal and ‘business like tone in the
communication on the subject of Immigration expenditurcl which I send you
by this mail than in others formerly reoieved by you. There is, I believe, a
sincere desire on the part of my new Council to put their shoulders to the wheel
and do what they can for the settlement of the Province. I trust that you will
meet their advances in an encouraging & cordial spiritm

My views respecting the justice and policy of requiring Canada to bear
any considerable portion of the expenses entailed by last year’s Immigration
have ‘been so repeatedly submitted that I refrain from pressing them again—
This however I must be pardoned for remarking. An Imperial guarantee for the

‘On 17 March, 1848. the Executive Council adopted the following report of the Inspector
General, and urged that it should the sent to the A3se311hly:~ _ _ _

“ The Inspector General takes the earliest opportunity of submitting to His Excellency the
Governor General, such :1 Statement of the Financial Aflairs of the Province as he has been able
to prepare, Which, in the absence of -the detailed accounts of revenue and expenditure (or the
past year, which are not yet completed, will he trusts, be found satisfactory. The net revenue
for the year 1847, including outstanding hon s for duties, was £506,226 Ids. 8d. To this must he
added the balance at the credit of the Consolidated Revenue Fund on the 31st January, 1847
which was £52,006 3s. 7d., making a total credit of £W,832 18s. 3d. The expenditure for the
year, including the interest of the public debt, and the various appropriations by Parliament
under permanent Acts and the annual Supply, is £458,021 16s. 11d., leaving an apparent balance
n/c the credit of the Consolidated Revenue Fund of £100,811 ls. 4d. Against this balance, however;

must he placed:—~ ‘ _
First, the sum of £35,000, principally [or public works, appropriated by Parliament in 1845,

1846 and 1847, but not et paid. ,
Second, The sum 0 £22,283 55. 9d., expended during the past year under Orders in Council,

without the authority of Parliament. _
‘ Third, The appropriation in the Supply Bill of 1847, of £20,000, for Immigration and Quaran-
tine; Which, it is to be feared, the Province will be called upon to pay.

Fourth, A balance due to the Ismzperial Government which may be estimated at £22,000;
and which is urgently demanded by the Commissarint Department.

Fifth, The amount of appropriations for the service of former years for Common School?»
I._’ublic Buildings, &e., which have not yet been paid, but for which the Consolidated Fund 18
liable, and which may be estimated at £50,000. ’.Dhese demands, amounting in the aggregate
tom about £150,000 Currency, would, if settled, place the Consolidated Revenue Fund in advance
a. 111.‘ £50,000.

It must however be borne in mind that a very large sum, not less than £100,000, of the
revenue of the past year is still unpaid. And further, that the advances on account of the
expenditure consequent on the Immilglrntion of last season, and the amount still due on the

ioh. the faith of the Government is pledged, cannot

same account, for the payment of 1v
estimated as less than £63,000, over and above the £20,000 voted by the Provincial Legislature

durin {Jae last Session.

‘1‘ e advances on account of the Immigration expenditure of the past year, and the large
amount of outstanding Bonds for and Timber dutim have caused very serioufl
ombnrrassruents to the Government which still continues, and it is to he feared will continue
for some time longer. But in the opinion of the Inspector General the real ground for

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 137

loan of £1.500.000 was given in Lord Sydenhams time to help him to confirm
the allegiance of the Province— A bonus of some shillings on each bushel
of Canadian wheat, with the privilege of grinding Yankee produce for the British
market, strengthened the hands of Sir C. Metcalfe. I ask for no such adsci-
titious aids— I do not request you to restore protection which has been aban-
doned~—or to give Imperial guarantees which are objectionable on principle;
but to abstain from imposing upon Canada at this crisis a burden which she
has never borne (for the poll tax & Imperial grant have heretofore met Immi~
gration charges) and which the circumstances which attended the Immigration
of last year could not fail to render especially onerous~ distasteful-

But I have already trespassed at too great length on yl“ tinoe.—— In my next
I shall probably communicate to you that the legislature is pi-orogued.

Very sincerely Yours
ELGIN & KINCARDINE.

I send a newspaper with a speech of Papineau’s1 that you may see the style of

his harangues.
Many thanks for y. communication about my expenses. I shall be very

cautious in acting upon it.

[Endorsed]

March 17/48
Lord Elgin

Rec“ April 10

uneasiness is to be found in the still increasing expenditure for Public Works. Under the 9th
V“3- C313. 06, the sum of £520,833 Ils. 161, was appropriated for various Public “Works and
authority was at the same time ‘Von to the Government to raise the amount on the credit of
the Province. During the last (amen, :3, further sum of £60,000 was appropniated for the
Welland and Laehine Canals, which -was likewise to be raised liy loan.

It appears that of this aggregate amount of £580,833 11s. lzl. the sum of £408,051 16s. 4d. has
been actually rzuised and expended on the works; ‘but it is important to remark that no loans
have been obtained in the ordinary way in the money market. ’lll1e money has been obtained
partly by the investment of the Clergy Reserves, Jesuits’ Estates, School Lands, and other
Special funds in Provincial Debentlires; and partly from the balance of the Imperial guaranteed

1°“ of £1,500,000.
In the opinion of the Inspector General there is no probability that the Provincial Dcben—

ture-s which the Grovcrnment is now authorized to sell, can be disposed of at par; ond yet he

Dds on enquiry at the D rtnient of Public Works, that not only have contracts been
entered into to this extent o‘ the £172,181 14s. 9d., which is the balance of the appropriations
for ryhich the Government is authorized to issue Debentures, but that the Commissioners of
Public Wo1‘ks have entered into contracts to the extent of upwards of £100,000 beyond the
9-Dpropriations, and for which no ways and means have been provided.

S_uoh being the state of the finances ef the Province, the Inspector General respectfully
subxiiits that it is necessary, in order to maintain the public credit, that authority should
be given to the Government to issue 1)ebenl’ures to the extent of £125,000 beyond the amount
already: authorized by Earliament; but he cannot recommend that any appropriation for
9XDGL\dll’.\1I’e not sanetionezl by 1’ai’liaine1it should be applied for dnrin the present Session. And
In submitting the accompanying Estimate for the service of 18 , the Inspector General
W°“I.d Tesnecbfiflly state that it has been wholly impossible for him to take the details into
ggnaidernion, and he therefore recommends that a “Vote of Credit, to the extcntpf £14-0,000,

mild be applied for, to be accounted for in detail at the next Session of the Legislature.

All which is most rmpcctfully submitted.

Insrnomn GnNaizsL’s Orrroa
Montreal, 17th March, 1848,
F. HINCKS,
Inspector General.”

I(J3urnals of Asseinbly, Uauada, ISJ8, Appcmlia; R.)
IVOI: in the collection.

138 ELGIN—G’REY PAPERS

[Duplicate MS copy]
Private
0.0.
April 14/1848.

MY DEAR ELGIN,

I received on Monday your very gratifying letter of March 17″‘—— Nothing
I think can have been better or more successful than your management of your
new Parl” & of your change of min.istry— Your policy has been entirely in con-
formity with my views, nor have I any doubt whatever that you are right in your
belief that by acting on the very different policy of L“ Metcalfe (wh. you know
I never approved) you w“ have got into inextricable difficulties— It is most
fortunate that you had a Ministry including some of the Leaders of the French
party before the news of the French Revolution reached you. I trust your anti-
cipation of improvement from the change will be realized & I certainly think
that upon the most important topic of the day that of emigration this improve-
ment is as you observe perceptible, the memorandum1 you have sent is a much
more businesslike one than the papers of M‘ Cayley, I hope you will also think
that I have met it in the spirit you wish by agreeing that the whole charge for
the past shall be paid by this Country but that in consideration of our doing so
Canada eh“ be expected to pay everything but the Salaries of the Emigration
Agents for the future. As the power of co-ntroling the expenditure rests entirely
with the Provincial Administration & the Legislature has been allowed to adopt
its own measures for restraining improper immigration & has passed a Law infi-
nitely more severe than that of New York, I see no reason why we sh“ now pay
anything for Emigrants going to the S‘ Lawrence any more than for those going
to the States— Considering that I received Your Despatch only 4 days ago &
in the middle of all the turmoil of preparation for resistance to the Chartists
I hope you will give me credit for not having lost time in making this arrange-
ment—— The readiness of your Council to employ money in settling the territory
is greatly to their honor, but pray take care that whatever is granted for this
purpose is judiciously laid out. I am more & more persuaded that it is not wise
to attempt in the first instance to settle Emigrants on Land, & that the right
course is to provide them the means of maintaining themselves by Labor by
opening roads &c until they can purchase land for themselves from their sav-
mgs~
We are here as you may suppose greatly relieved by the Chartist failure on
Monday——but for the extent of our preparations I have little doubt that it
w*’ have been a very formidable movement, but they were completely cowed;
& luckily their leader F. 0’Connor is an abiect coward———I am told his terror
when sent for by Mayne the Police Comm‘ was perfectly ludicrous»-I wish
I thought the danger over—I hope you can give a good account of Mary, give
my love to her and Alice

(signed) GREY.

I am delighted at Papinealfs want of success so far——-

See above p. 188 15 note.

ELGIN~GREY PAPERS ‘ 139

PS. I have quite forgot to say that the List of O. B’s is at last coming out
& I have omitted Draper thinking it might be inconvenient to you to have
only one such decoration given & that to an opponent of your present advisers
but if you have two or three names to recommend I sh“ be very glad to submit
them to the Queen——
Signed G.

[Endorsed]

April 14/48

L“ Grey to L“ Elgin

[Original MS]
Private

MONKLANDS March 27/48.
My Dem Guest.

You may imagine with what anxiety we await the arrival of the next mail
from England. The state of Europe—y[’1 position as a Ministry—~the situa—
tion of the members of my family who are in Paris—on every side there are
subjects of apprehension——I trust that you will have weathered the storm which
was gathering around you when you wrote. Should you have left oifice the
Colonial Minister will have little idea of what is going on in Canada unless
you let him see my private letters to you.

Mary has I grieve to say, been unwell for a few days. She is getting
beti1′.1er—and her illness was never serious though it was rather disheartening
to er. ‘

Yours very sincerely

ELGIN & KINCARDINE

[Original MS]
Private

Mouvrnnan. March 27. 1848.
My DEAR Gnnr,

It is just as well that I should have arranged my Ministry, and com»
mitted the flag of Britain to the custody of those who are supported by the
large mfllolity of the representatives and Constituencies of the Province, before
the arrival of the astounding intelligence from Europe which reached us by the
last 1nail—— There are not wanting here persons who might under different
Clrcumstances have attempted by seditious harangues, if not by overt acts, to
turn the example of France and the sympathies of the United States to
account-r~

_ Of the future it would hardly be prudent to speak confidently. A con-
siderable section of the poeple of this continent would think almost any act

140 ELGI N —GRE Y PAPERS

justifiable which should result in the extension of the area of republicanism
and of the territories of the States. Already the New York Herald is revelling
in the prospect of the acquisition of Canada, Cuba, and the British West
Indies, by aid of France. An entente cordiale between republican France and
Yankeedom might have a tendency to adjourn for some little time the Free
Trade Millenuim——.

As it is I am going on smoothly with my new Ministers, and have nothing
particular to communicate—.

You will observe that I have prorogued Parliarnent—— This course was
adopted after full consideration——- I could not have gathered my Cabinet
together after the reelection of the Upper Canada members in less than 5
weeks. This would have brought us to the time of the year at which it is most
inconvenient for the M.P.Ps to be at Montreal. Besides it is, I think, quite
as well that my reform advisers, who are somewhat recklessly spurred on by a
section of their supporters, should have time to look before they leap.

I entirely concur in y. views with respect to the principles on which the
affairs of this Province should be administered. You must not however infer
from my frank acceptance of the consequence of constitutional Gov‘ that there
is any disposition on my part to surrender my legitimate i.nfluence—— It is of
more importance in my opinion to Great Britain, that the poeple of the
Province should be satisfied with the Constitution under which they live, and
that persons of M. Papineau’s class should rccieve a heavy blow and discour—
agement in the alienation from them of the body of the Liberals, than that
I should atchieve triumphs over my responsible advisers on the subject of
appointments to oflice. As matters stand here, there is, I think, more wisdom
and more skill in avoiding such contests than in winning them-—

The British Press seldom condescends to notice our proceedings.—— The
only paper which I see that shews any knowledge of the subject when it does
so is the Daily News. The Spectator of the 19”‘ February however bestows
a leading Article upon us. Though written with much pretention it proceeds
on a misconception of the bearing of recent political events so complete that
it can be accounted for only on the supposition that the author has traded
on preconcieved opinions of his own without deigning to consult the proVin~
cial Press and other sources of information accessible to every one- I append
an extract from the Globe, the organ of the Upper Canada liberals, which shows
how far they agree with the Spectator in thinking that I unduly identified myself

with their opponents.-
Very sincerely Yours

ELGIN & KINCARDINE

The
Earl Grey

[Endorsed]
March 27/48
Lord Elgin

ELGIN——GREY PAPERS 1 -1-1

[Enclosure]
Toronto Globe

THE CHANGE OF MINISTRY

The calm and dignified manner in which the great problem of Constitu-
tional Government has just been wrought out, is one of the most auspicious
events which has -occurred in our western World, since the first British subject
set foot on it. Taking it in connexion with the change in Nova Scotia, we
regard it as the harbinger of many a happy day for the colonies, and as a bond
of indisscluble union with the mother country. Responsible Government is no
longer a theory admitted in the abstract, but disowned in reality. It is the
working of “ self-government” so happily alluded to by the present Governor
General, soon after his arrival in Canada, yet working under all those constitu-
tional checks, which long experience of the structure ‘of society has shown to
be necessary. The firmness and loyal devotion with which the people of Canada
bore the inflictions of the Government of the last four years, and their miser-
able majority, gained by the use of every artknown to the reckless modern
politician, gave evidence to all the world of the confidence they felt in the
working of the Constitution, and that the day of triumph would be that of a
free election.——We have frequently adverted to the noble and independent
conduct of the vast majority of the Constituencies. But can the country ever
forget the consistent and honourable course pursued by the present noble repre-
sentative of her Majesty, from the time of his landing in Canada till the present
moment. When his political predilections, and the kind of Councillors by which
his Excellency has been surrounded, are considered, no rneed of praise too high
can be awarded to the noble Lord. It is evident he saw nothing, and would see
nothing, but the Constitutional Charter of Canada, and by that safe and legiti-
mate guide, he resolved to steer the vessel of the state. The British Crown
and the American Colonies owe a deep debt of gratitude to the noble Lord.
He has healed the rankling wounds of the last ten years, and laid the founda-
tion of a fame which, we trust, will steadily increase in lustre till the close of
his administration.

[Original MS]
Private
Morzrnnnn
Ap‘ 9. 1848

My DEAR GREY,

The letters which you have lately recieved from me have Put You
fully in possession of the state of affairs here, and I have little to trouble you
with on the present occasion. Perhaps in the distracted condition of the World
no news at all is the best news I can ofier. I feel myself however, must
confess, somewhat in the position in which the master of one of those ricketty
vessels which are sent to this quarter in quest of timber occasionally finds him-

M2 ELGI N «GREY PAPERS-

self. By dint of much labor and watching he succeeds in conveying ship and
cargo safely through the tempests and icebergs which assail him on the voyage
out and home, and he is not a little disappointed, poor simple minded manl
when, on reporting his arrival, he hears the owners mutter one to another ‘ It
would have been better for us if the whole concern had gone to the bottom,
as we should then have realized the Insurance.’ Much in the same light are
exertions made to maintain and perpetuate the connexion between this Province
and the Mother Country, likely, I fear, to be viewed:—-for Canada is begin-
ning to be reckoned, I shrewdly suspect, by most English politicians, a bad
bargain at any price. –

Nevertheless, so long as I am in charge, it is my duty, I presume, to steer
by the old lights, and to endeavor to keep things together as I best can.

That we have passed satisfactorily through a erisis—— a crisis which might,
if injudiciously met, have been attended by very serious results—— is, at least,
certain— At no period probably during the recent history of Canada have the
poeple of the Province generally been better contented or less disposed to
quarrel with the Mother Country than at present. It is needless to conjecture
what might have been the effect on their minds of M. Papineau’s commentaries
on French and American ootemporary history, if they had been in a diiferent
temper.

When I say that at no time have the poeple of the Province been less dis-
posed than now to quarrel with Great Britain, I do not mean to afiirm that
the bonds which unite the Colony and the Mother Country are more likely
than ever to endure. Undoubtedly, what has occurred here has had a tendency
to strengthen,British sympathies, and to remove causes of disaifection — But
on the other hand Great Britain has done much of late, in regions which are
beyond the reach of the Provincial administration, to prepare the way for
separation—The most valuable privileges which the Colonists enjoyed in the
British markets‘ are withdrawn from them. While the tarifi of the United States
gives a preference to their own citizens in the markets of America, the
navigation laws subject the exports of the Colonists to what is virtually a hostile
discriminating duty. There is plausible ground therefore for maintaining that,
as matters now stand, both home and foreign trade would be benefitted by the
severance of the connexion.—

I need not say with what anxiety we await intelligence from y. side of
the oeean- The Telegraph which gives us scraps of news, days before the mail
arrives, keeps us in a constant fever.

Yours very sincerely
ELGIN & KINCARDINE

[Endorsed]

May”) 4/48

L“ Elgin

Rec“ May 4/48

I “May” has been scratched out and “April 9 ” .sn‘bsti’cuted, in pencil.

E’LGIN—GREY PAPERS 143

[Duplicate MS copy]
Bnnoasvn SQUARE
May 4/48

MY DEAR ELGIN
I have just reed your letter April 9”‘ & as the Mail is made up tomorrow

‘I will write at once the few lines by wh. alone I can answer it, as I am more

completely overwhelmed with the pressure of the most multifarious business
wh. has yet been thrown upon Me.—~ It is such as fairly to get the better of
my spirits & make me more than half inclined to strike work & say I can go
on no longer——

I can assure you that you are much mistaken if You suppose that your
success in getting thro’ the trying crisis of affairs wh. I trust may now be
regarded as safely passed, is looked upon with the feelings you suppose by
myself & my colleagues whatever it may be by others. It is quite true that
under the pressure of great distress & financial embarassment there is a
growing disposition in the H. of Commons & amongst the public to grumble
at the heavy cost of our Colonies, & it is Equally true that the advantages of
the connection to both parties must in future be of a very different kind from
those wh. in former days were supposed to arise from the possession of Colonies,
but for one I remained convinced that the connection upon proper terms is
equally beneficial torboth, & I therefore think that both Canada & this Country
are infinitely indebted to you for having effected what you have done ~— I also
confess myself sanguine Enough to believe that this connection may be pre-
served with mutual advantage for a far longer time than we can look forward
t0\_

You cannot be surprised that in the excitement of the marvellous Events wh.
are so rapidly succeeding each other in the old world, the public & even the
other members of the Gov“ who have less direct concern than myself with
Colonial Affairs can spare but little attention for the more ordinary trans-

actions of your side of the Atlantic.
(signed) GREY

I am sorry to gather from Alices letter that Mary is not recovering as fast as
I had hoped-—

I do not know whether you take the Economist in case you sh“ not I send
you some excellent Articlesl wh. have been reprinted from it—-
[Endorsed]
May 4/48
Lord Grey to Lord Elgin

‘ Thtnae articles are not in the collection.

144 E’LGlN—C~’I€EY PAPERS

[Original MS]

Pfivate
MONTREAL Apfll 26. 1848.

MY DEAR Gnnr,

The question which you raise in your last letter respecting the Military
defence of Canada is a large one, and, before irrecoverable steps be taken, it
may be well to look at it on all sides.-

The first consideration which offers itself in connexion with this subject, is
this— ‘why does Canada require to be defended, and against whom? A very
large number of persons in this community believe that there is only one power
from which they have any thing to dread, and that this power w“ be converted
into the fastest friend, bone of their bone and flesh of their flesh, if the connexion
with Great Britain were abandoned.

In this respect the position of Canada is peculiar. When you say to any
other Colony ‘England declines to be longer at the expense of protecting you’
you at once reveal to it the extent of its dependence and the value of Imperial
support. But it is not so here. Withdraw y’ protection from Canada, and she
has it in her power to obtain the security against aggression enjoyed by Michigan
or Maine.— About as good security I must allow, as any which is to be
obtained at the present time,

But you may observe in reply to this‘ “ You cannot get the security which
Michigan and Maine enjoy for nothing, you must purchase it by the surrender
of y. Custom Houses and public lands, the proceeds of which will be diverted
from their present uses and applied to others at the discretion of a body in
which you will have comparatively little to say.” The argument is a powerful
one so long as Englandwconsents to bear the cost of the defence of the Colony,
but its force is much lessened when the inhabitants are told that they must look
to their own safety because the Mother Country can no longer afford to take
care of them.

On the other hand very weighty reasons may be adduced in favor of the
policy of requiring the Province to bear some portion at least of the charge of its
own protection ——- The adoption of Free Trade, althoughlits advocates must
believe that it tends to make the Colonies in point of fact less chargeable than
heretofore, will doubtless render the English people more than ever jealous of
expenditure incurred on their behalf. I am moreover of opinion that the system
of relieving the Colonists altogether from the duty of self defence is attended
with injurious effects upon themselves. It checks the growth of national and
manly morals. Men seldom think any thing worth preserving for which they
are never asked to make a sacrifice——

My view therefore would be that it is desirable that a movement in the
direction which you have indicated should take place, but that it ought to be
made with much caution —-

The present is not a favorable moment for experiments. British Statesmen,
even Secretaries of State, have got into the habit lately of talking of the
maintenance of the connexion between Great Britain and Canada with so much
indifierence, that a change of system in respect of military defence ineautiously
carried out, might be presumed by many to argue on the part of the Mother

ELGIN-GREY PAPERS 143

Country, a disposition to prepare the way for seperation—- Add to this, that
you effected only a few years ago an Union between the Upper & Lower
Provinces by arbitrary means, and for objects the avowal of which has pro-
foundly irritated the French population —— That still more recently you have
deprived Canada of her principal advantages in the British markets.— That
France and Ireland are in flames and that nearly half of the population of this
Colony are French -— nearly half of the remainder Irishl.-—

Notwithstanding the calm which has ensued on the recent adjustment of our
local political disputes, the events which are succeeding each other with such
dread rapidity in these two unfortunate countries, are producing I fear a ground
swell even here. M.-Papineau is deeply chagrincd ‘by his present position and
doing all he can to create disaffection by evoking Irish and French sympathies.
A Body of young men, small in consideration themselves, have been meeting
repeatedly under his auspices for the purpose of getting up a joint French &
Irish demonstration. It is understood that from one of their hole and corner
meetings an address has gone forth purporting to convey the congratulations
of the youth of Montreal to the youth of Paris on their recent republican atchieve-
ments. Tomorrow is fixed for a public meeting of Irish sympathizers and
an effort will bernade to induce the French to join in it. In some quarters there
are apprehensions of disturbance _— I trust that nothing of the kind will occur.
Indeed as the local Gov‘ is established on the most popular basis I do not know
about what a disturbance can take place, unless there be an attempt to impale
me as the symbol of Monarchy and English domination!-—

As a proof of the popularity of my Gov‘ I may mention that all the members
hitherto returned after vacating their seats on app‘ to oflice, have been reelected
without opposition,— except one, & he carried his election by 17 to 1.!

Sir Benjamin DUrban has just been with me with some alarming reports
of the state of feeling among the Irish of secret oaths taken by numbers, «Sc
Preparations made by them for an outbreak — If anything occurs I shall
endeavor to communicate through the States.

Yrs very truly
ELGIN & KINCARDINE

My last ace“ lead me to hope that the Meeting of tomorrow may be
Stopped -—~ It is said that the Yankees are sending arms over the frontier but
I have no authentic information to this effect, _

The Priests are getting up an association for the purpose of settling the
French Catholics on the lands of the Crown — Papineau is ‘0I’.Yl11g 1’10 Put hm‘
self at the head of it by attending the Meetings and talking treason. The
Project has a good side as well as a bad one. I hope to keep the S005 31de
uppermost and defeat M. P’s object—— The following extract from one Of the
French Papers of today will shew my first move in this direction.——

lEI1dorsed]
April 26/48
L“ Elgin

9387———1D

146 ELG’IN—G’REY PAPERS

[Enclosure] V
DoN.~—Assoo1ArIoN mas Townsmrs L’Evéque de Montreal, President de

l’Association des Etablissements Canadiens des Townships, accuse, avec une vive ‘

gratitude, la reception de £20 courant, qu’il a plu a son Excellence lui adresser
hier, pour aider a Yoeuvre des missions, dans les nouveaux Townships. Il prie
tous les journaux de cette ville de vouloir bien reproduire la présente accusation
d’un don si généreux, si propre 23. faire connaitre au pays les intentions bien-
veillantes du représentant de Sa Majesté, et a encourager la susdite Association.

[Original MS]
Would you allow the accompanying letter to be sent by the post?
My DEAR GREY,

I have nothing to add to my letter of yesterday, but I am sending home
one of my young Gentlemen, and I give him this note to take with him; All
quiet here today —— Yrs E & K –

Monrnmn, 27, Ap‘ 1848.
[Endorsed]

April 27/48

L“ Elgin

[Duplicate MS copy]
Private
C:O
May 18/48
MY Dma Enom,

I have rec“ today & yesterday your letter of the 26“ & your note of the
27”‘ & I am very glad to hear that up to the time you Wrote the last things
continued quiet—- I trust you may succeed in keeping them so in spite of M’
Papineau——

I hope I am not one of the Secretaries of State to whom you allude as having
expressed a dangerous indifference with regard to the maintenance of the con-
nection between this Country & Canada, for I had hoped that whatever I may
have said in private letters tm you, my language in public has been very guarded
upon this subject, & even in private I do not think I have said anything to
imply that I regard our keeping Canada with indiiference; if it were only to
prevent the N. American Colonies becoming part of the union I think it [of]
great importance to preserve them, & of course they Must all go or remain
together.—— I do indeed think that it is of far more consequence to the Colonies
that the connection sh“ be preserved than it is to us, to them it seems to me
diificult to over-estimate its value~—

About the Military protection of these Colonies I agree almost entirely with
you, & in my letter to wh. you allude you will find that I took a distinction
between what ought in reason to he the arrangement & what can be so. Practic-
ally I quite concur with you that all that is possible is to get the Colonies to
contribute towards their own defence & that even this must be attempted very

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 147‘

cautiously—-— I still am of opinion that this object might most advantageously
be combined with measures for emigration & for opening the great railway from
Halifax to Quebec, an object of immense national importance“

The outline of the project I -have been turning in my head is this—-To raise
say 24000 men enlisted as pioneers for 7 Years—— These men to be drilled &
trained as soldiers & also taught those kinds of labor wh. W“ be of the most
use in making the railroad.—— Of these men let 2000 be doing Military duty
at a time reducing our Garrisons in the 3 Provinces to that extent so that we :2“
pay them while doing Military duty without any increase of our military
expenditure in Canada.—— This Wd give one month’s service a year to each of the
battalions into which these men sh“ be divided—— When not doing Military duty
they sh“ be employed on the proposed railway receiving extra pay as the troops
do when working on the fortifications &c.— To render their Services eflicient in
this way we sh“ have some Non—Oommissioned Officers from the Suppers a
Miners & Ofiicers from the young railway Engineers of whom so many are now
unemployed— These men sh‘ be enlisted on the terms of having no right to pen-
sions & as a substitute a promise of land (in small allotments) at the end of 7
Years. They sh“ be at once established in villages of 100 men each all along the
line of the future railway where their work w“ be required, choosing particularly
the Situations in the neighbourhood of the heaviest works.–

The following are some of the considerations in favor of such a measure.
First. It would be an effective addition to the Garrison of these Colonies to a
very large amount—

Qndxy It W“ be a mode of giving an immense stimulus to emigration & in the
very best Way; the wild Irish of the Western Counties are so utterly ignorant
of all useful labor at present that they are not easy to provide for when they
first arrive in the Colonies, but they are peculiarly tcachalble & capable of being
disciplined, and under good ofiieers W“ soon «become excellent laborers, & while
employed upon the railway W“ learn what W“ be of great use to them afterwards
as settlers, & a part of their wages W‘ be reserved for them on their discharge.
3”” It W“ create a demand for a great man)’ 5151191‘ Emigrants’ 13b°1‘“‘ Every
farmer near the line w“ take another hand or two to meet the demand the
consumption of these people W“ create.

4”’ It w“ be the cheapest mode of constructing the railway. These men
being enlisted here for 7 Years wd Work far :below the rate of wages it w” be
necessary to give them if engaged in Ameriea——

Such are the advantages— The great & only serious difliculty Pf “’h~ I 8}“
aware is that of money, & even this I believe might be overcome if the ‘Legis-
latures W“ assist—— A company might be got to undertake the enterprise Ii: suf~
ficiently liberal terms were ol‘i”ered— This Country might do 5°’f’°thm3″’
say we might find the Oflicers & convey the laborers to their destination. The
main source of profit independently of the traffic when the line was finished W‘
be the increased value given to the Land ‘thro’ wh. the railway was carriedy 55
this wd be so great that it seems to me the Assemblies might fairly agree to $1” 3
Part of the price of the Land hitherto ungrantcd W“ sell for to the railway
Company, & further to lay a small -tax or rate on all land already granted Wlthm
a certain distance of the line.

9a37——1o§

I48 ELG’IN—GREY PAPERS

People pay rates for ordinary roads why not for the greater advantage of a
railroad?

A good line having now been as I understand found by the engineers who have
surveyed it, I am strongly of opinion that some such measure as I have now
very rudely sketched might be adopted & I wish you w“ consider the questionm
I sh“ like to organize something of the Sort & be able to submit such a scheme
to the Legislatures of the Provinces in the winter so as to begin operations
in the Spring——~

(Signed) GREY

I was so glad ‘cm hear yesterday of E1:ni1y’s safe confinement, I hope Mary is
getting strong again-

May 19.

I find that I have forgot to mention that an act has been passed by the
Legislature of Bahamas separating Turks island from that Gov“ & creating a
distinct Gov“ for it wh. is to be administered by a President under the direc-
tions of the Gov’ of Jamaica—— The salary of this oflfice is to be £800 a year
& the change is to come into effect at Xmas next unless legal difficulties stand
-in the Way of wh. there is some little danger—— If you think Mm Daly a fit
person for this employment you may olfer it to him——

[Endorsed]
May 18/48
Lord Grey to Lord Elgin

[Original MS]

Private
MONTREAlr—1VIay 4. 1848—
My DEAR GREY,

I mentioned in my last that some anxiety was felt here in reference to a
projected political demonstration. M. Papineau and his satellites were, it was
understood, laboring to bring the Irish and French together to listen to inflam-
matory harangues on the exciting subject of Ireland.— It was supposed that
when the Irish blood was up, they might be induced to commit some act of
aggression, as, for. example, to attack the Gov‘ House or military stores, and
that the collision ensuing thereupon might furnish a pretext for interference
on the part of American sympathisers. The chief apprehensions prevailed
among the military authorities. I enclose the copy of a note written to Sir
Benjamin D’Urban by Col. Holloway, Commanding Oflicer of Engineers and
placed in my hands by the former which will enlighten you as to the nature
and grounds of these apprehensions—. I kept myself in full and frank com-
munication with my Council, who did not share these alarms, but acted never-
theless with good sense and propriety— I need not give you details, but the
upshot of all was th.is—~that although no steps were ostensibly taken by the
authorities to prevent a. meeting, M. P. found to his disgust, when the

E’LG’IN-—GREY PAPERS 149

appointed day arrived, that if he attended it, he would be unsupported by any
French Canadian or Irishman of influence. He thought it therefore adviseable
to decline to be present. The meeting was put oh‘ to a later day, but that day
too has passed as tranquilly as the first.~—.

These are, I think, facts of some importance-— Bear in mind that one
half of our population is of French origin, and deeply imbued with French
sympathies,—that a considerable portion of the remainder consists of Irish
Catholies—-that a large Irish contingent on the other side of the border–fam
ntics on behalf of republicanism and repeal—are egging on their compatriots
here to rebellion——that all have been wrought upon until they believe that the
conduct of England to Ireland is only to be paralleled by that of Russia to
Poland——that on this exciting topic therefore something of a holy indignation
mixes itself with more questionable impulses——that Guy Fawkes Papineau,
actuated by the most malignant passions, irritated vanity,—-disappointed ambi—
tion, and national hatred which unmerited favor has only served to exasper-
ate is waving a lighted torch among these combustibleszyou will, I think,
admit, that if we pass through this crisis without explosions, it will be a grati-
fying circumstance, and an encouragement to persevere in a liberal and
straightforward application of Constitutional principles to Govt»-

I shall not hazard a conjecture as to what might have taken place ere
this, had my late Council been still in office; but I may mention, that one of
their number, an honest and worthy man, has congratulated me more than
once on the scasonable change of administration—

I have peculiar satisfaction therefore, under all these circumstances in
calling y, attention to the presentment of the Grand Jury of Montreal1 which
I have sent you officially, in which that body adverts to the singularly tranquil
and contented condition of the Province.

I am very anxious to hear that you have taken steps for the repeal of so
much of the Act of Union as imposes restrictions on the use of the French
language. The delay which has taken place in giving effect to the promise made,
I think by Gladstone, on this subject, is one of the points of which M. Papiflea-11
is availing himself for purposes of agitation. I must moreover confess that I for
one am deeply convinced of the impolicy of all such attempts to denationalize
the French. Generally speaking they produce the opposite effect from that
intended, causing the flame of national prejudice and animosity to burn more
fiercely -— But suppose them to be successful what W“ be the result? You may
Perhaps americanise, but, depend upon it, by methods of this description, you
will never anglicisc the French inhabitants of the Province.~—~. Let them feel

_th‘t1E‘|hefprescntment ofkzhc G-rand Jury of Montreal, 15 dated 22 ADM]: 1843: and °°’“’1ude”
W1 e ollowvin remar z—- . –

, _ “ Le grand jugiy ne peut iempecher de manifester le_1ronheur qu’zl ePI‘°“V*i de.V.‘fi” Efiggy‘
Joulssant d’une paix et d’une trcnquilhté profondes, tandip que 165 P9″? 95 d9 P Y1?‘ if 1”
Se trouvent engages dans les troublm et le fen des révoluhons. Oette P543 11°11‘ 19″” “0 en?”
‘$11951 sait apprécier et qu’il saura, maintenir est due :3. la. _forme de notre fouvemgéeemféa rtde
surtout a la eageeie, a Phabileté et la fermeté des honimes qui 01175 !1I>Pe1é5‘P“ %.1″’:’Pr nugeux
notre souveraine a le faite fonctionner; avee dejzels lxommes A la téte des 42. a1reEI,t s_o _ dc
¢0Inm’e ils le sont des intéréts de tous sans disbinetxolls 1e. rays ne peut que srwrérer 0 Wm’
cette paix si néctmajre au déploiement de son i’l1<_1lRl7_.l‘le et de_ son eommcrce.d B M E“
. Le grand iury est d-one perauadé que cette mix 61 =1é°e99We.«‘m 770″’-‘°‘3Teo1_‘:fi1;_1“ye,, Bimpr,
Jamais troublée, le gornvernemenc pouvant compter sur la symputhie 61′: EDP“-I
de tous ses habitans. (La. Minerva, 4 mm, 1848.)

150 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS

on the other hand that their religion, their habits, their prepossessions, their
prejudices if you will, are more considered and respected here than in other
portions of this vast continent which is being overrun by the most reckless, self-
sufliieient and dictatorial section of the Anglo Saxon race, and who will venture
to say that the last hand which waves the British flag on American ground may
not be that of a French Canadian?

Another subject on which I am very solicitous is the free admission of
Canadian products into the States. At present the Canadian farmer gets less
for his wheat than his neighbour over the lines -— This is an unfortunate state
of things —— I had a long conversation with MW Baldwin about it lately, and he
strongly supports the proposition which I ventured to submit for y. consideration
about a year ago—[vi]z that a special treaty should be entered into with the
States, giving them the navigation of the S‘ Lawrence jointly with ourselves
on condition that they admit Canadian produce duty free.—- An arrangement
of this description affecting internal Waters only, might I apprehend be made
(as in the ease of the Columbia in the Oregon Treaty) independantly of the
adjustment of questions touching the navigation laws generally. I confess that
I dread the efiect of the continuance of the present state of things on the
loyalty of our farmers. Surely the admission of the Yankees into the S‘
Lawrence W“ be a great boon to them and we ought to exact a ‘ quid pro quo ’.——

I enclose half a newspaper containing a translation of an article in the
Avenir Papineau’s paper, with his declaration of war —- Of a reply in the Revue
Oanadienne La Fontaine’s organ-—and a commentary from the Conservative
Herald.—— It will give you an idea of our politics in this qua.rter——~

Yrs very sincerely

ELGIN & KINCARDINE
EARL GREY

P.S. It is the Irish not the French from Whom We have most to dread at present.

[Endorsed]
May 4/48
L“ Elgin

[Enclosures]

Copy
Confidential

Montreal. 22”“ April 1848
DEAR Sm BENJAMIN‘,

I feel it my duty to represent to you that the Principal Clerk of Works of
this Department has just informed me that he was yesterday Given to under-
stand by a Person whom he named, & whom he Conceived to have means of
ascertaining particulars, that a. Secret Combination of the Irish in Montreal is
on foot, & bound together by Oath, having designs inimical to the Government,
that the number enrolled is at least 17,000, and that they look to the acquisition

ELG’IN—GRE’Y PAPERS 151

of the Arms & Gunpowder Stored on S‘ Helen’s Island, in Case of an Out-
break,——-or if they Cannot possess themselves thereof for use, that they Consider
they will have but little difficulty in Succeeding to Set the Buildings on fire, So as
to destroy the Depot and deprive the Gov‘ of the Stock.

I beg to State that I merely Convey the Statement Communicated to me,

I have the Honor to be
dear Sir Benjamin
Your Excel? very obed* Servant

W. C. E. HOLLOWAY

His Excellency
Sir B. D’UnnAN G. C B.

[Enclosure]
(Conservative)

We translate below two articles from French contemporaries, which, though
occupying a large space, are of suflicient interest to justify us in devoting it to
them. It may be necessary to explain to many of our readers, that the first
appears in a paper which is usually understood to be the organ of thatvery
mischievous person, M. L. J. Papineau: the last is from one of the organs of the
party which owns Mr. Lafontaine for its chief.——Notwithstanding the allusion
to passed political events, in which we, of course, differ from the writer of the
latter article, we are glad to hail the -liberal spirit in which he treats the wicked
attempt to keep up the distinctions of race, as an element in our politics. We
are glad, too, to know, that this spirit is prevailing more and more among those
whom he addresses. That our French Canadian -fellow—citizens should recur with
pride to the honored stock from which they spring———sheuld endeavor 130 Per‘
petuate all its memorials—is no more than is to be expected from those senti-
ments whvich. nature has implanted in our bosoms, and the Want Of Which WV91‘
fails to produce the utmost contempt for the man thus deficient of human sym—
pathies. But that any people on this continent, from which the EuroP<f9-11
nations have driven the original pessessors, can claim the right to exclusive‘
Privileges, we do not believe. Who does not know the fate of nativeism 111 the
United States? That 600,000 persons, surrounded on all sides by mmi°“5 f’f 3
different race, should be able to sustain a polity founded on peculiarity of blfth:
is a dream so futile, that it is not worth while to 5131391 it‘ Whatever changes
may take, it is hardly possible to imagine one that could give them permanent
preponderance except over the most limited space. Why should they desire W?
While each man is at Iliberty to entertain his own peculiarities ot thfiughliy
1anE11~a.ge, and Wership,,sure1y he can claim no more than his fair voice in the
direction of affairs. The promotion of the safety, and material interests of the
Community is the true business to which Government ought to be directed? there
need be no distinction of race on such points. If 3113/ 111511 can Show us how
We can become more prosperous as a community, he will show us at _the same
time, What is just and equitable; and none, when convinced that 8. ENE“ P13“

152 ELGIN-GIBE Y PAPERS

Enclosure]

is about to make him richer, will inquire whether a Frenchman or an Englishman
contrived it. Before people, at the command of M. Papineau, rush into a war
of races, it will be well for them to remember this, that as liberals, as radicals,
nay, as republicans, they may Ibe in the majority: as French Canadians, they
must be overwhelmed by numbers.

[Papineau]
{Taken from the Montreal L’A12cm’7~.)
THE UNION AND NATIONALITY.

For a long time repressed, stifled in the name of the public interest, the
attachment to our nationality, by which we are characterised, would appear
destined to become one of those prejudices, which the heart may still cherish, but
which reason prescribes as a weakness, an error in sentiment. No one dares to
protest in its name, for the sake of a position, into which we have been led by
a train of unhappy events; a position considered advantageous to us, whilst all
the benefits which can result from it, can only be obtained on the one condition
of giving no signs of our existence as a nation. That was avowed-ly considered
as an obstacle to our obtaining political rights; we must denude ourselves of our
nationality; we must cease to consider ourselves FRENCH CANADIANS, if we desire
to have any importance or weight in this system of social organization; and
thus, under the pretence of amalgamation, our nationality will be absorbed in
liberalism. The principle of nationality ceasing to be respected, as it is repudi-
ated from interest, must become fable, lose its moral force, and soon end in being
completely destroyed. So, during nearly ten years, we have seen its very name
forgotten, and its slumber so profound, that it almost appeared dead.

So long as this state of things has existed, the people of Lower Canada
would appear to have been seized with a general numbness, which paralized
their public spirit. This torpor would continue to prevail, but for the awak-

ening cry happily raised by some generous men, friends of their country and .

devoted to their nationalityp-— They have dared to break the silence, in spite
of its profoundness, to raise their voices and recall the remembrance of that
nationality, in preaching a doctrine which leads directly to its preservation.
Why have they not done so sooner——-why? because there existed interests
which, with a menacing gesture, imposed silence upon them; because the expec-
tation of a political welfare, always uncertain, renders us timid, under the
feigned name of prudent; because the Union, the inconveniences and bad con-
sequences of which it would be tiresome to relate, promising us in its results
certain advantages, demanded the death of our nationality, in exchange for
that constitutional liberty which we have so dearly, paid for. The Union has
caused incalculable evils to us, it weighs down our eXistence.—— Seduced,
amused in some sort with its details, we have for a long time lost sight of the
object of that measure, which, however, is every day recalled to our recollec-
tion hy that invasion of ideas and institutions, foreign to our ideas and institu-
tions, which renders each day the most desirable, in the midst of that confu-

ELGIN-GREY PAPERS 153

[Enclosure

sion of institutions, that perfect labyrinth of laws, of manners and of lan-
guage, which imposes upon us a double nationality, so as to render the one
necessary, the other useless, that is to say, to make us lose ours and submit to
the other. Such in effect was the success of that machiavelian work. The
Union was madefor the purpose of destroying us! it will evidently destroy us.

Submitting to that idea of the impossibility of our ever being able to
destroy it, we can conceive the resignation, we can imagine the utility, the
necessity of letting things alone, of silence; we could wish that our death as a
nation might be long postponed, might come upon us unawares; we can also
conceive that a people placed in such a position, could put its hand to the
work, like a suicide in a state of misery without hope; but what we cannot
conceive, is, that that union should be considered as the best, the most desir-
able thing, by those very people who are its victims, whilst they could discover
any way of restoring life to that nationality, if it were only the life of one
generation; that which we cannot conceive is, that we should find men who
would prefer amalgamation, the death of our nationality, to the happiness
of reviving and being resuscitated in a Foreign Nationality.

The question of the Union is put thus: Do you wish the Union with all
its advantages, at the price of the loss of your nationality? For the condi-
tion that it shall never be acknowledged as a principle of public action, is that
it should completely sleep, that it should die. Nationality is the vital prin~
ciple of a people, and some one has said with truth the silence of a people,
is its death. Is there not reason to be astonished that men are found among us,
men who wish to maintain a state of things so destructive to our existence as
a people. But we shall be told, you are attempting to re-awaken antipathies,
national hatreds. We pray you tell us, then, whether should one hundred
thousand abandon their prejudices, rather than six hundred thousand should
give up their just demands. We only wish for one thing, the preservationof
our Institutions, our language, our laws, and our customs. Is there anythmg
in this which ought to offend the national susceptibilities of an honest man of
good feelings. To obtain this, can we not respect the nationality: and the
manners foreign to us? The whole history of our struggles with that oppos-
ing faction, who, so long oppressed us with the object of destroying that nation-
ality, its eternal night-mare, could it not be condensed into that motto of
Polish nationality, liberty for us, liberty for you. Besides, is it decent that
six hundred thousand individuals should ask of one hundred thousand to teach
them their language, to impose upon them their institutions, because among
these hundred thousand, there are brawlers, who would Wish it to be believed
they were oppressed, when they are themselves the 0PPF955°1‘_5?, These “:9
not the considerations, which should make us disguise our pr111G1P19S- I? :5
time that the people should know all the evils which the union has entail
upon them; it is time that they should be shewn those with which it threawgll-E;
them; it is time that they should lmow, that the)’ 511.0131‘? emmate them’ m8m._
their magnitude, so that they may demand their extinction. If ‘we aremugo
mous, it will not be refused. The events which are daily Occumng 1“ pe’

I54 , ELGIN—GREY PAPERS

Enclosure]

afford us guarantees of success. The French Revolution will upset (doit boule–
verscr) the world. The English people, crushed under the two-fold oppres-
sion of its aristocracy, religious and secular, they too, perhaps, will make an
effort. That general conflagration may extend to England; it will follow or
precede a revolutionary movement in Ireland; and what is most probable, is,
that it will lead to a war between England and some continental power.-
With a straitened treasury, that which is demanded with energy, England
will not be tempted to refuse, when, to maintain that state of things without
profit to herself, she would require an army and an expenditure which she
could so easily avoid, in making all Lower Canada a colony which could give
her assistance in her need, and protection against her enemies from within and
without. The hour of danger will render England just and prudent, but it is
necessary that the people of Lower Canada should be prepared to demand
justice when that hour arrives; it will soon sound, peace will then be re-estab-
lished for a long time. If we know not how to profit by circumstances, then
the Union will remain until it shall be declared by all impracticable, destruc-
tive to the interests of all Without exception. Its continuance will depend
upon the will of the master who, when he is powerful, has ever shewn him-
self careless of the just demands of the weak.

But, while informing the people of the evils caused by the Union and of its
inevitable result, it is well to say that we will always sustain a liberal ministry
in power: for we have need of them now to rectify the evils caused by their
predecessors. The agitation can be carried on without interference with the
political views of the Ministry: and so soon as the people are unanimous and
circumstances favourable, we shall bring under the notice of our readers all
the most important facts regarding this act of spolitation and at the same time
of annihilation; this species of political robbery, (brigandage) which the age
would appear to repudiate; and everywhere, now-a-days, to revenge. It is
time to make it felt and to announce how it crushes us down. Everyday which
passes without the public attention being directed towards a subject of such
vital interest, is one step towards the destruction of our Nationality. We shall
take the initiative. We desire to offer our feeble aid to Canadian Nation-
ality. However small may be our merit, in other respects, we have, at heart,
that of being first to offer it our support, loudly to proclaim its name.

We have entered upon this course after grave reflection, with firmness,
and without any mental reservation, because we are certain it is the only
course which can lead to good. We would not find fault with -any of our
people; we desire the welfare and safety of all. To render all-prevalent one
principle of life, a principle of safety, the question of our existence as French
Canadians, this is the object to which our conviction directs us, and from which
no consideration can turn us, and which we shall strive to attain until the
last plank of safety escapes from us.

Once again we repeat, Nationality can alone unite a people; it can alone
give them that life, that enterprise and energy which is necessary for their
prosperity; the consequence is not that this Nationality, because it is united,

ELGI N —GI€EY PAPERS 155

[Enclosure

strong and active, should be bad-intentioned, evil-disposed and filled with
hatred. No, we believe that Nationality will unite all belonging to it; we be-
lieve that nationality will be the banner under which we shall advance; we
are convinced of it. That those who will give aid and assistance to the French
Canadians, in efiecting this work of reform and progress, need have no fear;
the support which isolated individuals might give, will be more regular, more
sustained, more efficacious, were these same individuals united in one body.
Those who know the French Canadian character, will bear testimony to the
truth of what we say on this subject. They will say in looking at the past,
in considering the character of our nationality, that every liberty will meet
from it that cordial and hospitable welcome, frank and sincere, which the
traveller and the stranger has ever found at our hearths.

(La Fontaine)
(From the Revue Canadienne.)
UNION AND NATIONALITY.

We have read with the greatest astonishment in the last number of
L’Avem’r, an editorial article under the above title, which seems to us of a
nature to produce the most mischievous consequences if public opinion be not
enlightened as to its tendencies and if good citizens do not unite hand in hand
to prevent its pernicious effects.

At a time when the entire Country is contented and satisfied, when the
Imperial Government has expressed its well considered determination to render
justice to her colonies, to decline interference in their local aifairs; and to accord
them Responsible Government in all its fullness, when a new era is opening
before us, when confidence is returning, when power is in the hands of the
majority of the people, when this majority through the Parliament has accepted
with joy the new order of things, and has testified its determination to set to
work, in order to make it work for the general good—by what right, and in
whose name, does L’Avem’1*, at such a time, advance with a cry of reprobation
of every thing that exists. By what right, and in whose name does it display
the flag of agitation, of trouble and of discord? By what right and in Whose
name does it attempt to throw distrust into the public mind—disorder and dis-
content into our ranks‘

L’Avenir, a journal published in the interest of our youth, edited bf? 8
committee of youthful co—adjutors, takes on itself to raise a war cry in the midst
of profound peace-—takes on itself to condemn without exception the existing
Order of things, the long and arduous labours, the sacrifice, the devotion of those,
Who have struggled during ten years for the cause of the country, for our
nationality, our institutions, our religion, our language, and our laws. From
whence comes this strange abuse of words and ideas-—this fatal aberration of 811
intellect calculated for disorganizations, destructive and wicked? Howl D81?
You tell us that for a long time attachment to our nationality has been DF€359d

I56 ‘ ELGI N ~GRE Y PAPERS

Enclosure]

down, stifled by public interests; that no one has dared to advance claims in

its name; that it has been an avowed obstacle to the attainment of our political

rights, and that for ten years it has been nearly forgotten? It is an infamous
lie: it is an unworthy calumny against all the efforts, all the acts of our public
men, who have led us to the magnificent position we now occupy? Is it not for
our institutions, and our nationality that our chiefs have fought for ten years
past? And if after the unhappy events of which you speak, they have followed
a calm, peaceable, moderate course of politics, is it because this course has been
crowned with success that you are emboldened today to cast injury and out-
rage in their faces as recompense, of what they have done for us‘?—Wherc were
you, then, when during all this epoch of ten years our present chiefs claimed
in the name of the country her part in political rights, protested against the
invasion of those same rights, and strove courageously for the preservation of our
institutions, our language, and all our national interests? Have you not heard
them since the Union in and out of Parliament exclaim energetically against
those acts of injustice of which we were the victims, and defend foot by foot
that precious heritage of our ancestors which has risen from the contest greater
and more glorious than it was before? Whence come you, then, that you have
not seen them opposed to an unjust, corrupt, and corrupting power, to a Governor
so forgetful of his dignity as to descend into the arena and take personal part
in the strife, yet maintaining that proud and firm hearing which has given the
last blow to the reign of arbitrary power in Canada? Was it to forget our
national for individual interests, or as you say again, with malignant perfidy,
to prefer the fusion, the death of this nationality in order to have the pleasure
of reviving and being rcsuscitated in a foreign nationality, that the chiefs of our
party resigned in 1843, that they engaged in an obstinate combat with Lord
Metcalfe, and that they repeatedly rejected the offers made them to enter the
Cabinet to revive and be resuscitated because these offers were unworthy of our
nationality and insuliicient? Was it this often repeated refusal which sacrificed
our national interests, or was it not rather the most eloquent manifestation of
our public men of attachment to these same interests? Tell us gentlemen of
L’Aocm’r, who weep so much over the ruins of the passed, and over imaginary
evils—tell us at what period of our history the French Canadian nationality
has been more brilliant, more honored, more respected, or has occupied a higher
position than that which it occupies this day? Was it as you, with shameful
self will, tell us an avowed obstacle to the attainment of our political rights? Or
has it not rather been thanks to the ability, the tact, the firmness and the patience
of its representatives so strong, that it has gained more in a few years, than it
had done before in a half century of combats?

But it is with a bad grace that the writers in L’Avem’r reproach the liberal
party for the line of politics it has followed since the Union. Where were these
generous men, the friends of their country devoted to their nationality during all
the time that Canada seemed seized with the lethargy that paralysed the public
spirit? Why, during these evil days, did they not boldly break this profound
silence, raise their voices, and re~am’mate the recollection of this nationality, by

ELG’IN—G’REY PAPERS 157

[Enclosure

preaching some doctrine that would tend directly to its conservation? There
were, say you, some interests which imposed silence with menacing gesture.
Here L’/1’ucm’7‘ no doubt speaks of the position in the Government of Messrs.
Vigcr and Papineau; but if you believed these interests hostile to the cause of
nationality, ought they to have stopped you——to have hindered you raising that
happy cry, which might arouse and save the country? Was it that your hearts
did not bound with indignation during the last four years, when Messrs. Viger
and Papineau, who also called themselves generous and devoted men, tired
themselves in the attempt to obviate the inconveniences and ill consequences of
the Union? How happens it that you blow the trumpet against this union which
required our national death in exchange for this constitutional liberty that we
have so dearly purchased with it, only, when instead of dying, this same
nationality revives more strong and more vivacious than ever? Was it not
when the union caused us incalculable evils, and weighed upon our existence,
that it was necessary to fulminate against it? Was it not when our chiefs
fulminated against it, that it was necessary to join them? No, the writers of
L’A’uem’r tell us very candidly the reason of their long silence. They were
seduced, amused by the details of the Viger—Papineau Administration, and had
long lost sight of the object of the union. However, Z’Aurore des Canadas was
there with his columns open to all independent opinions, to dissipate the dark-
ness of the past, and enlighten the future.

The union was accomplished with the object of ruining usl But the union
has saved us, and it is, after powerful and well-directed efforts, after having
conquered a position which permits us to parry its inconveniences and evil con-
sequences, after having obtained the political rights for which we have combatted
for fifty years, that the devoted and generous men of L’Avem’r raise their voice
against it. Our readers must pardon us for insisting so much on the presuntiption,
untimely .and absurd pretensions of young men, who may, perhaps, desire the
good of the country, but who, carried away by the insensate ardour oftliell‘ 9-89:
reduce politics to sentimentality, and would compromise, by their writings: the
best cause in the world. We should have no more replied to this article of our
young confrcres, than we have done to some other articles published In LAvemr,
had not that of Saturday !been a kind of manifesto a new political pI‘0g1:3mme
set before our compatriots. As such we discuss it frankly and conscientiously-
We live in times so extraordinai-ywrevolutions succeed one another so ‘I5-P1d_1Y
throughout the world, that, on reflection, we have thought that the Writers In
L’AvemI7” may have an idea of revolutionizing Canada. This eXP15‘m5 the
auspicious awakening cry raised by the generous “and devoted men who compose
the committee of co—operation of the aforesaid journal. After all, this is not as
bad idea; for in these great upturnings, witness the French revolution, 1\/lessieurs
the journalists take a large slice of the cake. The new Canadian rcpubhc mlght
Choose among the illustrious collazborateurs of L’Avem’r.

But we will make one remark to these generous and devoted men. A W01:99
moment could not be chosen to revolutionize Canada. Our ideas and our dis-
positions, they will agree, have no leaning towards war. The people has been

I58 ELGIN—GJtEY PAPERS

Enclosure]

fed so badly with theories, and as a consequence with interminable and useless
battles before the union, that at present, when it has the power in its hands
(Which it never had then) when it sees the men it has chosen to represent it,
in the Councils of the Sovereign, and truly governing the people in her name—~
the people, we say, will consider extremely injurious, and passably original,
strange, and fantastic, this idea of yours to overturn the actual order of things.
and -replace it by a “republic one and indivisible,” or by any other thing still
more marvellous.

In truth, we tell you, you have badly chosen the moment for displaying your
colours. Instead of floating in graceful folds in the air of popularity, in the wind
of nationality, you will see it hang down the mast like a pennant, an outward
signal of an extravagant, impudent, and rash zeal. Passers by will not even
say to you, “honour to unfortunate courage,” which they would certainly have
done had this virulent attack on the union been made in times passed, when
Messrs. Viger and Papineau imposed silence on you with menacing gestures.

At present all right thinking men, the Parliamentary majority, the entire
country desires to give a fair trial to the principle of “ Responsible Government.”
It is agreed upon. All the world is of one mind. No one ought to separate
himself from those who are in power: on the contrary it is necessary to give them
a cordial and generous support. You have no doubt, read the manifesto of Mr.
Papineau to the electors of the County of St. Mauricel in which it is said:
” Every division among liberals of all shades ought carefully to ‘be avoided ;” and
lower down—“ since the majority of the representatives still wish to try a.
combination which for four years has been so inelficacious, (thanks to Messrs.
Viger and Papineau the orator should have added) let us unite ourselves to this
Majority, that no dissension may interrupt the unity of their efforts.” Perhaps
you have not remarked that gentleman of L’A’ucni’r.’ if not keep it in your
memory; it will guide you in the path of honour and of victory.

But tell us ye young and fiery apostles of the Franco—Canadic.n nationality,
what do you mean by the principle of nationality applied to the management
of public aifairs? Is it, that the principle at present in operation, personified
in the Executive Council, in the magistrature, in all orders of society, protected
by Executive power, and more than ever sheltered from insult, is not the thing?
Is it, par hazard, that famous principle of public action which has excited the
French lately to drive from France, all workmen of English or foreign origin?
If it ‘be a principle so advanced as that, which you wish to implant on the Cana-
dian soil—and your article has very much the air of pretending to that~you
lose your time and pains. It is not after our party has recruited its ranks with
men of all origins when our friends, the liberals of Upper Canada, and those of
Lower Canada of foreign origin, have made prodigious eiforts to carry the
elections, and that altogether we have gained the most signal victory———-it is not
now that your appeal to prejudices and passions will ‘have the least echo in the
country. The people will laugh at your beards, and it will have reason.

1Sec above 12. 1473.

ELGI N »GR.EY PAPERS 159
[Enclosure

When you speak to it of this inimical faction which oppressed it so long,
it will answer that it does not believe in ghosts; that the faction is dead, and
that there is no danger of its return. You will have much to do to endeavour
to evoke its shadow, to create from it a night-mare for our nationality: the
country will pity you as discontented complainers. The fact is, that the people,
which was nothing before the union, and which to-day sees itself king and master,
does not appear to us at all absurd in wishing to retain that which it has. It
knows the proverb. “ One thou hast, is worth two thou shalt have”. It knows
also, believe me, the fable of the dog and the bone, and you will have much to do
to persuade it to leave the bone for the shadow. You ought to know gentlemen
of L’Avcm’r that the people seldom deceives itself on these points. In vain you
tell it, that while you are indoctrinating it as to the evils caused by the union,
and its inevitable effects, that you are supporting the liberal ministry now in
power; it will not believe you. It will despise~—curse you, if you hinder the
political progress of the majority of its representatives.

Do you claim the independence of your opinions?——it will quote, with its
broad good sense, the living examples of Messrs. Viger and Papineau, who claimed
independence for their opinions, and who, for having wished to push their
independence too far, and in opposition to their compatriots were covered with
shame and disgrace. It will tell you that you should !be silent, even if you ‘be
right, if the majority of your compatriots is of opinion contrary to yours.

Messieurs, the writers of L’Avem’r speak to the people of the French revolu-
tion, and the eventualities which may follow it. That is fair and good; but the
present is really something that -the people esteems, especially when the present
offers guarantees for the future. We would Wager that our compatriots, however
they may admire the French revolution, prefer responsible government with its
perspective, to the provisional government of Paris with the menacing and
sombre horizon that it presents. Our compatriots will not profit to—day by the
events which are passing in Europe, to create an overthrow without knowing very
Well what is to follow. They will not wish even to agitate, though you. 11.183’ 179“
them that agitation may take place outside the political sphere of the Ministry-“
They are not so little clear sighted, as not to see the point to which your words
and imprudent writings tend. They know well where Y0“ Wish to 9’‘“V‘’’ They
know that you -wish to isolate yourselves; to make a system of politics 073 Your
Own account, outside of and opposed to the politics Of the I1’19«l°1‘1tY- 15 were
not some fatality which pushes you towards the path in which Messrs. V15″
and Papineau were engaged four years ago: stop for the same lot attends you.
Whoever is not for us is against us. Your names great: and P°W““”f“1 55 they
may be, will not avert the public indigfl”’li°“ fmm YOU; OT Prevent the anger of
the People from making itself heard. Tremble to put a rash hand the holy
ark of our nationality, you who pretend a desire to serve it, by raising tyhlfl:
Winds and teinpests in our midst. It is not in the name of the NOD19 fmd “3 W”
rights; the people desires to remain united, and strong in this same union. is‘ it
then in the name of your illustrious Committee of co-0P9T3i5‘°}‘: °f 3’0“ ms;
correspondents, of all these generous men, the friends of their country: 3“

160 ELG‘IN—C1’1€EY PAPERS

Enclosure]

devoted to its nationality that you speak? But is it by fatality that it happens
that the major part of these generous men were the ardent partizans of Messrs.
Viger and Papineau in the shameful days of their defection, and held their peace
before the menacing gestures of their masters?

If instead of anticipating the future, our young and ardent confreres, after
more mature rcflection, and with more reason, wish to bring out a principle of
life, a principle of salvation~«if they will show us the advantages we should
have in quitting the port, and casting ourselves on the wide ocean—if they will
prove to us that our nationality would ‘be more aggrandised and strengthened
when exposed to winds and the injuries of the hurricane, than under the shadow
of a liberal, wise and enlightened government, which would protect it and make
it flourish more and more—1et them do so. We will listen to you. But you
propose to the people an agitation for their nationality—you say that there is
its salvation without saying what you have in reserve: you wish it to destroy
and demolish the edifice which shelters it to-day, without saying under what
roof it will go to rest to—morroW. Do you think that the people has not in times
past tasted enough of agitation and its disastrous effects? Do you, then, desire
to push it into the abyss? Take care: the descent is rapid, and if you persist in
forcing an agitation against its will, you will ruin yourselves forever; for it may
Well be said, that at this moment such an agitation would be as ‘badly inten-
tioned, as badly disposed, and as hateful as it can possibly be. All honest men
repudiate the idea as supremely dangerous and absurd.

Inlberty for all will be always the devise of the liberal party in Canada. There
is room for all in the sunshine. Not only would we avoid a war of races with the
100,000 men of Lower Canada, of whom L’Avem‘7′ speaks; but we would avoid
it with those of Upper Canada, and with the Anglo Saxon race in the United
States. We wish to enjoy our political rights in common with the population of
all origins which surround us, since Providence has destined us to live under the
same heaven. We sympathise with those who think as we do, and combat those
who differ from us. Thus instructed by the past, and profiting by the present,
We expect the future With the confidence which belongs to our position.

[Original MS]

Private
MONTREAL. May 10/48

My DEAR GREY,

As the Gentlemen whose vocation it is to invent wrongs for Ireland some-
times hazard the assertion that Ireland has no interest in the Colonial Empire
of Great Britain I send a list of my present administration classed according to
national origin which MW Hawes may find it convenient to have in his pocket
during Parliamentary discussions.—— The Solicitors General are not to be in
the Council, and MW Drumrnond has not yet been appointed, but he will I

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 161

believe he recommended to me in a day or two. Mm Aylwin whom he replaces
is also I believe an Irishman.-—

A telegraphic report of the news brought by the packet of the 22“ reached
us yeste1‘day, I send it, to give you an idea of the excitement W1‘ these reports,
which arrive sometimes three or four days before more detailed intelligence, are
calculated to produce.-—

A monster meeting of Irish sympathisers took place Monday. None of the
leaders of the Irish party attended. Some violent speeches in the Mitchell
Meagher style were ma—de.——- A MW Coursol a Young French Canadian Lawyer
was placed in the chair. He accepted the responsibility of the resolutions but
raised them soundly for the violence of their language. I enclose the ace‘ which
the French Ministerial journal gives of the proceedings. On the Whole I think
we may congratulate ourselves on the 1’esu1t—The ministers have managed the
affair well. Doubtless it would have been very different if the other party had
been in office.

The breach between my present advisers & M. Papineau is becoming wider
from day to day. He is ready for anything to make mischiefw This day he
goes to Quebec where some kind of meeting in his honor is to be held. Yours
very sincerely

ELGIN & KINCARDINE

The,

EARL GREY
[Endorsed]

May 10/48

L“ Elgin
Ree“ May 31

[Enclosures]
CANADIAN ADMINISTRATION
No, 1
Irish.
{Prov Sec. Honble. MW Sullivan
Inspector Gen.–Hincks
Sol. Gen. West—B1ake
5 Sol. Gen. East———Drutnmond.

Canadian of Irish parents
A“ Gen West—Honb MW Baldwin

French Canadians =

Att. Gen.—East. Hon“ MW LaFon’oaine-
Rec. Gen.——Viger
4 Speaker Leg. Council—Caron
Inspec. Public Works-Taehé.
9337-11

162 ELGI N —GRE Y PAPERS

[Enclosure]
English

1 {Conan Crown Lands. Honm M’ Price
Scotch
Pres: Com. Council—Honb. M’ Leslie
2 Canadian Scotch Descent

Ass. Inspec. Pu” Works Hm”; MW Cameron

No. 2
BY TELEGRAPH TO LAPRAIRIE, AND EXPRESS TO MONTREAL

Continued Excitement in Ireland
RUN ON SAVINGS BANKS

THE O’CONNELL’S SAID TO HAVE GONE BEYOND CONSTITUTIONAL
LIMITS

PROCEEDINGS AGAINST MITCHELL, 0’BRIEN <2 MEAGHER
PROCEEDING

Germany in a state of Anarchy
People Rising against the Troops
ANOTHER BATTLE AT SOHLESWIG
THE’ AUSTRIAN GOVERNMENT EXPELLED THE JESUITS

REVOLUTIONARY DEMONSTRATION IN EGYPT—INSURGENTS
HUNG BY ORDER OF THE PAOHA

France in great Confusion
LEDRU ROLLIN HAS ATTEMPTED TO ASSASSINATE LAMARTINE
CONSOLS, 82%
Outbreak appears certain. Run on Savings Banks continues. The O’Con— l

nells go beyond constitutional limits.
Earl Shrewsbury said to be favorable to Repeal.

ELGIN-—GREY PAPERS 163
[Enclosure]

The trial of Mitchell, O’Brien, & Meaghar, is proceeding.

Thomas Steel has attempted suicide.

A regular armed Chartist force is said to be organized.

The House of Commons has passed the Crown and Government Security
Bill with an overwhelming majority.

A Reform meeting has been held in London, at which 40 members of Far-
liament participated. Cobden was one. Hume presided.

The Prussian Diet has been dissolved.

Berlin agitated.——Insurgent Poles have formed entrcnchments in Posen,
they have an army of 10,000 men with artillery. Another report says the Poles
number 22,000; the insurrection does not appear serious.

Germany.——All Germany in a state of anarchy; in Baden the people have
risen against the troops, a formidable result [sic] had taken place at Hesse«
cassel. Insurrection in the north of Saxony, which Government has not been

able to suppress.
Another battle has taken place at Schleswig, Holstisn, the Germans had a

slight advantage. ‘

Trade at Vienna entirely destroyed. There is said to be a strong Austrian
party at Vienna, waiting an opportunity for revolt.

The Government has ordered the Jesuits to quit Sicily.

The King of Sardinia attacked Peschicra, a strong town held by Austria,
but did not carry it.

Verona has been taken by the Piedmontese army.

The King of Naples has been compelled to issue a proclamation in favour
of an Italian independent Union.

A revolutionary demonstration has been made in Egypt. The Pacha pro-
mised reform, but as soon as the people were quieted, hanged the leaders.

Affairs in France are in great confusion. A plot was formed to upset the
Provisional Government and assasinate Lamartine, headed by Ledru Rollin. AD
immense meeting of workmen had taken place.

No 3
ASSEMBLEE IRLANDAISE

EN mvnnn DU RAPPEL on L’UN1oN on L’ANeLn’rnaa.e ET DE I.-’D?LANDEv

Une assemblée d’Irlandais de cette ville a eu lieu hier soir dans la salle du
marclié Bonsécours; la foule était considerable, il y avait au moins 1500_per<
sonnes présente; Chs. J. Coursol écr. avocat, fut appelé 9. la présidence. JGLU-18
M- qui ne s’attendait nullement a cot appel s’y refllsa 10D8’l?9mP5; mmf “fin
entrainé Par la foule il fut force de se rendre aux vocux de Passemblee. M.
Coursol en ouvrant la séance leur dit qu’il n’avait pris auclme P3” ‘_1’’’”3 18
Gonvocation de cette assemblée, qu’il n’avait pas meme eu communication des
résolutions qui devaient etre proposées, etc. Plusieurs resolutions furent ensulte
passécs ayant toutes trait 5, la situation malheureuse de I’Irlande et deman-
dant aussi le rappal [sic] de cette union que les Irlandais considerent colnflfle 13
Cause de tous leurs maux. M. Devlin, avocat de cette ville, C111} 3V”-175 Pm 13
pa“ 13 D1115 active dans la convocation de Passemblée s’adressa tree an long 9. 13

9sa7——ug

I64 E’LGIN—G’REY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

foule, fit des reproches trés ardents aux chefs de la population irlandnise, les
aceusant de les avoir trahi en cette occasion, parceque, a-t-il dit, les chefs ont
l’espoir d’obtcnir des places; mais ajouta M. Devlin a l’avenir on pourra se passer
d’eux. Quelques autres s’adrcssérent aussi a Passembléc. Ensuite M. Coursol
prit de nouveau la parole en anglais et dit qu’il remerciait ses oompatriotes
Irlandais de l’avoir appelé a présidcr une assemblée aussi considerable, qu’il
aurait préféré qu’ils eussent choisi a sa place un hommc plus agé et de leur
origine. Que toutes les resolutions qu’ils venaient d’adopter étaient restreintes
dans les limites de la légalité, qu’elles n’étaient que des demandes justes et eon~
stitutionnelles, et que lui M. Coursol était prét comme President de Yassemblée
a en partager la responsabilité, mais qu’il ne pouvait pas en faire autant des
sentimens exprimés par M. Devlin ct qu’il était loin de les partager tous. M.
C. leur dit que si les chefs de la polation [sic] irlandaise n’étaient pas présens en
cette occasion, e’est qu’ils devaient avoir dc bonnes et de justes raisons pour en
agir ainsi. Que lui M. C. resposaient dans ces chefs la plus grande cenfiance,
qu’ils les eroyaient incapables de trahir la cause des irlandais ou celle c_1u parti
libéral auxquels ils appartiennent. M. C. leur dit de ne pas faire de cette
reunion une occasion de désunion parmi eux, que le parti liberal avait besoin de
toutes ses forces et que teute division serait fatale a nos intéréts. Que les
irlandeis ne devaient pas écoutcr ceux qui leur pi-éehent la division, ne pas écouter
ceux qui veulent se renclxe populaires par Pintrigue et la ruse, qu’il était tems
de briser toute espéce de caterie et de ne pas faite attention 21, mais au contraire
de traiter avee mépris, ccrtains petits journaux qui ne sent établis que dans le
but de créer de la division dans les rangs serrés des réformistes. Qu’ils pouvaient
étre certains que tous les canadiens frangais avaient pour la malheureuse Irlande
une sympathie profonde et réelle etc., puis Passemblée se dispersa paisiblement.

[Duplicate MS copy]

Private
BELGRAVE SQUARE

June 1/48
My DEAR ELGIN

Since I last wrote to you I have rec“ your two letters of the 4″‘ & 10”‘
May, the former I sent to the Queen as I thought it c“ not fail to interest & to
gratify her as it contains so very satisfactory an account of the working of a
judicious system of policy properly & firmly acted upon -— While the World is
so agitated & we have such dangers & difliculties to contend with every where
else it is a curious contrast to former times to find Canada so quiet & contented,
& no slight justification to the many fruitless remonstrances I used to make
against the policy adopted towards it 13 Years ago.

I quite agree with you as to the impolicy of the attempt to civilize the French
Canadians by measures wh. are obnoxious to them, & therefore the’ I confess I

ELGIN-GREY PAPERS 165

am sorry to alter the Union Act as regards the language I shall almost imme-
diately yield to their wishes by bringing in a Bill to effect the desired change.
You will receive an official announcement of this intention by this mail1—
I have also attended to what you say about the free admission of Canadian
produce into the States it is an object of immense in.1portance.—— I send you
olficially the F.O. answera upon it & the sooner I receive from you the informa-
tion required to begin the negotiation the better. I see Congress is moving on
the subject already so I anticipate no difiiculty with the Americans. We hope
to carry the repeal of the Navigation Laws in the H. of Commons to night by a
good majority, & if We do I have little fear of getting it thrc’ the Lords in spite
of our beating about the Jews.—— — Your account3 of the origin of the
Members of your Gov“ is interesting and will be useful. The Irish are too had
every where. —— Thank heaven Mitchell is by this time on his way to Bermuda
& we hear his conviction has not only carried dismay into the camp of the
confederates but set them together by the Ears. But England as Well as Ireland
is in a very uneasy state mainly owing to the distress wh. the stoppage of so
many of the ordinary branches of trade by the troubles on the Continent has
produced -—- I am very anxious therefore to see if some such large measure of
emigration in connection with the projected railroad as I sketched to you in a
former letter4 might not be organized before next spring. Pray consider this
very carefully & let me know your opinion as soon as possible, & also whether
you approve of the Line for the railroad recommended by Engineers employed
to explore it.~—I trust we shall soon have their final report—-

I must defer till another time writing to you on Military arrangements wh.

I think admit of great improvement-—
(Signed) GREY.

[Endorsed]
June 1/48
Lord Grey to Lord Elgin

1’I‘his oflieinl announcement was sent in at dcspatch dated 27 May, 1848. (Grey to Elvin,

No. 217, 0. 1.91, p. 123.) See below, 12. 185 a/mi Note 1. . . .

2This answer was enclosed in a despatch of 1 June, 1843 35- W~ Add*’g,3*°”a.§§f‘(§‘0“§e,‘§§_“
behalf of Lord Palmerston suggested—~“ that the best course would be that theh mm It lea“ the
merit should send Ito E land the Draft of such In ‘-l_-‘I‘9?l‘Y “5 they Wouldlwm ’ zgaringnntion not
heads of the Articles 0- such a Treaty, and then If 1* 51‘°‘*1d be f°“”‘ bf]-“bye to objection
to be at variance with other ’I‘rea.ty engagements of_ the Cmwlh <i‘nd.11°t,‘l’° Gm ‘aé wfifiaima at 011 other grounds, it could he sent for negotiation ‘to E9!‘ MRJGBEYE Fgf Canada with Washington and he ani ht be placed in communication with the. (¥°”€f“”§;r°e to Elais No. reference to questions w ich might arise in the course of the Negotiation. ( U 1 -925, G. 131, p. 161.) 3See above 11. 160. ‘See above 1:. 147. 166 ELGIN—G’REY PAPERS [Original MS] Private ‘ MONTREAL May 18. 1848. MY DEAR Garry, The week which has elapsed since the last mail was despatched from hence has not brought forth any thing very rema1’kable—M. Papineau has had his monster meeting at Quebec and held forth for nearly four hours in the rain to an assembly rather numerous -than select. His topics——- ‘English oppression of Ireland & Canada—in both cases by means of Acts of Union ’—-‘ glories of Revolutions, especially French.’— ‘Superiority of Quebec & its inhabitants to Montreal ’~— ‘Humbug of responsible Gov”—. on his return he put forth a sort of official account of the interview which took place between himself and the promoters of the Montreal Irish repeal meeting of the previous week in which he handles pretty severely some of the Ministers and of their staunchest adherents. This document, of which I enclose a copy, has given great offence, and some of M. Papineau’s late friends profess pretty openly their conviction that he is going mad.——~Time will shew—- . I hope that we shall have no trouble from the other side— I am inclined however to believe that the Hunters Lodges (secret societies of sympathisers) are organized—~and that if an outbreak takes place in Ireland. there may be a desire among the Irish to eifect a diversion in favor of their Countrymen by exciting disturbances here. .~ — How are we prepared to meet the difi”1culty?—— The Ministers and their supporters are, I think, staunch, so also, is the body of the Tories of Upper Canada.— Among the mercantile classes, new that protection is abandoned,-—— and the old conservative hangers on of oflicc,~— new that Responsible Gov‘ is fairly carried out—~ much indiiierence as to the main- tenance or surrender of the connexion with Great Britain will I fear, be found. Papincau and his adherents & a certain class of Irish are of course ready for any thing that will create confusion without much heed as to what may follow. So much for our morale. As regards our phi/sique—— We have an excellent man for Commander in chief, but he is very old— Gore our Major General is a good man too, but it is not generally believed that his judgment could be relied on in difliculties – It is right that I should place these things before you, though they are delicate matters for me to meddle with—— It is certainly a defect in our system, and one for which we may yet suffer as the Austrians did during Napoleon’s first Italian Campaigns, that many of our highest naval & military appointments are filled by men so very far advanced in life. I do not know whether L“ Dundonald retains the vigor of youth«—but his predecessor, I do not hesitate to say it, was totally unfit to fill a situation of responsibility— The Yankees understand these things better: and in these days of reform it w‘ be well to take a leaf out of their book—— Why not consider the higher grades in both services as virtual retirements and employ younger oflicers of lower rank in command.’.7 Your work would be done more cheaply and efficiently. Let the Yankees get possession of British North America with the prestige of superior Generalship—who can say how soon they may dispute with you the Empire ELGIN—GRE’Y PAPERS 167 of India and of the Seas? Imagine 100,000,000, of confederated men inhabiting this vast continent and the proceeds of their duties on Imports invested in a Navy! But I am travelling, I fear, out of the record — Yours very sin- cerely ELGIN & KINCARDINE The Earl Grey, PS. I observe What; you say about C.B’s. but I do not yet see my way towards making any recomxnendations—« Certainly not Draper alone. [Endorsed] May 18/48 L” Elgin {Enclosure} L’AVENIR FEUILLETON SUPPLEMENTAIRE MONTRIEAL, LUNDI 15 MAI 1848 c Nous publions plus bas une conununications do M. Papineau, qui a voulu se servir de la voie de notre journal, pour donner au public des exphcations qu’i1 croyait nécessaires. Rien ne serait plus compromettant pour un honnéte homme, que d’étre souvent et hautement louangé par des fripons. Rien ne tendrait A ruiner pins Vite la réputation d’in’r.ég1’ité, politique; de dévouement $3. la cause de 19. iustlce» de la Iiberté et des droits du peuple, que de mériter un mot de louefflgey que d’avoir un second compliment du Transcript, ou do toute autre ‘section denla Presse Tory du Bas—Canada, telle qu’e11e a été toute enbiére, depuls 18 Premiere Page du Mercury, iusqu’31 la derniere élucubration du Couner. ‘(Fest P0“? déjouer une tactique aussi perfide, (fest pour repousser un élogeaussx ofifenssnt: que celui que fait de moi la feuille caiomniatrice, le Transcflflty 9” P’~11,7h“_nt que i’ai (iii: 23. une députation de concitoyens I1‘1a.ndaiS; qu’9’tt’eDdu que 1_°b3?t de leur réunion, ne regardait que des pays étrangers, St HOII 15 C9-113d”-3’ If? 113′ voulais prendro aucuue part, que je rends 00mP’09 de Ventrevue que 3“ we avec eux. _ L’on m’invitait £1 devenir le président d’une assembiée pubhquez Pour 7 demander Io rappei de Yacte oppresseur de 1’Union de I’I1″1aDd9; 9’0 Pm“-‘ dome’ expression A nos vives sympathies, pour 1’héro’i’sme avee ’1eque1 10 Pe‘1If1″; F1″’m’ 92.35 E; détruit une monarchie oorruptrice; a brulé eh falt un feu de 3019 duln trfine dont les eendres, promenées sur le monde par une brise pr0]:>’10<‘;!_; Pardie
vent d’Ouest de 1’Amérique, par 1e vent de la iiberté, Ont Gommeme 111339” e
de tant d’autres trones; et pour la modération sublime alvec léqueue 11 P?“
donne Ex ses tyrans abattus. Ces vérités, jc les avais 2113991995 Salutes: J9 m 6:
étais fait Papfitre; ie les avais préchées. J’étais hé envers 16 P111711“: Wmm

168 ELGI N —G’REY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

par ma conscience ‘a faire do oonstans efforts pour les faite prévaloir, et Taurais
pu faire une réponse aussi ignoble, que eelle que m’impute lo T’rcmsc7~iptI C’est
pour cola que je suis louangél-—~Louange astucieuse; atroce mensonge, qui prouve
Pimbécilité do celui qui 2. cm un pa;-eil rapport, ou la corruption de cceur, la
perfidie, et l’esprit d’intrigue de celui, ou do ceux qui l’ont inventé et aecrédité.

Si j’étais capable d’un égoismo aussi abject, d’un servilismc aussi orde, je
serais digne de tomber dans ee que je regarde comme le plus bas degré do
Péchello sociale: djgne do devenir, non par nécessité et pour gagner men pain,
ce 9. quoi uu hoznme honnéte mais infortuné peut étre réduit, 5. devenir, dis-je,
gar9omtypographo-volontaire (ce que la politesse de la Iangue Anglaise appel-
lorait diable-par-choix, a volunteer devil) dans Pimprimerie du Transcwlpt.

Son conte est d’infernale origine, puisque le Transcript assure que Beelzé~
buth seul sait d’o\‘1 venait la deputation. C’est la devotion do l’Ecliteur pour
un tel patron, qui sans doute l’a engage, Ea. s’en fairc le serviteur et l’écho, puis-
qu’il public, eomme vrai, le mensonge auquel il donne une telle origins. 11 lo
oroit vrai parce qu’il vient de la, d’ofl lui viennent la plupart de ses inspirations
et inventions, do ses déccuvertos at de ses dénonciations d’assemblées nocturnes,
aussi réelles et eriminelles que Yétaient cellos du sabat des sorciers. Les dor-
niors qui ont été judiciairement brulés on Europe, 1’ont été en Angleterre.

La version véridique do co qu’était ot do ce que désirait cette deputation,
est quelle était animée de sentimens trop humains et trop généreux, pour pou-
voir étro soupgonnée de venir do la part do Downing Street, ni de ceux qui
aiment Downing Street. Elle no venait done pas do Boelzébuth. Bien con-
vaincu do cola, j’ai pu on sureté do conscience Pécouter. Ses sentimens de
haine centre toutes les tyrannies aristoeratiques, et d’amour pour toutes les
libertés populaires, établissaient do suite, des rapports do sympathie entr’elle
et moi. La conversation fut done franche ct libro, telle qu’elle pourrait étre
entre des afiiliés de Cmwiliation Hall.

Quand pres do deux siécles avant la naissance du christianisme, sur le
theatre de Rome payenne, Pun des plus élégans de ses poetes, exhalait cette
suave sentence. “Je suis homme, rien de ce qui pout aider au bonheur do
Phomme no m’est étranger;” Yapplaudissement unanirue do cent mille specta-
teurs accueillit cette évangéliquo révélation. II no so trouva pas un seul homme
dans une assemblée si nombrouse, a la. quelle assistaient des envoyés do toutes
les colonies Rornaines, dos arnbassadeurs do toutes les parties du globe on avait
pénétré la civilisation grocque et latine, more de la nfitre, qui no fut sensible a.
cot élan du coeur, a es mi de la nature. Comment so fait il done, que la presse
tory canadienne toute ontiere, croie que le devoir et la loyauté pour le gouve1′-
nement britannique, exigent qu’olle n’exprimo que mépris et animosité, pour
cette Irlande, dent Poppressicn 2. fait un Golgotha trop étroit pour caeher
dans ses entrailles les cadavres que lui donne la famine; en sorte qu’ils restent
exposes a sa surface, pour trouvor leur sépulture dans les entrailles des ehiens
et des oiseaux do proie. La pitié pour 1’IrlandeI Ce serait une insulto pour
le gouvernemont britannique, si vigilant E1. punir ceux qui seraient durs et cruele
pour les Irlandais, objets des prédiloetions des lords Russel et Brougham, Pal-
merston et Stanley, at hos omne genus; témoin la rigueur du chatimont qu’ils
viemient d’infligor A Blake. Dans la nuit du trente et un déeembre clernier,

r____‘._

ELGIN—G/IEEY PAPERS 169

[Enclosurel

cc mauvais riehe, ce grand propriétaire, envoio détruire les pauvres demeures
d’un grand nombre de families Irlandaises, ot les fait périr par la rigueur du
froid. L’on a été demander 53. l’u.n des plus dignes des vice-rois qu’ait eu cette
vallée des pleurs ct des tortures, s’il y avait quelque moyen de faire punir cet
infame mourtrier. Le vice-roi répond que non, que M. Blake est le maitre de
ces maisons, et qu”il on peut fairs ce qu’il voudra; mais que désirant punir,
autant que la législation et la sensibilité Anglaiscs, lc peuvent permettre, ce
crime de Léze-huinanité au premier chef, il rayera do la liste des juges do paix,
ce monstre a visage d’homrne, 5, coour do tigre, avec les instincts de la Hyene,
savourant l’odeur des cadavres on decomposition auteur de son repairel

Comment oxpliquer Ie cri sauvage de la haine contrc des hommes opprimés
a co degré: comment ne pas partager 1’éls.n naturel de Rome entiere, éleetrisée
par la voix pieuse do Terence? G’est qu’a cette époque le gouvernement romain
était un conquérant civilisateur, et que le gouvernemnt anglais a été pour
l’Irlande, pour les Indos, pour la Nouvelle—France, un conquérant extermina-
teur. Rome payenne n’avait consenti a donner la paix a Carthage, qu’a la
condition qu’el1e adoucirait son oulte sanguinaire et abolirait les sacrifices
humains. Le gouvcrnement meroandier des Indes a longtemps fait assister
ses hauts dignitaires chrétiens, aux holocaustes des veuves, brulées vives avec
lc corps mort de leur mari; ainsi qu’aux processions do J agrenaut ou, par cen-
taines, des fanatiques sont écrasés chaque année sous les roues du char, qui
traine une idole bicn plus avide do sang humain, que ne le fut cello qu’honora
l’Africaine férocité. .

II ne peut y avoir do sympathie exprimée dans la presse tory, pour 1’3g0me
do 1’Irlande. Ses maitres no donnent point d’or pour do pareils paragraphes:
Ils donnent des avertissemens, do l’0X‘, des P111003 ell des h0m19‘-11″5 5 CEUX qul
dései-tent, a ceux qui maudissent 1’Irlande ct le Canada. _

Maudits soient Plrlande et le Canada; bénis soient les actes de Pilmon
do l’Irlande et du Canada, disent les hommes et les journaux, qui sont devorés
de la faim et do la soif, d’avoir des avertissernens, de Yer, des places et ce quils
appellant des honneurs. ,

La Députa.tr’0n.—“Monsieur, il )7 9. en a Quebec une belle assemblee, dans
laquelle l’on a dénoncé la tyrannie de 1’Angleterre, donné une larme ’aux souf-
frances de l’Irlandc, une aspiration pour sa délivranoe; et un pm dallégfefifie
pour la gloire pure et sans tache de la France républicaine. Ici on noussommes
deux fois plus nombreux que ne le sont nos eompatriotes do Q11éb‘f«0§ 101: dans
la capitals de deux grandee provinces, n’en devons nous P3§_9V°:f ‘me Wm‘
blable? Nous voulons Yavoir, et nous vous 131301.15 ‘is 19′ Presfden _

M. Papineau.——Vous avez raison, mes amis, dien voulon‘ Orgflmser umt’
semblable a celle de Québec. Pour cette fin, ma VOIX otrnon occur vous son
acquis. Vous n’a.vez pas raison do vouloir que je la preside.‘ I1 Y 8 de 19’ V19
et de Phonneur dans Quebec. I1 y en a 611 quand; SW5 19 3795119 ‘if 1”‘
et sous Pinspiration de la liberté, ell Présence de 10rd 1?“_Th’,‘m’ 1,°u’y”“d e a
sa tyrannie, exercée contre les exilés de la Bermuda; flail“ lexuberancfi he ie
dé-T3«l50n; quand il publiaif», que le retour au Pays dlaccusés ’3b5entS’1se;,9‘Inw:u
trahison pour laquelle ils souffriraient la mort, sans procési quanfl ‘1 “ d,al%’;:
édifiait ses lecteurs, sur les folies quotidiennes des antes de la dicta sure

170 ELG’IN—GRE Y PAPERS

[Enclosure]

(celle du moment, pourrait bien la ressusoiter avec toute sa verve) ; quand on y
a protesté et pétitioné contre Yacte d’Union; quand on s’y est organisé Yété
dernier, en comités nombreux de la réforme et du progrés; quand enfin, en
assemblée récente, on s’y est réuni pour Pexaltation de 1’héro’1’szne—fra.ng=ais,
l’exéc2’a’cion du despotisme anglais, la commisération pour les rfiles dc Plrlande
agonisante. Oui i1 y a é. Québec de la vie et de Phonneur. A Montréal e’est
autre chose. Nous y avons Io siége du gouvernement responsable. Nousy
avons des hommes d’éta.t, politiques profonds comma Yabyme et muets comme
la tombe, qui étouffent toutes les mesures qui naisscnt dans Québec. Pourquoi
1e font;—ils? Ils ne m’ont pas dit leurs secrets. J e n’ai pas assez de clairvoyanoe
pour les deviner. I1 faut done que vous sachiez, s’iI Iour plait que vous ayez
Passemblée que vous projetez.

La, Députation.-Nous avons lieu do penser qu’i1 leur plait que nous no
Yayions pas. L’on a. demandé 5. M. Drummond, président de notre association
{pour le rappel de Paste d’Union do l’I1‘1a-nde, et EL M. Ryan qui en était 1e secré-
taire, de eonvoquer cette assemblée, A 1’instar de celle qui a eu lieu s Québec:
ils s’y sont rofusés. Ils ont dit que nos compatriotes Québecquois avaient com-
mis une grands étourderio, d’avoir eu cette assemblée, d’avoir eu cette intem-
pestive reunion, sans avoir préalablement eonsulté aucun des membres du
gouvernement ioi: que c’était susciter do l’emba1’1’as Ea. une autorité amie, de
qui nous obtiondrions 53. la fin, tout ce que nous voudrions, si, avec assez de
patience, nous savions afatendre assez longbemps: que maintenant qu’i1s s’étaient
attaohés a.u gouvernement, ils devaient se détacher de notre association: que
nous pouvons élire d’autres ofliciers. C’esb pour cela, qu’en méme temps que
nous souhaitons vous choisir pour président, nous voulons avoir des résolutions
publiques votées pour le rappel de 1’Union et pour Pexaltation de la vertu et
de la brovoure frangaise, qui vivifient tous les peuples, eh sous peine de déché—
ance, convertissent tous les rois.

M. Pspinea.u.——A_h! M. Drummond (at M. Ryan, hommes fibres, étaient des
ofiiciers de votre société; et serviteurs du gouvernement, ils doivent Ia répudier‘?
Msis certes, H y a la dessous quelque chose do fort grave et de trés compromet-
tant. I1 faut que je connaisse bien votre but et vos régles, avant que je me
hasarde é» m’affi1ier. Auraient—i1s découverb, dcpuis qu’i1s sont commissionnés,
qu’1’1 y a quelqubdeur de déloyauté dans ces déplorables régles, que je ne con-
nais pas? O’nt—i1s été Iongbemps Vos ofiiciers? Out-ils pris part A vos discus-
sions‘?

La Députation.—Oh pour celn oui. Ils ont parlé plus souvent, plus dru,
plus gros et plus fort qu’aucun autre des membres de la société.

M. P.-Bon oomme cela. Vous me faites plaisir. I1 n’y avait rien de
orimjnel dans votre magonnerie, quand il parlaient; j’en conolus qu’il n’y 9. rien
de criminel quand i1 se taisent.

Ce n’est pas vous qui avez ohangé, cc sont eux qui sont changés, c’est—§.-
dire, qui ne 1e sont pas; mais
. . . . . . . . . . ..“Qui sont tenus de le pa.1’aitre.”

“ Peuple caméléon, peuple singe tiu maitre.”

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 171
[Enclosure]

Oh bien moi, qui n’ai pas d’autre maitre que la loi, je pourrai oser parler
quand ils ne pourront pas oscr le faire. Vrai. O’est réjcuissant d’apprendre
que 1’on pout devenir 1’un de vous sans, pour cela. étre trop facilement poursuivi
par le so1liciteur—général, qui a été 1’un de vous.

La, Députation—Non seulement il ne doit pas pcursuivre ses fréres asso~
ciés, mais nous crayons bien, que c’est cette qualité dc président des fréres
associés, qui Pa fait so11iciteu1’—généra1. Cc n’est pas is. raison de la seule
circonstance de son origine irlandaise, que nous l’avons porté 23. la representa-
tion. Ce fut encore plus a raison de ses protestations énergiques et réitérées
d’amour passionné pour les libertés populaires; de baine contre une oppression
séculaire, régulariséc contre notre infortunée patrie, an profit de nobles et de
pretrcs ennemis étrangers, justement odieux, dcpuis les dévastations des Planta-
genets, dos Tudors et des Stuarts, 3usqu’aux prescriptions de Cromwell, jus-
qu’aux traliisons do Castlereagh jusqu’aux fourberies de Lord Russel: Ce fut a
raison dc ses promesses de faire écho aux dénonciatioins fulminées par les Grat-
tan et les 0’Oonnel contre les traitres, qui ont vendu l’Ir1ande au Sassenagh,
que nous Yavons porté a la representation, Voie d’avancement la plus large et
la plus facile dc toutes, sous l’heureux systéme de gouvernement responsable,
integre, économique, désintéressé, grand travailleur pour de minces ré1nunéra-
tions, dont nous avons en lo bonheur de jouir depuis sept années.

M. 1’.-En est-il ainsi? Alors soyez surs que vous aurez mal compris votre
president. 11 ne peut pas prétendre, que toute la respeetabilité qu’i1 y avait
dans votre association, s’en retire, dos qu’i1 s’est rétiré. Ni lui. Di 8091111
membre de notre cabinet Iibéral, ne peuvent avoir la présomption de condam~
ner, comme une étourdérie, une assemblée comme celle de Québec, présidée par
un prétrc respectable, en rapport journalier avec ses supérieurs ecclésiasfiiqllefiv
Sa Grace l’Archevéque, son eoadjuteur et autres de nos p1‘ét1’eS 168 P1‘-15 éflalres
du pays; encouragée par la présence et la participation de toute la. representa-
tion de la ville et du voisinage de Quebec, d°m” 1’”-‘1 des Teprésentants ‘jtam
aussi mombre du cabinet. Il a été fait jugs depuis, ce qui n’aumit Q88 13“ 9*’/Tea
S’i1 y avait eu quelque chose de déloyal dans ces procédés. S’i1 8-V811‘: V11 01119!“
‘llfimprudencc dans aucune des résolutions débattues et votées, i1 n’aU1:81t
P35 manque d’y proposer quelque judicieux amendement. J8 V0113 0011591119
donc de revoir votre president, de le prier de continuer a conserver cette ch’a!’g€:
-et les sentimens qui vous ont engages I: la lui déférel‘; lie Yassurer que 16,1-je
voudrais jamais participer a aucun mouvement qui, mal interpféte: 5“1″;‘1t’ .13“
do ma part, de vouloir lui ravir un honneur qu’il a si bien mérité. Je lemme-
Il est homme de talents distingués, de solide et de brillante éducatlon. De_s
hommes de ee calibre, je les honore s que1qu’é001e Q1935. 3PP3mf*n’ff’“t: “9535
c’est avec predilection que je les honore, quand ils 9-PP”-mellnent 9′ 1e°°1e 11 e‘

rale canadienne et irlandaise. Allez plusieurs ensemble le revoir. Renouvellen

Votre demande. Q’i1 n’y ait point do surprise. Dites lui, que 5,11 Vws don“
des raisons de vous désister qui vous paraissent bomles; V°‘15 195 d°’m°re” 8″
public: pour vous excuser do ne pas imiter le belet bon example qr“? ‘mus d°Fm:
‘Qllébec; que si elles vous paraissent mauvaises, vous no vous defilstérei P°”:ie’
et les pubiiérez, pour que vous et lui, soyez iflgés 511 P191“ counmssmce

E81150.

172 ELGIN~GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

Dites lui que s’il veut bien présider Passernblée que vous désirez avoi , je
l’y seconderai de grand coeur. Si, a ma grande surprise, il s’y refusait, cela
meme ne devieudrait pas une raison suffisante, pour que vous dussiez me faire
l’honneur de me choisir pour président, ni de votre association, in de notre
assemblée. Croyez en un ami sincere de la bonne cause dans laquelle vous étes
engages, qui a quelqu’eXpérienee acquise des hommes et des aifaires, de celles
cle votrc pays en particulier. .

La tyrannie a été si exorbitante centre votre déplorable patric, aussi riant
et embellie par les bienfaits de 18. Providence, qu’elle est assombrie par les
méfaits de vos gouvernants, qu’elle a développé chez la généralité d’entre vous,
des vertus natives, et des vices qu’a fait naitre le dominateur étranger. Vous
avez été dans un état de oonjuration plus fréquent qu’aucun autre peuple,
centre des iniquités plus atroces que n’en a soufiertes aucune autre nation. De
la votre amour plus enthousiaste pour le culte de la patrie; pour votre divinité
ohérie, Erin la belle, Erin dénudée par le spoliateur qui l’out1’age. Cet amour
du pays, c’est la premiere des vertus pour l’Anglais qui commando; c’est a ses
yeux le plus détestable des sentimens que le peuple puisse nourrir, dans ses
colonies d’Irlande et du Canada. C’est celui qu’il y a le plus souvent et le-
plus impitoyablement chatié. Vous donnez avec un élan de générosité sans
bornes, votre confianoe a quiconque est dévoué a votrecause. Vous savez que
je suis un de ces hommes; vous voulez m’en témoigner votre reconnaissance
d’une maniere quidépasse les bornes de la discretion, de la fierté nationale, du
sentiment d’estime que vous devez nourrir et aflicher pour vous memes, pour
votre nationalité, et pour vos nationaux. Les associations que l’on forme
doivent resserer les liens dc confiance et de dépendance mutuelle entre les
associés. Ne faites rien qui puisse relacher les liens d’entiere confiance entre
vous tcus, dans une association irlandaise, forxnée dans un intérét irlandais, le
rappel de votre néfaste acte d’Union.

Souvcnt déeimés en punition de votre fort amour du pays, vous vous (‘ates-
trop souvent formés en sociétés secrettes, dans lesquelles 1’or anglais, les espions
anglais, vous poussaient a la vengeance: et, a la veille de son explosion, vous
trahissaient. Cela vous a rendus soupgonneux. C’est le vice que le domino.»
teur étranger a fait naitre, dans des natures disposées par la providence, a étre
les plus confiantes qu’il y eut sur la terre. L’Irlande a plus de chances de
salut en oe moment que jamais, parce qu’elle n’a pas de soeiétés secretes. Sa.
haine est aussi hautement avouée, que justement formée.

Ne sentez vous pas que plus tard, l’on ira murmurer aux oreilles des uns-
et des autres d’entre vous: “eh quoi, vous étes ici vingt mille Irlandais, et vous.
avez jugé que pas un d’entre vous ne méritait Fhonneur de vous présider; vous.
avez jugé que c’était un étranger que vous deviez installer audessus de vous tons,
quand il est question, non pas d’u11 intérét social également stringent pour toutes
nos populations mélangées, mais d’uu intérét spécialement national pour vous”’
Non. Vous en devez conserver la direction et la présidenoe. D’autres y ont de
meilleurs titres que moi.

Vous avez sur d’autres hommes plus de controls, un meilleur droit a exigen

qu’ils répondent a votre appel, que vous n’en avez sur moi. C’est la premiere fois,,

ELG’IN—GIEEY PAPERS 173

[Enclosure]

Messieurs, que nous nous rencontrons. N’y a-t—il pas quelques autres hommes
publics avec qui vous avez eu des rapports plus fréquens qu’avec moi; qui vous
ont recherche quand ils ont eu besoin de vous; a qui vous avez rendu les services
qu’ils sollicitaicnt de votre part; a qui il a été agréable dc recevoir vos suffrages,
et qui, en retour de vos votes dans leurs elections, vous ont promis dc douces
paroles, de la déférence et de la civilité; qui vous ont dit que vous aviez droit s
leurs conseils, ‘a leurs énerglques encouragements, en touts occasion ou vous les
clemanderiez; droit a leur appui cordial, partout on vous en auriez besoin? Le
temps et l’ocea.sion sont Venus, on vous devez apprécier a leur juste valeur la
sincérité et Yimportance dc leurs promesses. Allez vers vos représentans, allez
y avec franchise ct avec les memes declarations que je vous ai ccnseillé de porter
a M. Drummond. C’est votre droit dc demander, c’est leur devoir de vous
donner leur appui, si les objcts que vous avez en vue sont, comme il me parait a
moi qu’ils le sont, utiles et honorables a votre patrie, a la mienne, a vous, ct A
tons ceux qui vans sccondcront.
obligation. Habiles opérateurs, ils auront donué la lumiere a des malheureux
qui tatonnaient dans d’épaisses ténebres. Il peuvent nous désillusioner, nous
pouvons leur révéler des vérités qu’ils ig-norent. Ce n’est qu’en comparant
nos doctrines, que nous pouvons déterminer quelle est la juste et vraie doxie,
la nétre ou la leur.

Je suis, jcté dans la vie politique centre men inclination. Apres que j’eus
franchement expliqué mon mécontentcment et mon dédain pour 1’ordre politique
foroément impose a men pays, dans le meme but hostile, par les memes moyens
pervcrs, qui ont enchainé le votre, par une Union, meurtriere et dégradante pour
l’Irlande, comme la notre nous est hostile et plus dégradante encore pour la Bas-
Canada, colonie deux fois assujeti a cleux Métropoles, celle de l’Angleterre qui
nous opprime par antipathie, celle du Haut-Canada, qui nous exploite par cupi-
dité, le comté de St. Maurice ma choisi pour le représenter. Que ce oomté s’as-
semble pour délibérer sur les intéréts généraux du pays, sur ses intéréts locaux,

_ ou sur des questions liées a la cause de la justice, exercée par des vainqueurs

généreux centre des rois oppresseurs; on a celles des droits, des libertés, du bon-
heur de nos co~sujets dans aucune partie de Yempire, ce comté 8 dl‘0i’G: Bi 36 Eafde
son mandat, de commander mon assistance et ma participation 2. ses discussions.
A Montréal, je ne suis qu’un citoyen, qui ne prend part aux deliberations que
timidement, quand ses représentans dédaignent de le faire. L’on y a si souvent
dit a mes concitoyens, tant de vive voix que par écrit, que Tétais “’1 homme
changé; devenu un paragon de dévouement au gouvernement, contre leouel
j’avais lutté toute ma vie;——que j’applaudissais 23 la détermination, qu’ava1ent
prise M. M. Viger et Papincau, de donner leur appui s Padministration dc Ijord
Metcalfe, puisqu’ils restaient an ministers, plus longtemps que ne le souhaitaient
ceux qui brfilaient d’envie et de désir de les remplacer; que, sans I’accue11’b1en—
veillant que sept mille de ces memes conoitoyens, m’ont fait dans leur recente
assembléc, j’aurais pu me croire repoussé par la majorité d’entr’eux, avec Eutfinli
dc sollicitude que je 1’étais par leurs nouveaux directeurs. Avant mom fetolll‘
et depuis mon retour, l’on a si haut proclamé a men pays, qu’1l fallalt blefl 59
garder d’élire un homme, dont les principes étaient aussi inconnus, flottanfifi 65

S’i1s vous détroinpent, nous leur en aurons .

174 ELG’IN—GREY PAPERS
[Enclosure]
versatiles que les miens, 5. moins qu’on ne lui fit faire sa profession de foi poli-
tique; et quand j’ai voulu la formuler, You a fait jouer tant d’intrigues pour
m’emp’écher de la publier, que j’ai dfi les regarder comme le soin charitable
d’hommcs qui me disaient: “ Ne parlez pas vous ne scriez pas écouté.” Si vous
voulez parler dans notre sens, c’est votre droit. Q,u’alors vos professions soient
courtes oomme 1e sont les nfitres. Ne parlez pas beauooup, ne dites rien du
mérite ou du démérite de l’Union; de la representation proportionnée a la popu-
lation; de 1’<-zxtension du droit de suffrage s tcus; de Putilité que partie au moins
de la réprésentation soit choisi parmi les éleoteurs résidens; que Péligibilité ne
devrait dépendre que de la confiance publique, non de la propriété bien ou mal
acquise du candidat. Ne dites pas que la conviction, devant un juré légal, tel
qu’i1 n’y en a pas encore eu dans Ie pays, de Pemploi de moyens de corruption
dans une election, devrait disqualifier pour toujours le coupable convaincu, de
ses droits d’é1eeteur et d’éligible, et de Paptitude s remplir aucunc charge d’hon-
neur et de profit. N’insinuez point qu’i1 serait desirable que Padministration fut
plus travaillante, et surtout moins dispendieuse, c’est contre Pintention de ceux
qui nous ont donné le gouvernement responsable et centre Yintérét de ceux qui
Yexercent; ne soufiiez pas mot de bien d’autre vétilles de cette nature, dont vous
avez la manie de vous occuper; details fort inutiles depuis que le symbole qui
est une carts civisme, un certificat indispensable d’eligibilité, a été traduit en
une seule phrase suprémoment ‘simple. La voila s votre service: “ Je crois en
le ministers Baldwin—Lafontaine et je lui jure obéissance aveugle.” Ma formule
s moi, c’cst de préter appui cordial a toutes celles de ses mesures qui mc parai—
tront bonnes; et librc censure avec refus d’appuyer oelles qui me paraitront
mauvaises. Avec les antécédens que je me suis faits et avec ceux que l’on n1’a
faits, je n’ai pas de forts motifs de courtiser, dans Montreal, les déloyaux inven-
teurs, et les dupes faciles de ce grossier manege. Ceux qui débitaient et ceux qui
imprimaient ces mensonges centre moi, savaient qu’i1s mentaient. II avaient
leurs motifs pour le faire. Qu’ils recueillent cu ne recueillent pas les honneurs
et les profits que méritent la ruse et la fausseté systématisées, c’est leur afiaire et
leur étucle; non les miennes.

Eloignés et peu nombreux comme vous 1’étcs, ce ne sont pas vos elfoi-ts qui
peuvent arracher des mains de vos tyrans, ni la foudre par laquelle ils dévastent
et stérilisent votre patrie, ni le sceptre de plomb, sous Iequel ils Yécrasent. C’est
moins pour elle, que pour vous-meme; moins pour son bonheur que pour votre
honneur, que vous ne devez pas lacher pied, vous débander, dissoudre votre
association, au jour périlleux des plus prochains dangers, ou des plus prochaines
chances de salut qui ait lui sur votre pays. Par toute la chrétienté, de Rome
religieuse a Paris philosophique, de la Russia autocratiquc aux Etats~Unis
démocratiques, s’éleve un cri universel d’amour at de pitié pour 1’Irlande, enve-
loppée dans son linceul de peste et de famine, tissé et cousu autour d’elle par des
mains aristoeratiques. Montréal seul, stupéfié par je ne sais quels jongleurs, ne
pourra. pas, au milieu des sheds oonsacrés a la mort que l’Angleterre déverse, de
son Irlande Eurropéennc, sur son Irlande Américaine, trouver un mot de sym-
pathie, pour des douleurs et des souffranccs ‘belles, que les lamentations de Jéré-

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 175
[Enclosure]

mic seules peuvent en laisser entrevoir l’horreurl I-Ionte aux hommes qui peu-
vent étre assez démoralisatcurs pour vouloir que Montreal soit aussi léthargique,
qu’ils sont apatliiques.

I1 n’y a que quelques seroaines que vous avez éte organises, soudoyés et
armés, pour rcncontrer, corps—a-corps, d’autres hommes organises, soudoyés et
armés. -Ceux qui vous ont enrélés étaient moins fautifs que ceux contre lesquels
ils vous lancaieut. Vous, electeurs residents, etiez armés pour la defense de vos
droits. Des tories, allant chercher des sicaires hors des limites du comté,
armaient pour Pillégale invasion de vos droits. Ils vous plagaient dans le cas de
légitime defense. Néanmoins la balle at l’épée sont des instruments aveugles,
qui pouvaicnt aussi bicn atteindre vos poitrines innocentes, que les coupablcs
poitrines de vos adversaires. Les cours de justice sont un champ clos, ou la
lutte s’cngage au milieu d’une nuit noire comme l’Ercbe, d’un Iabyrinthe de
détours et de stratagemes, on s’égare quelquefois lc bon droit; ou l’avocat
adroit gagne de mauvaises causes. Vous avez afl‘ronté les dangers du champ
de bataille, et les perils plus grands de l’antre de la chicane.

Vous avez done quelque droit aux services de ceux que vous avez portés sur
le pavoi: cle ceux que vous avez faits grands, s vos perils et risques. Allez vers
vos représentans. Vous avez droit de dernander, a ceux qui vous cherchent
avant les elections, qu’ils vous entendent apres les elections; qu’ils vous guident
et vous aident dans vos clforts, s’ils vous sont utiles et hcnorables; qu’ils vous
persuadent de les discontinuer, s’ils vous prouvent qu’ils sont nuisibles it Pinte-
rét public, et des lors peu honorables pour ceux qui les partageraient avec vous.

La Députation.—Mais c’est inutile, puisque nous serons refuses. On nous
repoussera grossiereinent.

M. P.—-Impossible. J e vous adresse s. des gentils-hommes.

La Dép.——Nous avons éte refuses poliment, mais peremplestoirement par
M. Coursol, qui nous a dit qu’il ne voulait pas nous alder s embarrasser le minis-
tere, et que notre demarche ne lui serait pas agréable.

M.P.—Ah! En voila donc un, qui n’est pas dans le gouvernement, et qui est
dans les secrets d’un gouvcrnement aussi mystérieux que le netrel Non, vous
etes dans l’erreur. Ce n’est pas un fait acquis qu’iI vous revele; c’est une suppo-
sition ingénieuse is laquelle il est parvenu d’aprbs 1111 0310111 85305 plausible de
probabilité, que la quiétude du repos et la sagesse du silence sont aussi agréables
au Ministere Canadien, que le tapage de l’Irlande lui est ennuyeux, et 2‘). Lord
Russel aussi. J e vous répbte, remontez e la source de tous ces rapports. Y9?/’65
vos représentans. Mon avis a moi, est que des ministres actifs et Judicleux,
entre lesquels se trouvent plusieurs membres Irltmdais et d’07‘50m€ ITllmdm-W:
devraient se faire Phonneur dc prouver, que leur cazur n’est pas de glace pour les
tlngoisses de leur pays; sc faite 1’hon.neur de 116 P53 él-Ollffer votre élan patmot1-
que. S’ils peuvent s’excuser de ne pas Y étre 611 Persolmea 115 d°1V°“l” 3“ moms
encourager leurs amis, a assister s votre assembléey § 911 P1‘éP9~T<’-1′ W99 ‘”°‘_1S 1?“
resolutions, afin que, ne dépassant pas les limites de la loi, vous allicz aussl Iom
qu’ellc 1e permet, ainsi que l’ont fait leurs partisans tres—devoues A Quebec.

l 176 ELGIN—GRE Y PAPERS

[Enclosure]

Voyez M. Holmes, il est vctre representant, il est ami du cabinet, il est Irlandais
<l’origine; vous avez sur lui des droits que vous n’avez pas sur moi ; il doit étre
votre president si vous l’y appelez.

Vous venez apres vos concitoyens de Quebec, pour organiser une demons-
tration analogue is cello qu’ils ont cue, et qui justement vous interesse. Ayant
le benefice ole leur exemple, et le temps de la reflexion, vous devez vous efforcer
-de faire quelquc chose de plus qu’eux.

Quoique vous deviez, dans cette occasion, avoir une reunion irlandaise, vous
ajoutez a son importance, si vous faites appel, dans toutes les origines dont se
compose notre societe, aux hommes humains, devoues a la. cause du progres, au
respect pour la justice, a la haine centre Yoppression, et si vous leur demandez
de vous seconder. Que les diverses nationalités un peu nombreuses soient repre-
sentees dans votre assemblée. Elisez des vice presidents, Oanadien——Anglais,
Ecossais, Americain et Allemand. Apprenez a connaitre la liberté de sentimens,
la soif de libéralité, d’egalite ct de fraternite, que possede la majorite de vos
concitoyens d’origine Francaise. Invites les Ea. prendre pait a une demonstration
qui a pour but, de donner une libre expression aux sentimcns qui gonflent leurs
genéreuses poitrincs, haine a Yopprcssion, pitié pour les souffrances nationales
de l’Irlande, comme pour ses souffrances individuelles, ainsi que vous le prouve
Yadoption, dans les families Canadiennes, d’un si grand nombre des orphelins de
l’Irla.nde; faits orplielins par la léicheté des ministres Whigs basscment maitrisés
par Pintéret mercantile et, par suite do cet asservissement, laissant faite par les
proprietaires de vaisseaux Anglais, avec une avidite de lucre plus sordide, une
inhumanité plus brutale, une imprevoyancc plus meurtriere, la traite des Irlan-
dais, que n’en mettent les corsaires de Cuba et du Bresil dans la traite des noirs.

Ijintéret du negrier, est d’a.voir un court passage ct de vendre entiere et en
sante sa cargaison. L’interet des Stanley, des Palmerston, des Blake et autres
de leur caste et de leur temperament, est de ohasser de leurs vastes domaines
irlandais ceux qu’ils ont fait pauvres et qui ne peuvent plus les payer. Plus le
vaisseau qui les emporte est encombre, plus le domaine et le cceur des manvais
riches sont alleges; et plus leur revenu est grossi. Ils ne peuvent pas faire execu-
ter, nous informent-ils officiellement, leur loi qui tendrait a prévenir l’encombre—
ment. Ils ne la veulent pas faire cxécuter. Ils ont profit et plaisir a co qu’elle
soit éludée. De la, les ccleres exprimecs d’un Stanley contre notre loi coloniale.
De la, Phyperbolique bassesse d’un Grey, et de tcus ses collegues, blamant la loi
coloniale passée d’apres leurs instructions. Voila le gouvernement responsable
a sa source, dans toute sa sincerité, sa bienfaisance, ou sa nudité comme on
voudra Yappelerl Faut-il s’etonner qu’il soit si épaissi do sang et de boue quand
il est rendu 3. Sandwich, pour y faire choix de représentans qui le comprennent

et le preconisent‘?
L. J. PAPINEAU.

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 177

[Duplicate MS copy]

Private
0.0.
June 8/48
My DEAR ELGIN

I rec“ yesterday your letter of May 18″’ I have little to say in reply to it
except again to express my satisfaction at the tranquillity you have been able
to maintain in Canada & my entire concurrence with You in thinking that
however great this tranquillity may be we ought not to trust to it so much as
not to have active & able Officcrs at the head of our Troops; if any sudden
danger sh“ come upon us we may suffer heavily from the opposite system——
But what can we do While the Duke of Wellington is Com‘ in Chief? In the Pro-
motion Commission wh. sat in 1840 I strongly urged the expediency of estab-
lishing the rule of employing by selection active Colonels & L‘ Colonels with
local & temporary rank to hold Colonial commands, the rank being made
permanent after three or four Years service when they sh“ be relieved, we sh“
thus have always had some good active General Oflicers. I was I believe how-
ever the only Member of the Commission in favor of such a recommendation &
the Duke W” not hear of it.—— I shall try to bring forward the same idea again
some day, but the Duke fancies himself & all who served with him in Spain to be
the same men they were then 35 Years ago—

I am very anxious to hear whether you think anything cd. be made out
of my notion of disciplined emigration in connection with undertaking the
Railway from Halifax to Quebec~—

(Signed) GREY
[Endorsed]

June 8/48

L“ Grey to L“ Elgin

[Original MS]
Private
MONTREAL. May 23. 1848.

MY DEAR GREY, _

Nothing very remarkable has occurred during the past week. PaPine3}1_15:
I think, sinking. His last publication has been taken up by the French M1mS-
terial papers as a declaration of war. And in the contest about to ensue there
is little doubt, I think, that victory will incline to their side.—— _

Under these circumstances it may be hoped that no exhibition of ill feeling
on the part of Canada will occur to complicate and aggravate the present crisis-—
Flashes of French and Irish sympathy there may be from time to time: but they
Will not kindle a flame. Canada is tranquil because she is satisfied with her
institutions—- and still more, because she is quite confident from 119!‘ T9091“
experience that there is no intention to work them unfair-ly——.

There may still however I fear be some weakness in our allegiance °n the
Side of self interest according to the calculations of certain classes among DUI

933742

V73 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS

merchants and commercial men. The legislation of 1846 has rendered unpro-
ductive many investments in mills and warehouses which were made on the
faith of the legislation of 1843. Property in Montreal has fallen greatly in value.
This is felt to be a great hardship—~ and with justice.—— though the blame rests
rather, it may be alleged, with the legislation of 1843 which gave a false direction
to trade, than with that of 1846 which allows it to find its natural channel.-—
Neverthcless, such inconstancy of purpose on the part of an Imperial legislature
in which the Colonists are not represented is undeniably a grievance. All that
can be done to remedy it should be done-—

The true policy in this matter according to my judgment, is——to secure for
Her Majesty’s subjects in Canada, free access to the markets of the States and
all the advantages with respect to reduction of freights which competition on
the S‘ Lawrence & the Ocean will afford.—. This system will undoubtedly lead
to much intercourse between the neighbouring countries & to the multiplication
of their commercial relations. But you cannot prevent this even if you desired
to do so. So long as you adhered to the policy of protection you raised an
artificial barrier nhetweon them—- You enabled the Canadian to point to the
preferences which he enjoyed in the Mother Country as the price paid for the
drawbacks real or supposed of the connexion. Now, the least you can do for
him, after depriving him of these preferences, is to put him on as good a footing
as his neighbour: to enable him to say when tempted, “ What should I gain by
renouncing my allegiance?” You must then trust to his affection for his own
Institutioiiswto his sense of the advantage which he enjoys in being relieved
from the expense of maintaining the Gov‘ at Washington-——and to the ‘vis
inertiae’—~to induce him to remain steady, and to resist the blandishincnts of
the ‘Stars & Stripes’-—

England has a very obvious interest in carrying out the policy I recommend.
She is guarantee for the interest on the money vested in the S” Lawrence canals.
Besides which I am very confident that if the Revenue of the Province from these
sources encreases the Import duties will be reduced. Ml” Merrit the M.P.P. who
is now at Washington pressing through congress a bill for reciprocity of trade
between Canada and the States, is sanguine enough to believe that in a short
time after these measures pass we shall have no custom Houses in Canada. As
it enters into this Gentleman’s calculations to reduce the Governor General’s
salary to £2000 a year I ought not I suppose to be altogether of his way of
thinking— However the tendency will be, I doubt not, towards reduction of
duties— Low duties in Canada and low freights on the S” Lawrence will go
far to neutralize the attempts of the Yankees to impose high protective rates
against British Manufactures.

I think I can answer for it that our Immigration law, although we have
not been able to amend it to meet yfrl objections, will be carried out so as not
to be oppressive—— No bonds have been exacted yet Ibelieve on ace}? of any
passengers who have arrived, And the vessels placed in quarantine have been
permited to land their passengers at Grosse Isle & proceed to Quebec so as to
prevent interruption to trade. I intended to write to you ofiicially to this effect
by the present mail—abut if I am prevented from doing so, pray accept this assuI‘—

ance en attendant-—

ELG’IN—G’IBEY PAPERS 179

May 24.——Your letter of the 4”‘ has just reached me—-— I never though that
you or y. colleagues were indifferent to the Colonies—— Indeed Lord John Russell
has lately in his manly way made a declaration in Par“ which is very reassuring
on this head. Nevertheless there is I Am confident a growing indisposition
among our masters the middle classes, to hear those charges which are indispen-
sable to the maintenance of our Colonial Empire,——— For I am not sanguine
enough to believe that it will be possible to relieve England altogether from the
expenditure which she incurs on this account unless a federal system be devised
which shall give to all parts of the Empire a voice in Imperial Legislation-—
Do what you will, there is still in the acceptance of a Governor from England,
and in the absence of all power of controlling diplomatic or military movements,
a sense of inferiority to which Oolonists (who have, as our North American
Provincialists have, an available alternative) must ‘be reconciled by the con-
cession te them of some equivalent—At the same time I think that as the Oolon~
ists become better satisfied with their own Gov‘, and the Yankees more convinced
that it is izlle to attempt to bully them into annexation, the charges to which
I refer may be reduced, if the measure be effected cautiously & gradually.

Very sincerely Yours

ELGIN & KINCARDINE

The
Earl Grey

[Endorsed]
May 23/48
L“ Elgin

[Original MS]
Private
MONTREAL June 1, 1848.

My DEAR GREY,

The mail of the 13”‘ May arrived here yestcrdayabringing us however very
little intelligence from private sources. The public news is however on the
Whole good, though somewhat warlike. I am sorry too to observe that Cass
has been nominated by the Democratic Convention as their candidate for the
Presidency—-— He is the most pugnacious Gentleman in the Union. I wonder
h°W 001I1p1ete~sufi”rage and universal—Peace Cobden will acct for the fact that
war breathing Cass is the choice of the Democrats of the Union, and General
Taylor the almost inevitable nominee for the Whigs— If the flames of war
are kindled in Europe there is no man so likely to drag America into the fire
38 Cass. Sufiiicient however for the day are its own troubles. Nothing 1}”
Occurred of any importance here since I last Wrote. We are all waiting Wlth

933742;

i 80 ELGI N «GEE Y PAPERS

anxiety to learn what you propose to do in the matter of the navigation laws. V i)

Let me also remind you of the importance which attaches to the passing of a
measure to remove the restrictions imposed by the Act of Union on the use of
the French language

Yours very sincerely,

ELGIN & KINCARDINE

The EARL Gmry
[Endorsed]
Rec“ June 22

[Duplicate MS copy]

Private

C. 0

June 23/48
MY DEAR ELGIN

I have but a moment to write to you before I go to the H. of Lords but
I cannot let this Mail go Without writing a line which may be my last from this
Ofl‘ice—— Nothing can be more uncertain than the Division on this W. Indian
question & if we are heat of course we have nothing for it but to Make our
bow & retire—-

I received your letter of the 1“ Yesterday & I was glad to hear that things ’
were going on well. The only point on wh, I am uneasy is that I find from
the Treasury that the Commissariat are getting in advance of the to the [sic]
Colonial Gov“ on account of the Emigration of this Year} Considering how
liberally we have paid the last Years expenses I trust that the arrangement
wh. is made for the future that Canada sh“ provide for the charge herself will
be strictly adhered to, & if this is to he the case I think it highly inexpedient ‘
that any money shd be advanced from the Military Chest— The Existence [
of Debts from the Colonies tm the Mother Country I always think highly
objectionable & I sh“ he very glad if you ed direct the Commissariat Officers
to perform only such services as they have in hand from the Colony the means
of paying for— E
In these days of economy I wish you wd look into the Indian Department-
I have a strong notion that it is one in wh. a good deal of money is spent to

very little purpose
signed GREY

[ Endorsed]
June 23/48 ,

L‘ Grey to L“ Elgin

1See below 1:. 209.

ELGI N —G.RE Y PAPERS 181

[Original MS]
Private

MONTREAL June 6. 1848
MY DEAR ‘GREY,

I have this day recieved your letter of the 18”‘ May, A Deputation is
now here from Nova Scotia on the subject of the interprovincial Railway.
Telegraph, Custom Houses, Post ofiice &c.1 I hope that some good may come
of their visit they complain to me however of the want of British feeling both
here and in New Brunswick.

We are still getting on smoothly—— The Split between Papineau and La
Fontaine becomes daily wider so that for the first time since the union the
-French Party is really divided. We shall see what will come of this-— Papi-
ncau is so exceedingly intemperate and so utterly heedless of truth in his
allegations that one can hardly imagine him at the head of a formidable oppo-
sition— The liberal French Papers now openly accuse him of cowardice & a
vast number of other foibles which if one had not read the story of the French
Revolution of 1789 one WW imagine to be unfavorable to success in a popular
leader—~ I have sent you most of his manifestos, not with the idea that you
can spare time to read them for they are terribly long winded, but supposing
that Lady Grey may perhaps cast her eye over them and point out to you
whatever she may think worth y. notice- I send you another herewith pub-
lished in -an e.1:t7’a of one of the French ministerial papers— You will percieve
from the heading on what terms the two parties now stand towards each other.
—-. This document professes to be a reply to a speech made by D‘ Nelson, the
conqueror of Gen Gore at S‘ Denis, a really fine brave fellow, who fought like
a man when he was in arms against the Gov‘, and who is equally disgusted by
Papineau’s cowardice during the struggle & by his attempt to agitate now
that all that could fairly be asked for has been conceded.

I am glad to see yW bold measure ‘on the Navigation Laws. You have no
other course now open to you if you intend to keep ym colonies—— You cannot
halt between two opinions. Free trade in all things or general Protection.
There was something captivating in the project of forming all the parts of this
vast British Empire into one huge Zollverein with free interchange of com-
modities between its members, and uniform duties against the World without.
Though perhaps without some federal legislation it might have been impossible
to carry it out— Undoubtedly under such a system the component parts of
the Empire would have been united by bonds which cannot be supplied under
that on which we are now entering.

Though it may be fairly urged on the other side that the variety of con-
flicting interests which would under this arrangement have been brought into
presence would have led to collisions which we may now hope to escape.
But as it is the die is east. As regards these colonies you must allow them to
turn to the best possible account their contiguity to the States that they may
not have cause for dissatisfaction when they contrast their own condition with
that of their neighbours——That the effect of this will be to mutiply busi-
ness connexions between the countries is certain——— If the worst comes tm

1 See below 12. 183 mi note .7.

182 ELG’IN—GREY PAPERS

the worst however and this friendly intercourse ends in annexation it may be
hoped that it will be a peaceful one. Tending to promote good feeling between
Great Britain and America rather than irritation.

At the present moment there is I believe no political dissatisfaction in
Canada.— I do not think that Papincau will be able to do much even with the
most empty headed of his compatriote— The only real discontent existing is
to be found among the commercial classes. You will observe in one of my
last despatches that the Board of Trade of Montreal got a pretty good rap
over the Knuckles from Sullivan for insinuating Ti-eason.1 It has been well
taken and I do not think they will repeat the experiment at present.

Yrs most sincerely
ELGIN & KINCARDINE
The EARL GREY
‘I find that Papiiieau’s manifesto to W“ I refer has been 561113 in the Bag

to the Col Office.
I thank you for the offer for M“? Daly I shall be able to write to you

on the subject next week

[Endorsed]
June 6/48
Lord Elgin

{Original MS]
Prizlate

MONTREAL. June. 15——1848.
MY DEAR GREY,

We have rocieved the mail of the 27“ Ult—~which brought us almost nothing
from England» And we have heard by tclegraph of the arrival of the America
at Boston with letters of the 3“ after the unprecedented passage of ten days and
a few hours.——.

A rumor has reached us that the House of Lords may perhaps throw out
the navigation measure? This would be a most untoward aotr—- almost fatal,

1See below 1). 220, note 2.

9 In a despatch on this subject Lord Elgin stated that “ a very painful feeling ” had arisen as
the result of I). report that the repealof the uavigationlmvs might -be lost infarlianmnt. Speaking
on behalf of thc.C<anad.ia.ns, he so/id:—“’l‘he Canadian Farmer is o. suppliant at present to
the Imperial Legislature, notflor favor but Justice. Ami strong as is his aiiection for the
Mother Country and her institutions, he oannot reconcile ii: to his sense of right, that after
being deprived of all protection, for his produce in her Marlwis, shall be subjected to a
-hostio discriminating duty in the guise of a low for the protection of navigation.”
Lord Elgin then pointed to the ‘ble results of the perpetuation of the navigation
laws. This he felt would. cause the (hinaxlians to desist from the use of the St. Lawrence,
and to find a market through New York and Portland, from which points produce could
be shipped to England in either American or British ships. On the other hand, if the
navigation laws_ were repealed, ‘l7hci’e was every possibility that not only would the British
ship-owner retain the Canadian trade but that the trade of the Western States would find
an outlet tlu-oug’h the St. Lawrence. “Of this vast & iiicreasing trade, it is hardly possible to
doubt blunt British Shipping, with the aid OI long established commercial connexion, will
engross a considerable share.”

On grounds of both_reason and policy, Lord Elgin urged that these laws should be
promptly repealed. (El 47; to Grey, 15 Jamie, 18.58, No. 81, Com}, (1; /;61, 1). 240.)

On the same day, Jord Elgin transmitted to Lord Grey, im address to the Queen. and
?2otg6H]ouses of Pa7’Ziament_, which had been adaptetl at a {public meeting on 13 June. (Ibid,
0. 2.

ELG’IN—G1BEY PAPERS 183

I fear, in so far as this Colony is concerned. I intended to have expressed my
feelings in full in this letter— but, it occurred to me, that perhaps if I vented
my wrath in an oflicial shape it might be more useful. I have accordingly done
so and written a despatch which you can make what use of you please,

I trust that the next Bag from Downing Street will inform me what you
intend to do in order to repeal the restrictions on the use of the French Language
imposed by the Union Act. I am very anxious on this point. La Foiitaine is
constantly speaking to me about it—I believe these p1‘ovisions to be most
impolitic-— & calculated to produce the very opposite eliects from those intended.
Their repeal has been applied for in an address, I believe, unanimously voted,
by the local legislature and promised by the Secretary of State. Why should
it be delayed?”

It is said that you are going to do something on a great scale for the encour-
agement of Emigration. Do not overlook Canada if that is the case. For,
although, it is difficult to reconcile the facts & feelings of Canada and its inhabi-

‘tants with Wakefield theories concerning the settlement of land; there is a good
disposition on the part of my Gov” towards this work. A very interesting cor-
respondence has taken place on this subject lately between the Catholic Es!’
of Montreal and M’ Sullivan? I shall probably send you a copy of it by the
next mail.

Climate & contiguity point out Canada as the most natural resort for the
surplus population of England & Ireland, and I am convinced that filling up the
back settlements of the Province with resident agriculturalists furnishes the only
possible chance of preventing Canada from becoming a State of the Union.

We have had some members of Sir John Harvey’s council herew The visit
has done good. The two Executives were mutually pleased with each other and
settled some points of intercolonial policy satisfactorily and in a way which is
likely to lead to encreased intercourse between the Provinces-“‘—-

Papineau’s candidate for Quebec has been defeated. The ministerial sup-
porter returned——— He has also paid a visit to his County where a good deal
of dissatisfaction was expressed at his late conduct. For the present, I think, it
may be said that his attempt to agitate has failed. This result is due to the
influence of La Fontaine Looking to the circumstances of the time it is a
most important matter.

1’.l‘he answer to this question was given in Lord Grey’s (lespateh of 27 May, 1848 (see
above 1)‘ 165 415 note 1) in which he said, that as the su_bJcct had not been specifically mentioned
at the time when the Civil List Bill was before P11-rliumeirt , . “I was induced to hope
that a further experience of the existing Law might have led to the ooncl-usmn that it
inight be allowed to continue unaltered witliout_a1iy serious inconvenience; and as I cannot
disguise from your Lordship that it is not entirely’ without reluctance that Her Ma]c_si’y’s
prwent Advisers will propose the dcsiixed alteration in the 1_Ze-Union Act, I willingly
emailed myself of the silence -of your Lordship and of the Provincial Legislature, to omit
doing so when the ziriiendinent of the Act with respect to the Civil List was brought before
Parliament.” (Gray to 11/’l_qi’1i, No, 217, G‘, 131, p. 128].

2See below Amicmlirn VII, ‘

3’I‘his visit was viewed with much interest by the people of Canada. Under the head
“Rumors,” the Quebec Gazette of 10 June, 18‘//8, published the f0l10\V1JJg‘ report:—
, “It is reported in town,—s.nd the turnout is of extreme iin.po1.’i;auce,—thgLt the result of the
interview with His Excellency by the Ilonbls. G. R. Young and M. Tobin, has resulted as
follows:—— that reciprocal free trade between Nova-Sootiu. and Canada, (basetl_ upon the
resolutions passed in the legislature of the flrat named province) [bias ‘been x)0DCI1I‘!‘GLI_1ll; that an
‘unde1’sf3,nd’ing has been mutually 1rr1‘.ived iii; with respect to the Monster‘ Ruil’.voy—~from
Quebec to Halifax——whieh ensures the iminexliate commencement _of the work. Our informant
Btatm that the mrelimin.ai’y operations will be entered upon this suiumior, oominenoing ‘from
Halifax; and further that the talked of .;v;ron.t in will of the Montreal and Portland Itailway
will be withheld, and devoted to the construction of that portion of the connecting line

– between Quebec and Montreal which is to extend from Port Levi to Melbourne.

184 ELGI N —GRE Y PAPERS

Indeed I think I may say that at this hour when so many thrones are
tottering & the allegiance of so many people is waxing faint, there is less
political disaffection in Canada than there ever was before. At least than

there has been for many years past-—- Of course if you put the mercantile and 1;

producing classes on a much worse footing than their neighbours of the Union
you will beget a desire for seperation—but this desire will have its root in
commercial not in political motives——

I mentioned to MW Daly the offer which you authorized me to make to
him.1 He looked very blank at the idea of going to the West Indies- but as
he is going to England immediately I said that I W“ request you to allow him
to present himself to you or M’ Hawes before filling the oflice up.

Yours very sincerely

ELGIN & KINCARDINE
The
EARL GREY

[Endorsed]
June 15/48
L“ Elgin
Rec“ July 6

[Duplicate MS copy]
C.O
June 30/48

My DEAR Enom

The division is over & our small majority averts I think all chance of our
going out for this Session, wh. if it were not for the extreme danger of a change
in the present state of Europe I sh‘ sincerely regret. The shock we have had
has however made us think of all the different matters wh. ought to be settled
before we retire, & amongst these is your British Peerage; we W“ have had this
actually granted before we went out if we had been beat had it not been that
We do not know what title you W“ like to take, & therefore as the best thing to
be done L“ John spoke to the Queen who quite approved of it being mentioned
to our Successors whoever they might have been as a thing settled tho’ not
completed —~ I have no doubt that this arragnement W“ have secured it to you
in spite of our retirement, but at the same time it is Quite as well not to leave
such matters in the” power of a new Ministry trusting to their fairness, more
especially as we are told George Bentinek (1 I 1) might be one of -them, in
case therefore of another sudden crisis I sh“ be glad to know What title you Wd
wish to take in order that your patent may be actually sealed before we retire.
We do not propose that -this sh” be done while things go on as they are, because
a British Peerage wd be of no use to you‘ in Canada & giving it to you w“ only

stimulate the eagerness of other claimants wh. is very unnecessary, but it is

‘See above 1). 148.

,____ _: ,4

ELG’IN—GREY PAPERS 185

clearly understood it will be done before we go out so furnish me with the
necessary information. I advise your being Baron Elgin in the Peerage of
England, as I think it so much better that as a member of the H. of Lords you
sh“ have the same title as that by wh. you are usually known. L“ John desires
me to say that he meant to have written to you but has not time owing to the
late night in the H. of Commons last night—

I have only time myself to add that nothing can be more satisfactory than –

the way in wh. you are getting on in Canada——

(Signed) GREY
[Endorsed]
June 30/48
L“ Grey to Lord Elgin
[Duplicate MS copy]
Private
(3.0.
July 7/48

MY DEAR Enom

I reed yesterday your letter of the 15”‘ of June. Your public Despatches
by this Mail on the Navigation Lawsl arrived just in good time. I am very
glad you have said to me what you have oflicially as it will be very useful to
lay these Despatches before Partl° wh. I shall do forthwith, My own opinion
is that the H. of Lords will pass the alteration of the Navigation Laws, but it
is right that you sir‘ know (tho’ we still keep the secret from the public) that
We begin to think the game of delay played by the opposition must succeed
& that we shall be compelled to put the measure off for this Session. ,We shall
be most reluctant to take this course but I do not see how it can be helped.
Here we are in July with the prospect of Several more days being taken up by
the measures respecting rum & sugar wh. we must go on with first, then will
come the “encumbered Estates” & “Landlord & Tenant” bills for Ireland
both of wh. are of pressing necessity, & these with the estimates will carry us
I fear very near the end of August so that it W“ be the end of Sept‘ before we
ca pass the Navigation Laws repeal~— If we do postpone this measure it will
be with the view of making it the very first of next Session when I trust there
W“ be no doubt of its passing before the Navigation of the S‘ Lawrence opens.
I hope you will be able to reconcile the Canadians to this delay wh. I admit
to be very hard upon them..-
Do you observe that Peel in his speech strongly advised our paying our Colonial
Governors from the British Treasury, it so happens that only a few days before I
had given evidence to the same effect before the Comm“ on Miscellaneous
Estimates, it being as you know an old & favorite idea of mine, & the notion
is I think beginning to gain favor with the public, but in the present state of
feeling in favor of economy this most useful reform can only be accomplished

1See above 11. 182.

186 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS

if it can be coupled with a reduction of Colonial charges in other directions —
In N. America the only charge of any moment upon this Country is that of
the Military defence of our olominions there, an expense wh. I am sure admits
of large reduction if we can but carry the Colony with us. They certainly
ought to bear a part of the charges for their own protection now that they are
allowed such complete self Gov”, at the same time I admit the full force of the
arguments you have used in some of your letters, that it W“ be very impolitic
tm teach the Colonists that they escape no burthcns by belonging to us, &
that as the necessity for their maintaining considerable garrisons in a great
measure arises from their not belonging to the U. States it is only just that We
sh” pay this expense for them— But granting this I still believe that the
Military defence of our N. American Provinces might be provided for at a much
lower cost & at the same time far more effectually than at present, & also that
by allowing the Colonists to take a greater share in what is done, & to find
more employment for their young men in the Army, they might be induced to
contribute towards the payment of this reduced charge. Upon this subject I
enclose two valuable papers wh. you Wd greatly oblige me by reading & telling
me your opinion of the suggestions they contain— The one is by Capt“ Elliot,
the Gov‘ of Bermuda, .from whom on many points of detail I differ but whose
general principle I regard as decidedly right— The other is by Col. Tullochl
& is founded upon views wh. I have often discussed with him & wh. were meant
to have been practically tried by the formation of the Canadian Rifle Reg”
9 Years ago, but I went out of Office While the measure was still under con-
sideration, & when Macaulay succeeded me in the War Olfioe he was induced
by the Horse Guards to consent to changes wh. entirely its [M] whole charactor.—
I am persuaded the principle of this suggestion is right, but as the paper has
been written more with reference to Australia than N. America the mode of
acting upon it W” require to be considerably varied——for instance the Expense
of conveying the pioneers to the Colony c‘‘ not in the case of N. America be
fairly charged upon colonial funds.—~ Another part of our Colonial Military
expenditure wh. I think ought to be mainly provided for by the Colonies is the
construction & Maintenance of fortifications & Barracks——

There is nothing wh. is now managed in a manner So unsatisfactory & leading I
am persuaded tm so Much extravagance as this part of our service partly from
the constitution of the Board of Ordnance, but more from the utter impossi-
bility of such business being managed efliciontly & economically from a distance.
In Australia I am refusing to undertake any works unless the Colonies will pay
for them, & in N. America it W“ I am persuaded be an immense advantage if
the Ordnance ed make over their property to the Provincial Gov’“‘S the latter
undertaking to provide in future Barracks for the Troops & to make all necessary
fortifications —

Pray think of all these matters & let me know what conclusion you come to.

1This paper is not in the collection. For Sullivnrfs Memomndiini upon it, see below,

A ppenilzlz XIII.

ELGI N—GRE Y PAPERS 187

I have written at such length on these topics that I have no time for any

others –

[Kw]

(Signed) GREY

Earl of Elgin & Kinoardine K[T]

[Endorsed]
July 7/48
Lord Grey to L5 Elgin

[Enclosure]

Memorandum by Captain Elliot respecting the Military occupation of the
Colonies with notes by Lord Dundonald dated June 1/481—~

Note

Those personally acquain-
ted with Colonial afifuirs
gun have no doubt; of the
act.

Note.

The employment of Col-
onial olficers would prove
most satisfactory to the
Colonies and useful to the
mother Country.

Received —
June 1* 1848.

I have served upwards of 30 Years abroad, and the
conviction has long been strengthening in my mind
that the system of a reserved force (in a great degree
self sustainable) for the military occupation of the
Colonies, might be generally adopted with advantage
to those possessions, and much economy and other
benefit to the mother Country. The chief point would
be to form these Military settlements of people suited
to the circumstances and climates of the different
regions, so that they might be useful in the cultiva-
tion of the land and otherwise answer the purposes of
such a scheme‘ I believe that a Colonial Army and
Navy (to be located and paid by the Imperial Treas-
ury) consisting of at least 30.000 Men, should be
formed for the service of Her Majesty’s Possessions
in the Western parts of the world, to be oilicered en~
tirely by persons belonging to colonial families, prop-
erly trained for the respective arms in Military Col—
logos, or Naval instruction ships established at suit-
able points.

This description of force for the service of the
Canadas should, in my mind, be composed chiefly of
English and Scotch youth brought up to agriculture
and setting out in life with young families, rather than
of old soldiers, who do not generally make steady or
thriving Settlers. The stations for the reserves of
regular Troops for the North American Colonies

‘In vol. m’, Elgin-Grey, Miscellaneous.

188

[Enclosure]

Note

*Who hate the North
Americans on account of
their infamous treatment of
the Negroes generally, but
especially by reason of the
seizure and imprisonment of
the free Negroes, subjects
of Great Britain, who are
dragged from under the
British Flag to Prison, for
no other reason than their
color; an indignity to the
Country under whose Flag
they navigate, which as-

El/GIN—G’I€EY PAPERS

should, I think, he Halifax and Bermuda; and a Naval
instruction Ship for the training of Oflicers, Men,
and boys for the Colonial Navy should also be move-
able between those two places, remaining at the first
point during the summer months, and at Bermuda
during the winter.

With the easy means of concentration afforded
by Steam, I should say that 3.500 regular Troops
posted at Bermuda and Halifax, and an army of
15.000 of the reserved force spread over the rest of
the North American Colonies, -3; or %, or more or less,
according to the exigencies of the Service, to take
their tour of duty, on pay and rations, would be ample
for a peace Establishment, and a very formidable
and trustworthy array in a War of frontier defence.

The Steam Royal Mail Service from the Ocean
termini (which I would recommend should be Halifax
for North Azmerica, and Bermuda for the Gulf of
Mexico and the West Indies) should, in my judgment,
be perf0r1.ned entirely in Steam Vessels of a suitable
size belonging to Her Majesty, and worked by the
Colonial Navy. Suitably proportioned in point of
size of Vessel, consumption of Fuel, and extent of
personnel, to the service to be performed, these would
soon become, to a considerable extent, self-subsistent,
from the profits accruing from postage, freight, and
passengers. .

As for the West Indies I would not have on
single regular European Soldier in peace time below
the elevation of 3.000 feet in the Jamaica Mountains.
With the Colonial Steam Navy that I contemplate
I am sure that 3 or at the outside 4 Corps of regular
Infantry, and one full Battalion of Royal Artillery,
would be an abundant peace Establishment for the
whole West Indies. The reserved force in that part
of the World should be composed as much as pos-
sible of coloured people,“ not only because of their
fitness for the climate but because there are plenty
of good reasons for training the respectable portion
of those races to the use of arms, and still further
cementing their attachment to the British connexion
by this kind of honorable and advantageous associa-
tion with Her Majesty’s Service.

Long and faithful Services in the Colonial Army
and Navy should, I think, be rewarded by endow-
ments of land and dwellings instead of by money,

suredly requires only to be
made known to Her Ma-
jesty’s Government in order
to be remonstrated against
in terms that would prevent
its recurrence.
Note

Sam Slick gives excellent
advice on Colonial Sub-
jects. ‘

Good.

Note

The Colonial service
ought. to be deemed regu»
lar from the beginning.

Note
undoubtedly true

Note
undoubtedly true.

Note.

A kind of visiting round
would be all -that could be
required.

Note.

The disbursements ought
to be by the regular Com-
misssriat

Note.
highly important

Note
undoubtedly true

Note
Obvious

Note
quite clear.

ELGI N —G’RE Y PAPERS 189

[Enclosure]

so as to stimulate higher agricultural skill, and the
improvement of property; and that principle should
obtain, both for Oflicers and Men

I Would also recommend that Commissions for
entrance into these forces should only be granted,
after fair examination, to the most competent candi-
dates, and that further prefermcnt should, in like
manner, depend on the same rule of proficiency, on
fair examination, except in cases of meritorious Ser-
vice, by Her Majesty’s special pleasure. In case of a
war the Oificers and Men of the Colonial Army and
Navy might be allowed to volunteer for Her Majesty’s
regular Services, entering with the rank they held in
the Colonial. It seems plain to me that this system
would not only be attended with the saving of thou-
sands of lives, and consequences of the happiest de-
scription on the good will and afiections of the Col-
onists towards the mother Country, but with vast
retrenchment of the enormous expenditure for lodg-
ing, maintenance, and transport of Troops, and with
considerable reduction of the Naval. strength on the
Colonial Stations. I need scarcely observe that I
suppose the chief command, and the chief divisional
Commands, would always be confided to Officers in
Her Majesty’s regular Services, and it would also be
material that all the oflicers for the supply and dis»-
bursement of the Force shall belong to the regular
Oommissariat.

It will be observed that the principles of this
Scheme are——First, to keep the regular forces, both
land and Sea, much more concentrated than theyare
at present. In that way we should be more ready at
the commencement of a war for vigorous aggressive
hostilities from secure and eligible points; and I
know it to be the opinion of very competent judges,
that in future warfare, with our commercial flag fly-
ing over the whole face of the Seas, our best defence
is a swift and heavy blow in the Ports of the enemy.
Second, to leave the occupation of the Colonies in
peace time almost entirely to a self subsistent force,
useful in their cultivation and having their own in-
terests ancl prospects staked in their determined dc-
fcnce, in War. ‘

If the Colonies cannot be held by the affections
of the people in peace, and mainly by their loyalty
and courage in War, they are for the most part not

190 ELG‘IN—GRL’Y PAPERS

[Enclosure]
worth holding at all. It is in the highest degree dan-
gerous that the regular Sea and land forces should be
scattered in driblets over the whole Earth, thus ren—
dering us vulnerable every where. The capture of a
Note worthless rock or Island in the occupation of a de-
“””’°°°““*“b1Y °V”1°°k°d voted handful of gallant troops would be a blow to
the Empire which ought not to be risked, except as
an unavoidable part of some general plan of hostili-
ties in case of a war. Another consideration of great
force working’ against the present System of occupy-
ing the Colonies is the exposed condition of large
masses of Troops constantly on the Seas, in the relief
and reinforcement of outlying Stations.

CE——

Note
most expensive.

Dundouald

[Original MS]

Private
MONTREILL June 21. 1848

My DEAR GREY,

My letter will be short as I have nothing very particular to communicate
and am a little pressed for time having determined to take advantage of Mary’s
absence in the Country whither she is gone for change of air, and consequent
ignorance of my movements to run down to Grossc Isle and see with my own
eyes what is going on at the Quarantine Station1—— As We have Weekly mails
any thing that I wished to say may ‘be deferred till the neXt—«

Yours very sincerely
EDGIN & KINCARDINE

[Endorsed]
Rec“ July 10

[Original MS]

Private
MONTREAL June 29. 1848.

MY DEAR GREY,

Two circumstances have occurred during the past Week which have given
me satisfaction, and might, if there were room for hope respecting the future
of Canada, tend to inspire it.—.

The first relates to a matter on which I have already touched in my cor-
respondence with you. You will perhaps recollect that some Weeks ago I men-
tioned that the Catholic Bishop and Priests of this Diocese had organized

‘For Lord Elginfs description of this station, see below, A1713em:l/is; VIII.

I}LGIN—GREY PAPERS 191

an association for colonization purposes, their object being to prevent the sheep
of their pasture, (who now, strange as it may appear, emigrate annually in
thousands to the States, where they become hewers of wood and drawers of
water to the Yankees and bad Catholics into the bargain) from quitting their
fold. Papineau pounced upon this association as a means of making himself of
importance in the eyes of his countrymen and of gratifying his ruling passion
by abusing England. Accordingly at a great meeting convened at Montreal
he held forth for three hours to the multitude (the Bishop in the chair) ascribing
this and all other French Canadian ills, real or supposed, to the selfish Policy
of Great Britain and her persevering efforts to deprive them of their nationality
and every other blessing.— In process of time the association, who had made
this rather questionable start, Waited on me with a memorial requesting the
co operation of Gov‘ M. Papineau being one of the deputation who attended on
the occasion.

In dealing with them, I had one of two courses to choose from—- I had
nothing for it, situated as I was, -but either, on the one hand, to give the pro-
moters of the scheme a cold shoulder—point out its objectionable fcatures~—&
dwell upon difficulties of execution,—~in which case, (use what tact I might)~
I should have dismissed the Bishop and his friends discontented, and given
M’ P. an opportunity of asserting that I had lent a quasi sanction to his
calumnies.——or, on the other, to identify myself with the movement, put myself,
in so far as might be, at its head, impart to it as salutary a direction as possible,
and thus wrest from MW Papineau’s hands a potent instrument of agitation——.

I was tempted, I confess, to prefer the latter of these courses, not only by
reason of its manifest expediency as ‘bearing upon present political contests,
but also because I sympathise to a considerable extent with the views of the
promoters of the movement. No one object in my opinion is so important,
whether you seek to retain Canada as a Colony, or to fit her for independance
and make her instinct with national life & vigor, (a result by no means less
desirable than the former in so far as the interests of Great Britain are oon«
cerncd) as the filling up of her vacant lands with a resident agricultural popu-
lation. More especially is it of moment that the inhabitants of French origin
should feel that every facility for settling on the land of their Fathers is given
them with the cordial assent and concurrence of the British Gov‘ and its Reprt-2~
sentative.—and that in the plans of settlement adopted their feelings and habits
are consulted. The sentiment of French Canadian nationality which Papineau
endeavors to pervert to purposes of faction, may yet perhaps if properly improved
furnish the best remaining security against annexation to the States. Was it,
think you, love for England or hatred for those sacrés Bostonais which stirred
the French Canadian mind in the Revolutionary war and again in 1812?

Nor does it matter when you are dealing with Frenchmen how near the
Yankee line you locate them. An English man, Scotchman or Irishman when
he is outwitted by his Yankee neighbour may be tempted to admire his superior
sagacity, and to curse the Gov‘ and constitution of Great Britain for the con-
sequences of his own stupidity or apathy. But it is not so with the Habitans.
Contact with those precious specimens of Anglo Saxondom, who are ignorant
of his language, despise his intellect, ridicule his customs, and swindle him

192 ELGIN—GRE Y PAPERS

in every transaction in which he is engaged with them, is by no means provoca-
tive of alfection in his breast.

The moral is— Fill up the Frontier country with French—- and the lands
to the rear with British, who may retain their love of home and its institutions
at a distance from American influences.

But if this is to be done to any purpose it must be done quickly—-for alasl
there is little time—-perhaps indeed it is already too latel——

I could not with these views afford to lose the opportunity of promoting
this object which was presented by a spontaneous movement of the people headed
by the Priesthood the most powerful influence in Lower Canada.

The oflicial correspondence which has passed on this subject I hope to
send you by the next mail and I need not trouble you with the detail of pro-
ceedings on my own part which though small in themselves were not without
their efEeot.1 Sufiice it for the present to observe that Papineau has retired to
solitude and reflexion at his seigneurie La Petite Nation——- and that the Pastoral
letter of which I enclose a copy has ‘been read from the Prone in every Catholic
church in the Diocese of Montreal»- To those who know what have been the
real sentiments of the French population towards England for some years past;
the tone of this document-—— its undisguised preference for peaceful over quarrel-
some courses-~ the desire which it manifests to place the Representative of
British rule forward as the patron of a work dear to French Canadian hearts,
speaks volumes. .

The other matter to which I referred at the commencement of this letter is
a smaller one but it is nevertheless significant. When MW Taché, on the change
of administration, was raised to the Executive Council, he vacated the ofiice
of Deputy Adjutant General for Lower Canada. After some delay a D’
Laterrierc was recommended to me for the place who had no particular qualifica-
tion for it that I know of excepting that of being a liberal member for Lower
Canada—-— However I made no objection and his app‘ took place, but when he
found that he would not be allowed to sit in Part he rued his acceptance of oflice
and resigned. To my satisfaction and, I confess, not a little to my surprise, my
administration then proposed to me to fill the vacancy by the app‘ of Col.
De Salaberry—-— Now this Col. De Salaberry is the Son of the oflicer who fought
so gallantly at Chateauguay in the American War. Three of his Uncles fell in
Arms in the British Service, and his family, which is one of the distinguished
seigneurial families of Canada, is the very type of French Canadian Loyalty.
He himself though not a man of much energy has been in recent struggles a
decided opponent of the radical Party. I hail this Recommendation as the
indication of a very improved feeling on La Fontaines part-

Very sincerely yours
The ELGIN & KINCARDINE

EARL GREY

[Endorsed]
June 29/48
Lord Elgin

1 A long letter from the Provincial Secretary to the Bishop of Montreal was published in
three succe$ive issues of the Quebec Gazette. See ‘below, Appendtw VII.

__ 1

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 193

[Enclosure]
LETTRE PASTORALE
DE MONSEIGNEUR L’EvEoUE ms MONTREAL

POUR ENCOURAGER L/ASSOCIATION DES ETABLISSEMENTS CANADEENS
DES TOWNSHIPS.

IGNAOE BOURGET, par la miséricorde de Dieu et la. grace du Saint Siege
Apostolique, Evéque do Montréal, ehc, etc, etc.

‘ Au clergé séculier et régulier, aux communautés religieuses at 12 tous les
fidéles ale Notre Diocese, salut at bénedictian en Notre Seigneur Jasus—O}mIst.

L’objet de la lettre que nous vous adressons aujourd’hui Nos Trés Ohers
Fréres est de vous recommander une association, qui vient de se former, pour
encouravger Pétablissement des Canadiens dans les townships. Les réglemons et
lettre circulaires qui aocompagnent la présente, vous feront suflisamment con-
naitre la fin qu’el1e se propose, et les moyens qu’elle adopte pour arriver a un
but si desirable.

Vous y verrez que cette société vous offre le double avantage de pouvoir
vous établir a des conditions tros avantageuses sur de bonnes tel-res et de vous
proourer en méme temps les secours de la religion. Son intention prinoipale est
meme d’app1iquer a la batisse des églises, presbyigeres et maisons ol’éoole et au
soutient des missionnaires les fonds qui seront mis :3 so disposition; car elle est
bienoonvaincue qu’i1 faut [a] nos bons Canadiens des églises et des prétres; ot.
‘que pour eux le plus doux bonheur est de vo’n- le clocher de la paroisse et
d’entench’e le son harmonieux do la oloohe qui appelle aux saints olfices.

Le moyen qui a été jugé Ie plus elficaoe pour opérer un si grand bien est le
méme que celui, usiter dans l’association de la Propagation de la. Foi; parceque
d’abord vous étes y accoutumés et qu’ensui‘oe il est facile et a la portée des pau-
vres eomme des riches. Les deux associations vont, comme vous le voyez, N. T.
C. F., marcher dans la méme route, parceque au fond elles doivent avoir 1e
meme résultat. Elles iront se donner la main eh s’embrasser avec amour parce-
qu’elles sont scours et filles de la divine charité, qui d’une main porters. seoours
aux domestiques de la Foi, et Pautre répandra. ses trésors dans les pays infidéles
pour oonvertir a la religion et civiliser les pauvres sauvages.

Sous ce rapport, l’assoc’£ati0n des établissemens Canadians des townships est
une oeuvre cle foi, qucique sans mo] un autre elle doit-étre considérée comme une
affairs temporelle, puisqu’il s’agit do procurer des terres a nos ooinpatriotes.
Quoiqu’il en soit, elle ne saura sous Fun 431; l’autre rappoivb étre étran-g‘ere a 19.
religion; oar tous les jours Nous demandons 9. notre pére céleste notre pain
quotidien, at c’est N. T. C. F. lui-meme qui nous a enseigné a prior ainsi; eh
c’est la religion qui nous met A la bouche cette divine priére dés que Nous sommes
capables de béayer [310] quelques mots, rien donc de surprenant si, aujou_1’d’l1ui,
Nous faisons entendre la voix de 19. religion dans toutes les chairs we] de ce
diocese pour vous exhorter, N. T. C. F., a enoourager cette oeuvre naissante en
vous y assooiant avec zéle et en grand nombre. Nous le faisons d’autant. plus
Volontiers que Nous regardons 1’association qui entreprend de vous établir sur
votre sol natal comma une récompense de votre eharité.

9337-13

194 ELGIN-GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

Vous n’avez pas oublié que le neuf mars dernier, Nous vous reeon1mand5.-
mes deux cent vingt neuf enfans qui étaient devenus orphelins A la suite de
Faflreuse maladie qui avait enlevé leurs infortunés parens pendant la derniere
emigration irlandaise.

Vous avez répondu a notre appel avec un empressement qui a meme surpassé V

Notre attente, quoiqu’une experience journaliere Nous out appris e apprécier is
leur juste valeur vos oeuvres de charité. Pour s’en convaincre, ii sulfit de remar-
quer qu’en peu de temps plus deux de [ml cent oinquante orphelins et orphelines
se sont trouvés avantageusement placés; oar la bonne nouvelle de votre charité
a fait découvrir de nouvelles vietimes du fléau dévastateur. C’était une troupe
do jeunes filles, laissées seules sur un rivage étranger et exposées aux éminens
dangers parce qu’elles n’avaient plus ni pores ni meres pour veiller sur leur inno-
cence a un age on You est sans experience de la corruption qui regno dans le
monde.

Vous les avez dono, aussi elles, puissarnment secourues. Dieu va vous le
rendre au oentuplo, n’en doutez pas, N. T. C. F., en vous donnant dans Passo-
ciation que Nous vous reoommandons, un moyen eflioaoe de conserver la foi et
Pinnocenoe de vos enfans en les fixant pres de vous, ct en leur donnant des
pasteurs vigilans qui en prendront un sein paternal. C’était vraiment la foi
qui dirigeait vos pas vers l’humb1e asile de saint Jerome, et qui vous faisait
découvrir, sous les haillons qui couvraient de pauvros enfans étrangers, la per-
sonne sacré dc J ésus-Christ. Alors vous avez prouve par les ceuvres que vous
compreniez éminemment la vérité de cette divine parole: “J’étais étranger at
“vous mflwez recueilli.” Car dans le ohoix que 1’on vous a vu faire de ces
orphelins on a été plus d’une fois saisi d’étonnement en entendant proférer ces
mots sublimes: “Nous choisissons tels on tels orphelins, préeisément parcequ’ils
“sont infirmes et malades; parooqu’ils sont afliigés de la vue ou tombant du
“haut mal. Avec cle pareilles infirmités ces pauvres enfans seraint exposes a
“ avoir beaucoup de miséres. Oh! Nous les prenons pour nous et nous en aurons
“soin paroequ’ils sont pour nous d’autres Jésus-Christi ” Assurément Jesus-
Christ que vous avez recueilli et soigné alors qu’i1 était étranger et malade, Va
vous réeompenser en préservant vos enfants si bons et si respectueux des mal-
heurs qu’ils auraient 2‘). oourir s’il leur fallait émigrer en pays étranger.

Presses par la oharité de J ésus—Christ vous avez, N. T. C. F., adopté les
pauvres enfants do Plrlande; vous leur avez ouvert le sein de vos familles, vous
leur avcz donné place dans vos maisons; vous les faites asseoir a votro table;
vous partagez aveo eux 1e pain quotidien, que vous donne ie pore oéleste; vous
leur destinez one part a Phéritage de vos pores; vous les faites meme participer
aux bienfaits de la richc éducation que regoivent dans nos colleges et nos com-
munautés les enfants de famille, enfinvous en faites vos enfants; cela dit tout.
Mais pouvait-on porter plus loin la tendresse et Pamour! pouvait—on prouver
plus éloquemment que notre terre est une terre hospitaliére, ot que quand il est
question do seeourir des infortunés l’on ne sait ce que c’est que la distinction des
origines. Car vous n’entendiez point le langage de ces petits malheureux que
vous aviez adoptés; toute fois, vos entrailles se sont dilatées pour les recevoir,

E’LGIN~G’REY PAPERS 195

[Enclosure]

les réchauffer et les aimer. Or, voila qu’en récompense, le pore des miséricordes
fait lever sur notre chore patrie un nouveau jour, une association bienveillante
vous 1’annonce et en est commo l’auroro.

Lorsque, ne formant qu’un ooeur et qu’une ame, nous entroprimes cette
bonne oeuvre, notre intention fut, cornrne vous vous le rappolez bion, N. T. C. F.,
do chercher avant tout le royaume dos oieux, selon le commandement que nous
on fait Notre Seigneur Jesus-‘Christ. Néamnoins nous avions foi Ea. cette parole,
sortie do sa bouche: “ ct tout le reste vous sero, donno’ pa;/‘ surc7’o’£t.” Ploin do
confianoe dans son infaillible promosso, Nous lui demandamos humblement
trois gr§.ces publiques dont Nous avions grand besoin; savoir, 10 “ do conserve!‘
avec sein, par notre bonne conduite, Phéritage do nos pores; 20 d’apprendre a
cultiver avoc intelligence cette terre si fertile que nous a léguée lo pore do 19.
grande famille, pour In. part do notre héritage; 3o enfin de trouver moyen
d’exercer notrc industrie et de gagmer notre vie dans le sein do netre patrio sans
étrc dans la clure néoessité cl’a1ler oherchcr fortune on pays étrangers.

Tel était, N. T. C. 17., 1e voou que nos occurs forrnaiont, il y a a peine deux
mois. Ce voou est incontinent arrive au ciel, parco qu’il était porté sur les
ailes do 12. charitél Ii s’est élevé rapidement jusqu’au trone du pore des mise-
rieordes, parce qu’iI était soutenu do la vertu puissanto du sacrifice. II a réjoui
lo occur do notre Diou, parce qu’il était aocompagné d’un holooauste et d’un
onoous d’agréable odour: oar il ne faut pas en douter, toutos les portos do la
divine misérioorde sont ouvertos a ceux qui ont pitié do la vouve ct do 1’orpl1e-
lin.

Oui, N. T. C. F., pendant que vos mains bienfaisantes rccueillaient ioi bas
1’enfant pauvre, sans pore, ni patrie, le pore des pauvres qui rogue la haut
ouvrait ses mains pleinos do bénédictions pour vous donner Iargoment lo sun-
croit évzmgéliquo, promis a tous ceux qui chorchent avant tout le royaume des
oieux. Car cc fut alors, si vous y faitos bion attention, que desoendit du ciol
une do cos bénignes inspirations, que Dieu donno a la torre, quand il veut lui
fairo miséricorde; et co fut cette pcnsée qui fut comme le germe do la nouvelle
association dent l’objet est do vous rondre au centuple ce que vous avez fait
pour do pauvres étrangers; car donner aux pauvres, o’est preter a Dieu qui rend
toujours avee do gros ct riches intéréts. A la vérité, cette association n’est
encore, comme toutcs les bonnes oeuvres qui commencont, qu’un grain do sénevé.
Mais biontot, elle sera, nous Pespérons, un grand arbre qui couvrira de son
ombro rafraichissante, dos milliers de cultivatcurs infatigablos, et qui portera
sur ses branches et nourrira de ses fruits délicieux les vrais amis do leur pays.

Considérons, N. T. C. F., par quelles voios admirabies lo pore oéleste vcut
vous récornpenser au centuple, et vous assurer lo surcrmlt évangélique. Vous
avoz adopté quelques oontaincs d’enfants (Strangers et partagé avec eux la dou-
ceur do votre patrie. En récompcnse la divine providence suscite uno associa-
tion dent l’unique but est do procuror a. des milliers d’enfa’nts de la patrie les
moyons do so fixer sur le sol natal. Cette société négocie avec le gouvomement
et la compagnie des terres, ‘ainsi qu’avoo do grands propriétairos, pour obtenir
des concessions gratuites on a des prix tres réduits. Elle sollicite des oetrois
d’argent pour faire faire des ohemins. Elle so procure des rensoignements cer-

9337-13

196 ELGI N —G’REY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

tains sur la qualité des terres Ex aequérir; elle donne des directions fa» tous ceux
qui veulent aller explorer par eux memes les lieux. Elle prévoit et léve des
difiieultés sans nombre que reneontrent des oolons dans de nouveaux établisse-
ments; elle veille soigneusement is co que de bons titres soient passes 53. ceux
qui remplissent exaetement leur engagement. Enfin elle mettra tous ceux qui
aiment le travail en état d’étab1ir avantageusement leur famille.

Vous avez donné un verre d’eau froide ‘a un pauvre peuple étranger quand,
dévoré par Yardeur d’une fiévre brulante, i1 aborda vos rivagesi En recom-
pense la divine providence vous oifre de vastes foréts, qui oinbragent des chénes
antiques, que la hache, 9. jusqu’iei respectés; de riches vallons qui regoivent
depuis des sieeles la rosée du eiel et la. graisse des montagnes; de nombreuses
rivieres qui promennent leurs eaux fécondes fix travers des plaines iinmenses et
de riantes eollines. Ces épaisses foréts n’attondent plus que vos bras vigoureux
pour s’abattre et se changer en de jolis villages et de riches oités. Ces fertiles
vallons promettent de vous rendre an oentuple la semenoe que vos mains labo-
rieuses vent jeter dans leurs seins. Cos eharmantes 1-ivieres vous ofirent de
nombreux pouvoirs d’eau et attendent avec impatience le moment ou des specu-
lateurs industricux iront y déployer leur intelligence on les eouvr-ant de manu-
factures et de moulins.

Voile. N. T. C. F.,comme Paimable providence que nous adorons et bénis-
sons avee amour, vient 9.ujourd’hui réeompenser quelques aetes de charité. Pro-
fitons du puissant secours qu’e1le daigne nous olfrir, en travaillant de toutes nos
forces la, faire le bien de nos eompatriotes. Téiehons de tirer notre pays de
Yhorrible erise finaneiére qui le plonge dans une si affreuse misere. Pour relever
1e commerce abattu, et alimenter nos villes et nos eampagnes en proie Ea. la
détresse, allons exploiter les trésors caches pres de nous et oultiver des terres
qui seront pour nous des mines préeieuses. Retenons ehez nous ces milliers de
jeunes gens qui, cheque année, nous éehappent pour alley abatbre les iinmenses
foréts do nos Voisins. Vous oonnaissez les speculations qui enrichissent ces
industrieux voisins; et comment en nous apportant leurs produits qui ont eouté
tent de larmes et de sueurs ii nos infortunés eompatriotes, ils nous enlevent nos
hommes et notre argent.

Pourquoi ifexploiterions-nous pas eormne eux nos riehesses territoriales‘?
Pourquoi ne demeurerions-nous pas ensemble dans le sein de notre heureuse
patrie? Puisqu’il y 9. encore place pour des milliers d’habitants pourquoi nous
séparerions-nous pour aller errer sur une terre étrangére, pendant qu’il y a. pour
des fréres bien unis tant de bonheur E vivre ensemble. “ Ecee quam bonum et
quzun jueundum ha.bita1’e fratres in unurn.” Pour opérer tant de biens, enoou~
rageons “l’Association des établissements eanadiens des townships, et mettens
18. en état do remplir se. sublime mission.

Au reste, n’en doutez pas, N. T. C. F., cette association at. toutes sortes de
titres a votre eonfiance. Elle est le fruit d’une inspiration que nous n’hésitons pas
de regarder eomme deseendue du eiel et envoyée par le pere des lumiere de qui
vient tout don parfait. Elle est la réeompense d’un généreux dévouement pour
son peuple Q qui de longs malheurs ont mérité la sympathie du monde entier. Elle
vise e. on but sublime, votre bonheur en es monde et en 1’a.utre. Elle se gouverne

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 197

[Enclosure]

par des hommes de votre choix puisque vous devez les élire chaque année. Elle
est parfaitement désintéressée, puisqu’elIe sacrifie son temps et ses peincs sans
aucune espérance de rémunération. S9. politique est une entiere neutralité pour
‘mus les partis; sa eouleur est uniquement Pempreinte religieuse et charitable;
sa seule devise est le lieu du peuple. Tellos sont, N. T. O. F., les lettres de eréance
qu’elIc exhibe en apparaissant a ce pays; et tels sont aussi les motifs qui doivent
vous engager 3:, la favoriscr en vous y assooiant avee empressement.

Nous prenons 1-espectueusement la liberté de vous la recommander cette
association, a vous, hommes d’éta.t; et Nous vous prions de vous rappeler que le
peuple qui vous a portés an pouvoir, pour assister de vos sages conseils 1e dignc
représentant cle Notre auguste Souveraine, dont les dispositions bienveillantes
pour la province confiée a son administration vous sont si bien oonnues, su-t
mettre en pi-atique, dans les guerres de 1775 et de 1812, le vieil adage du pays:
“ M on dme est [2 Dieu et men corps au Roi.” Puisqu’alors ses bataillons protege-
rent les frontieres et repoussérent l’ennemi commun, il est juste que sa charrue
labcure en temps do paix une terre que son épée a défendue avec taut de courage
et de succés pendant la. guerre. Assurément Yamour et la reconnaissance de ce
peuple pour on gouvernement qui le traitera en pere et lui donnera un héritage de
famille seront des fortifications plus imprenables que les murailles les plus épaisses
et les tours les plus élevées. Vos largesses vont feriner les plaies qu’ont faibes au
coeurs de ce peuple, de tout temps si fidéle a son gouvernement, les tristes événe—
ments de 1837 et 1838.

Vous la favoriserez cette association, vous riches et hcrorables citoyens de
cette ville, qui comprenez combien elle est aimée du pays, et qui faites consister
la gloire de votrc cité, non dans la. somptuosité de ses éclifices, mais dans les
habitudes morales de son peuple.

Vous la favoriserez aussi, vous pauvres et infortunés oompatriotes £1 qui Ie
Seigneur n’a pas encore départi les biens du monde, car c’est A vous que cette
bienveillante association tend aujourd’hui une main secourable, et c’est pour vous
prouver les moyens de vous fixer avec avantage sur votre sol natal que tout le
pays va se lever en masse ecmme ne faisant qu’un homme. Vous ferez bientot,
Nous Pespérons, la gloire de 19. soeiété, par votre sobriété, votre amour du travail,
votre intelligence dans Yagrieulture et vos vertus partriarchales. Vous la favori-
serez cette association, vous peres ct meres de famille qui reeueillez les abondan-
tes bénédictions promises aux anciens patriarches, et qui aurez taut de consola-
tions s pouvoir compter auteur de vous, vos nombreux enfants jusqu’a la troi-
sieme gémération. Pour les retenir tcus aupres de vous tant que vous avez pu,
vous avez divisé et subdivisé les rterres que vous ont léguées vos ancétres. Mais
hélasl depuis longtemps ces terrcxs ne peuvent plus les contenir tcus, et il leur a
fallu s’arraoher aux bras dc votre tendresse. Depuis que ces eliers enfans sont
Béparés de vous, les larmes ainéres que vous avez versées, les eruelles inquiétudes
que vous avez éprouvées, les longues nuits que vous avez passées sans dormir, les
tristes nouvelles qui quclquefois vous ont appris leur mort funeste sans la conso-
lation des derniers saerements de Péglise, vous disent plus éloquemment que nous

198 ELGI N-GEE Y PAPERS

[Enclosure]

le précieux héritage qu’off1’e Passociation a toutes les bonnes familles qui sentent le
bonheur qu’il y a de vivre ensemble.

Vous la favoriserez, cette association vous enfans bien nés qui avez sucé avec
le lait l’amour filial, et qui avez appris a ne Vivre que pour vos bons parents qui
de leur coté ne ti-availlent et ne vivent que pour vous. Car vous sentez tcus, Nous
n’en doutons pas, quel bonheur ce sera pour vous de pouvoir établir vos families
2‘). la porte du toit qui vous a vu naitre; do pouvoir dc temps en temps aller voir oe
toit chéri qui vous rappelle tous les doux souvenirs de Penfance; de pouvoir parti-
ciper aux joies innocentes des fetes de la famille, avec des freres et des seeurs, des
voisins et des amis que vous no sauriez oublier; de pouvoir porter ct présenter
aux embrasserncns de vos vieux parens vos jeunes cnfans, fruit de votre union avec
des épouses vertueuses et justement ohéries.

Vous la favoriserez cette association, vous jeunes gens 53. qui le Seigneur
s’est plu 5. acoorder les richesses de Yéducation. Vous allez devenir les patrons de
vos jeunes compatriotos qui sont privés do (ye préeieux avantage, en imitant le bel
exemplc des enfants de famille dc la célebre Ville de Lyon. Entre les intéressantes
et nombreuses institutions qui ornent cette antique cité, il en est une qui touche
singulierement Yétranger, et qui Nous a frappé lorsque Nous 1’avons visitée.
C’est une association do jeunes gens de bonnes familles qui adoptent ct patroni-
sent les enfans pauvres, et ne les abandonment point qu’ils ne soient oapablcs de
gaguer honnétement leur vie. Une cérémonie rcligieuse consacre leur entnée dans
Tassoeiation. Ils se présentent 2» l’autel conduisant par la main leurs jeunes
pupilles. La ils regoivent dc l’Evéque des pains bénits exprés pour la eirconstance;
ils les partagent et en donnent la rnoitié a leurs jeunes protégés. Peut—on plus
éloquernment fairc connaitrc a 1’enfa-nt riche ce qu’il doit aux pauvres.

C’est bien la ce que vous fites jeunes gens, en entrant dans Yassociation,
puisquc votre premier mouvement fut dc ehercher un appui dans lo sein do la
religion, dépositaire du. feu sacré de la divine charité que N. S. J. S. est
venu apportcr sur la terre, et qui est le plus grand mobile des plus no-
bles entreprises. Vous partagercz clonc les précieux avantages de votre richc
éducation avec 1’cnfant pauvre et ignorant de la patric. Déja Fcxpérienee vous
aura appris que le vrai bonhcur consiste a consacrcr son existence au bonheur de
ses semblables et que les plus belles journéos do sa vie sont cell-es qui ont été
marquées par plus dc services rendus a ses fréres.

Nous la favoriserons surtout cette association, nous tous ministres du Sei-
gneur, car il Nous sernble qu’elle doive étre spécialement notre oeuvre. Chaque
année nous avons eu la douleur ole voir des millicrs de jcunes gens abandonner
nos villes et nos campagnes. Hélasl il le fallait bien, puisque la patrie ne pou-
vait les nourrir, quoique le sol natal fut encore couvert d’irnmenses foréts, et
que des milliers d’aores do bonne terre restassent inoultes. Nos joues se sont
bien des fois couvertes do larmcs, et nos occurs ont été vivement saisis d’une juste
douleur on voyant partir pour Petranger ces chers cnfans que Nous avons tant
dc raisons d’aimer, puisque c’est nous qui les avons régénérés en J , C. dans les
eaux du baptéme, qui les avons dirigés dans la science du salut en leur apprenant
a connaitre que Dieu pourrait faire leur bonheur, et que pour oela ils devaient

ELG’IN—GRE Y PAPERS 199
[Enclosure]

toujours Palmer et le servir, qui les avons nourris du pain saeré qui fait les forts,
pour leur faire faite heureusement le grand voyage de la vie.

Nous les savons sur une terre étrangére exposes a des dangers de toute sorta,
et surtout aux horreurs de la démoralisation.

Nous connaissons qu’ils ne sont point prepares a lutter, contre Yindustrieuse
activité de nos voisins qui exploitent a leur avantage Ieurs forces physiques, et
Nous les renvoient ensuite assez souvent mines des durs travaux dont ils les
accablent, et sans uu sou de fortune. Ah! Nous avons été plus d’une this pro-
fondément humiliés de l’éta’o dégradanb auquel des spéoulateurs sans conscience
ne les ont que trop souvent réduits, parce que dans leur bonne foi, ils ne pou-
vaient soupgonner ehez autrui des intentions de frauds dent ils étaient eux-
mémes incapables. Heureuse simplieité! Puisse-t-elle étre toujours leur partagel

Aujourd’hui s’ouvre pour eux et pour nous une nouvelle ere, et il nous est
permis de porter bien loin nos espéranees. Nous pouvons des maintenant les
diriger sfirement et leur procurer les moyens de faire sur 1e sol natal de bans
étabiissements, et a des conditions trés avantageuses. Nous ne manquerons pas
d’user de toute notre influence sur un peuple si bon eb si docile, pour le porter E3.
embrasser une association qui n’a d’autres vues que de travailler au bien de nos
compatriotes. Elle doit comme ‘mute autre bonne oeuvre, reneontrer sur son
passage de nombreuses diffieultés. Mais l’amou1’ du troupeau de Jésus-Christ ne
connait dbbstacles que pour les surmonter et les vaincre. Pour ceia, voici les
moyens que nous avons a prendre.

1° Mettons Dieu dans les in’céréts de Fassociation, car il est écrit qu’il
marche 51 la téte de son peuple qui est le peuple chrétien, pour lui tracer la route
dans les deserts qu’il lui faut ’r,raverser et demeure au milieu de lui; “Deus, cum
egredereris in conspectu populi tui, cum pertranieris in deserto. .. iter faciens
illis. .. habitans in illis?”

2° Consacrons cette oeuvre par des vues de foi; car il est évident qu’i1
s’agit iei de eonserver A notre bon peuple sa foi, ses moeurs patriarchales et ses
paisibles habitudes; a notre voix qui est celle de 19. religion tout le pays va
s’éb1’anler pour donner 2» une association si bienveillante une existence solide et
durable “ Terra meta est.

3° Sans le seeours de Dieu nous ne pouvons rien, absolument rien, surtout
dans l’ordre de la grace et du salut. C’est pourquoi pendant que notre voix fera
eutendre au peuple eonfié Ea, nos soins le eri d’espérsmce, nos coeurs s’e’pancheront
devant le Seigneur pour lui i’ep1’ésenter humblement la pauvreté et tous les maux
qui aceablenia ce peuple ehéri. Nos voeux ardens s’éléve1’on’o vers le oiel pour
en faire deseendre une douce rosée de bénédietions qui déeouleronf, du Dieu do
Sinai, du Dieu d’Isi’aél: “Coeli distillaverunt 33. facie Dei Simai, :1 faoie Dei
Israel. (Ps. 67.)

4° Oifrons 5 cette intention l’oraison: Deus refug-tum que Nous récitons
chaque jour au saint sacrifice de la messe. Exhovtons le peuple $2. joindre ses
prieres aux notres. Pour cela, celébrons dans chaque paroisse, une grande messe
et que ce soit autant que possible le jour de St. Jean-Baptiste. Commengons la
par le chant ‘ooujours nouveau et toujours touehant du Veni creator. Que notre

200 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

intention roule sur les avantages religieux qu’offre Passoeiation que nous pou-
vons a bon droit recommander comme une oeuvre excellente de charité.

5° Aprés la messe et au son joyeux des instrumens, ou pendant le chant de
quelques dévots cantiques a la sainte vierge et it saint J ean—Baptiste, distribuons
a tous ceux qui voudront devenir chefs de centuries ou de sections, des exem-
plaires des regles de Yassoeiation contenant en meme temps des listes fort com-
modes pour recevoir les contributions de leurs associés. Expliquons leur bien
les devoirs qu’ils auront a remplir ct tachons de les embraser de zéle pour cette
oeuvre régéneratrice de notre pays.

6° Favorisons de toutes nos forces le zele des laics qui vont dans cheque
localité diriger Passooiation. Tachons que les colons qui seront recommandés
fassent honneur s leurs eompatriotes. Engageons les riches 9. s’associer aux
pauvres et a les faire entrer dans leurs centuries, ou Ieurs sections. C’cst le
moyen d’intéresser les petits comme les grands a une oeuvre d’un intéret général
pour le pays. Ainsi feron-nous servir les vingt livi-es eourant que son excel-
lence a bien voulu donner a Fassociation, pour former seize sections clout les
membrcs trop pauvres pour payer la contribution ordinaire prieront pour le
suecés de Passoeiation et pour ses bienfaiteurs. Organisons toute chose pour que
les families cauadiennes se présentent au plus tot et en grand nornbre an bureau
central de cette ville pour qu’on puisse les placer ensemble sur le meme sol et
cela afin que ehaque origine puisse vivrc en paix et selon ses habitudes ordinaircs.
Car loin de nous la pensée de vouloir exclure de ce pays les étrangers qui nous
arrivent d’outre mer; cette terre est asscz spacieusc pour nous contenir tous. Pour
notre part, Nous serions prét a favoriser nos freres de toutc autre origine qui
voudraient fender une association sur -le plan de la notre. Car enfin Nous
somme tons enfans du meme pere qui est aux cieux; Nous vivons tcus sous un
meme gouvernement qui n’a d’autre but que le bonheur de ses sujets, et qui doit
mettre sa gloire a commander a des peuples parlant toutes les langages du monde;
Nous avons tous les mémes droits; Nous formons tous la grande famille du puis-
sant empire britannique; enfin nous sommes tous appelés s posséder ensemble
la meme terre des vlvans, apres que nous aurons fini notre pélérinage sur cette
terre d’cxil; mettons cette association, comme toutes les autres institutions de ce
diocese, sous la protection de la glorieuse vierge Marie et enrolons notre peuple
tout entier sous Pétendard de St. Jean—Baptiste le plus grand des enfans des
hommes, et protecteur de ce pays qui lui est tout dévoué. Faisons tcus nos
efforts pour que ces fétes soient des jours de joie et de bonheur en les rendant
tout religieux: multi in natioitate ejus gaudebunt. Travaillons pour que 1’on
puisse dire bieutot -du peuple dévoué a St. Jean-Baptiste oe que Pécriture rap-
porte de ce grand saint: “Vivum ct ciccram mm bibet ct spiritu szmcto rcplebitm“
(Luc ch. 1.) Et pour obtenir sa protection sur les trois grandes associations du
pays qui lui sont consacrées, tout fidele gagnera indulgence do 40 jours ehaque
fois qu’il répetera cette courte invocation: St. Jean-Baptiste, prfez pour nous.
Telle est, N. T. C. F., “ l’Assooiation des établissemens canadiens des townships,”
que nous désirons vous faire connaitre un peu au long. Main-‘tenant nous sommes
pleins de eonfianec que vous la favoriserez dc toutes vos forces.

ELGIN~GREY PAPERS 201
[Enclosure]

Puissions-Nous, N. T. C. F. abattre nous-mérne le premier arbre qui
formera la eroix qui doit vous indiquer le lien de la premiere église que fera
batir Passociation. O‘cst du moins le voeu le plus ardent de notre cocur. Nous
nous croirions ainplement récompensé si nous avions bientot ce bonheur. Nous
oomprenons que Nous devons étre partout on se trouvent nos brebis. Aussi
étions—nous dans les prisons et au pied do l’écha.faud lorsque quelques—unes de
ces chéres brebis étaient ehargées de chaines ou expiraient sur le gibet. Aussi
étions—nous avec celles qui gémissaient sur la terre d’cxil, par les recornmanda-
tions que nous primes la liberté d’adresser a l’Evéque de ces pays lointains pour
qu’il essuyat les ‘larmes de vos enfants a qui nous nc pouvions -plus faire entendre
aucune parole de consolation. .

Maintenant que nous jouissons, apres cette horrible tempete, de toutes les
doueeurs de la paix, ohl croyez-le, N. T. O. F. nous ne formons plus qu’un seul
voeu. Nous no poussons plus qu’un seul soupir; c’est celui qui pourra contribucr
en quelque chose 5. votre bonheur en ce monde et en ‘l’autre, que la grace de notre
Seigneur Jesus-Christ soit avec vous. Amen.

Sera la présente Lettre Pastorale lue au prone de notre église eathédrale,
et a celui de toutes les églises paroissiales, le premier dimanche ou fete d’obliga:
tion, apres sa réception; et au chapitre, dans toutes les communautés le jour qu’il
plaira aux supérieurs de ehoisir pour cela.

Donne a Montreal sous notre seing et sceau et le contrescing de notre Sous-
Secrétaire.

K—-— ~\—=-£,-;——z.-——-

ELG’IN—GREY PAPERS 211

[Duplicate MS copy]

Private
COLONIAL Orrren

Aug” 10/48
My DEAR ELGIN

I received 3 days ago your two letters of July 18″‘ The failure of the

attempt to create a diversion in favor of the Irish Rebels in Canada is very
satisfactory, & a most striking proof of the great advantage of the policy you
have pursued, I hope the ludicrous failure of the projected rebellion in Ireland
itself will damp the ardour of these bitter enemies of England, but I am far
from being reassured as to the safety or” that Country——
The late events while they have clearly proved that Without External aid the
Irish can do nothing have shewn no less clearly that there exists a general, I
might say a universal disaffection to this Country in the population at large wh.
in the Event of a foreign war W“ render our position in the South of Ireland
full of danger—— This state of things can I fear be improved only by slow degrees,
since in addition to the Church Question (wh. I trust may be settled at no
distant period as the opinions expressed the other evening ‘by L“ Ellenborough
are I believe beginning tm be very generally entertained) there is but too much
cause for disaffection in the existence of distress wh. only a re-organization of
Society can remove—~ To effect this men of all parties are looking more & more
to emigration as one of the principal resources tm be made use of——— My own
belief is that it is too much trusted to & I rather share in the opinion wh. has
been very strongly expressed to me by L5 Dundonald that it will be a source of
great future danger to allow British America to be filled up with a race so hostile
tm us; but still I think that in a choice of evils we ought to try & afford as
much relief as possible to Ireland by settling in America a large nunrbcr of
the population wh. is now so excessive in certain districts—— I am most anxious
therefore that you sh“ apply your mind tm the means of accomplishing this &
consider Whether no plan e“ be hit upon not involving any enormous expenditure
for accomplishing the object in view— My own opinion is still in favor of the
principles of sending out any Settlers sent by the state as “pioneers ” under
Military discipline This W“ have the double advantage first of not interfering
with but rather promoting the ordinary & spontaneous Emigration, & next that
I believe in this manner the labor of the Emigrants ed be rendered most eifective
towards repaying the cost incurred, while the wild ignorant natives of the West
of Ireland wd thus be taught the arts of industry of wh. they know nothing & W”
be prepared to be useful Emigrants-

While I am talking about emigration let me call your attention to a
Despatoh you will receive by this mail in answer to the one in wh. you enclosed
D‘ Douglas’s reportl upon the sufferings of the Emigrants in the Quarantine
station last ycar——- Till I read this report I had not fully understood the horrors
wh. had been endured or the exertions wh. had been made to mitigate them—
I do think that D’ Douglas & M‘ Buchanan are entitled to some extra recom-

‘ This report, together with the despatclnes upon it, was printed for the House of Commons
(August: 1848). See Parliamentary Papers, [985] (18J7~.58, val. XLVII.)
9337-14;

212 ELGINwGR EY PAPERS

pense for all they did, but I do not know how it c“ be procured for them— We ed.
hardly now increase the estimate we are to submit to Parliament & I suppose
the Provincial Parl“ wd be equally indisposed to give anything otherwise I think
a gratuity of £100 a piece to D’ D. MD” Buchanan & the widow of Colonel Cal-
vert W“ be very well bestowed——

I [am &c]
(signed) GREY.

P.S. Aug‘ 11.

I add a line tm say you must not suppose because it is not reported in
the Newspapers that I did not defend Canada & yourself last night in the H.
of Lords against the most unjust attack made upon you by Monteagle in his
speech on Emigratien1»~ I did so at considerable length, & expressed ( as I
was bound to do) my strong sense of the exertions made by all the Provincial
authorities to mitigate as far as possible the sufferings of the wretched Emigrants
of last Year but it is our hard fate in the H. of Lords never to be reported
intelligibly except on some great nightsw

One of the great topics of attack upon me last Night was that I had done
nothing to fulfil the promise of full enquiry into the subject of Emigration in
the Colonies wh. was made by L“ John on the occasion of Lincoln’s motion
last Yea-r9-— I am sure we have had correspondence enough about it, but I did
omit to send the address to you officially & direct an enquiry—— I do not like
now to supply the omission but I sh“ be much obliged tm if you will send me
soflicially with a View to its production next Year, a full statement of the views
-of your Gov“ as to the nature & amount of the Encouragement wh. can be
given to Ernigration:- It would be desirable that this statement shd we in
the form of 9. report of your Executive Council— I presume there wd be no
difliculty in having a Comm” of that Body to consider the subject.

[Endorsed]
Aug. 10/48
L“ Grey to L“ Elgin

[Original MS]
Confidential
MONTREAL. July 25. 1848.

MY DEAR Lomy,

I beg leave to transmit herewith for your perusal copies of private letters
which have passed between Sir Donald Campbell and myself, and which I

1 H4msurd’s Parliamentary Debates, Third Series, vol. 01, p. 18.
2See above 23. .98 and mate 1,

ELGlN—GREY PAPERS 213

must request you to regard as strictly confidential I think your Lordship
will infer from them that a visit from me to P. Edwards Island at present is
uncalled for——
I have the honor to be
My dear Lord
Your faithful & ob‘ Ser
ELGIN & KINCARDINE
The
EARL Gnnr

[Endorsed]
July 25/48
Lord Elgin
With private correspondence with [Sir]
Donald Campbell

[Enclosures]
No, 1

Copy
MONTREAL 27 May 1848.

His Exonmnnor Sm DONALD CAMPBELL,
P Edw“ Island
MY DEAR SIR DONALD CAMPBELL

I take the liberty of Addressing you unoflicially, although I have not the
pleasure of being personally acquainted with you, because I think it may be
for the interest of the Queen’s Service that we should be able occasionally to
communicate with each other confidentially. I trust that you will adopt this
form in corresponding with me whenever you find it convenient to do so.

You are good enough. at the close of a despatch which I lately Received
from you, to express a hope that I may visit P. E. I. during the course of the
Summer. It is not very easy for me under existing circumstances to leave
Canada, or to undertake any distant Expedition. You would therefore greatly
oblige me if you would inform me whether you have already made any and
what progress towards the adjustment of the difliculties which led to Sir H
Huntley’s visiting me last Autumn1—and how far you think that my presence
in the Colony is necessary or desirable.

As I have no cognizance of current transactions, or of men and parties in
P.E.I. I labor under great disadvantage in attempting to decide on any isolated
case such as that which You have lately submitted to me. I have Endeavored
however to form as good an opinion as I Could on the data furnished to me,

1Soe above p. 68.

214 ELGIN-GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

and to avoid in conveying it any suggestions or expressions which might
occasion you Embarrassment. I trust that I may have succeeded in this
attempt. ‘

I have 850.
E. & K.
No. 2
Copy
Private.
Gov’ Housn

PRINCE EnwAnn’s ISLAND
16 June 1848
MY DEAR Loan Enenv

I have to return your Lordship my best thanks for your letter of the 27”‘
May permitting me to correspond confidentially with you. I need not say
how much I should have been gratified by a visit from your Lordship, but I
am sensible that your time is much too valuable to permit your undertaking
such a distant expedition unless it should be required for the interests of Her
Majesty’s Service, and I am happy to say that matters are going on so smoothly
here that it is quite unnecessary that your Lordship should visit this Island
upon public business.

On my arrival here in December last, I found that political differences had
unhappily been carried to excess, and that as was to be expected in so small
a community they had assumed a character of extreme bitterness. Sir Henry
Huntley having communicated to your Lordship the chief causes which led to
this state of things I need not enter into a detail of them. I had the great
advantage of being put in possession of a copy of your Lordship’s Despatch to
Earl Grey (N° 88 —— 12 Sep——- 1847)1 pointing out the best mode of conducting
the government of Prince Edwards Island, supposing the system of Responsible
Government notto be conceded, and by adhering strictly to the course described
by your Lordship, I have found no difiiculty in quieting the excitement which
prevailed. Not a word has been said of Responsible Gov‘ in the past” Session
of the Legislature and there is really no other question of 2. public nature to
agitate the minds of the people. Respecting Responsible Gov‘ as applicable
to this Colony, I have, after giving the subject my most anxious consideration,
been compelled to come to conclusions different from those entertained by my
predecessor during the last year of his administration of the Government. I
have gone fully into the question in a confidential Despatch which I lately
transmitted to Earl Grey and which will perhaps be communicated to your
Lordship. In my humble opinion this Island is not at present fitted to receive
that system, both from the absence of material from which a party government

‘A cop§of this despatch, dated 25 Sep., 1847, is to be found in G1. 461, 12. 100. See below,
Appendia>I .

jnm.g._____

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 21 5
[Enclosure]

could be formed, and from the peculiar nature of the land tenure by which
almost the whole of the Island is held, and in which as your Lordship is aware,
lies the great and material diifcrence between this Colony and the rest of the
North American provinces. The apathy of the people generally towards
Responsible Gov‘ is such, that excepting the minority of the present House of
Assembly, I do not beleive there are twenty men in the Island who trouble
themselves about the matter. ‘

By the despatch which accompanies this letter your Lordship will perceive
that the question of the Treasury has been discussed in the House of Assembly
and that it has been treated as a party question, the report of the House being
favorable to the Treasurer. Even if your Lordship were here in person, I
do not think there is any thing more which could be brought forward tending
to throw light upon this subject. ‘

It is impossible for me to doubt that the Treasurer was culpable in a high
degree, if not absolutely guilty of making use of the public money, although
positive proof of his criminality has not been established. Had the investiga-
tion in 1846 been conducted in a. more prompt and decided manner, I apprehend
that the dismissal of the Treasurer must have resulted. But as the matter
stands I have doubts whether after the lapse of two years, and a verdict of
Not proven (as we should call it in Scotland) in favor of M‘ Smith, it would
now be expedient to dismiss him from his oflice. He is the son of a former
Governor of this Island and his brothers in law (the Attorney General and
L‘ Col Lane) hold office in the colony, and I understand that he has been
releived from his pecuniary difliculties by the assistance of his friends. The
Treasury department like some others here appears to have been conducted
in a very loose and careless manner, but I beleive the checks now imposed will
render any future irregularity almost impossible. By a late despatch from
Earl Grey I find that his Lordship forbears to come to any decision upon the
Treasurer’s case until I acquaint him with your Lordship’s answer to my
previous despatch to you upon the subject. I therefore propose to forward to
Earl Grey by the first Mail a copy of your Lordship’s recent despatch to me
and to request that Lord Grey will then decide upon the case

I remain
dear Lord Elgin
Your very faithful Servant
(Signed) DONALD CAMPBELL
The Right Hon
Tan EARL or ELGIN & KINCARDLNE
&c &c &c

216 ELG’IN—G’REY PAPERS

[Enclosure]
No. 3.

Copy
Private-—— —
MONTREAL 30″‘ June 1848.

DEAR Sm DONALD CAMPBELL,

I am much obliged to you for your private letter of the 16″‘, and for the
interesting information it gives me respecting the State of Affairs in Your
Government.

I infer from it that a visit from me at present would be mischievous
rather than useful, as it might tend to unsettle mens minds.

Till Lord Grey pronounces his judgment on the papers which have been
submitted to him with reference to the Treasurers case, it is unnecessary for
me to say more on that subject. But I am disposed to agree with You in think-
ing that as the assembly have taken the matter up and pronounced a verdict
of acquittal, it should be final-—-

Pray continue to adopt this familiar mode of communicating with me
whenever it may appear to you convenient to do so, and‘ believe me to be—

Yours &c
S“ ELGIN & KINCARDINE
His Excy
Sir DONALD CAMPBELL
&c &c the

[Original MS]
MONTREAL, Aug 2. 1848.

MY DEAR GREY,

I visited a few days ago the college of S‘ Hyacinthe one of the principal
educational Institutions of Lower Canada in order to be present at the annual
examination of the Scholars. The Catholic Bishop, several Priests, and a vast
concourse of Parents and friends of youth assisted at the ceremony which went
off with great éclat. The address of which I enclose a copy was presented
to me on the occasion by the inhabitants of the most populous and I believe
not long ago most disaflfectecl rural district of Lower Canada. It was agreed
to, I am informed, with very great unanimity——

I also enclose an article on reciprocity of Trade with the United States
taken out of an Upper Canada Newspaper. The principle which it advocates
of low freights on the S” Lawrence and the gradual reduction of Import duties
is surely one most favorable to British manufacturing Interests.

It would require a good deal of consideration to enable me to odor an
opinion on the several plans for raising local Military corps in the Colonies

1 See above pp. 18.6’; 187 fl’.

ELGIN—G’ItEY PAPERS 217

contained in the memoranda of Col. Tulloch and Cap‘ Elliot.1 Generally
speaking however I must say that I think Canada is the last Colony on which
such experiments should be n1ade.—Ca.nada is already gravitating pretty
surely towards the United States.- A great deal has been done to strengthen
that tendency by recent changes in the Commercial Policy of Great Britain—
A little more, and the onus probandi will be cast upon those who contend that
the connexion with England should be maintained——I entertain indeed 9. san-
guine hope that when the present Irish crisis is past, if a peaoeable President
is elected in the Union, you may be able quietly to reduce yr military estab-
lishments here. But I would be very cautious of announcing the principle that
Canada was expected to defend herself—— She owes it mainly to her connexion
with you that she is pretty sure in the event of a war to have for an enemy
the only nation on earth who could be formidable to her. Her claims upon
you for military protection are therefore infinitely stronger than those of any
other Colony.— Add to this that she does not derive the same direct advan-
tage from y. navy which most of y’ other colonies do. I quite admit that
practically you cannot hope to retain Canada by means of a Garrison—— That
you must rely on the spirit of her people to repel aggression~— But it is quite
another question whether it be prudent at the present time to give another
shake to the Colonial system by propounding a new doctrine on the subject
of Colonial defence. That the Colonies when they govern themselves s“‘ bear
the cost of their internal Police is undeniably right, and the best way to ensure
this is to reduce and concentrate the garrisons»~ Do this at the right time and
Without making too much noise about it— Perhaps too when the Exchequer
is fuller the Provincial Par’ may be tempted by the bait of Commissions tm
be distributed among Canadians to go half way with you in the expense of
raising local corps—— But as matters now stand I cannot too strongly urge the
necessity of caution.
Yours very sincerely
ELGIN & KINCARDINE

The EARL GREY

[Endorsed]
August 2/48
Lord Elgin
Rec“ August 21

[Enclosures]
No. l———

A Son Excellence, Le Tres Honorable Comte de Elgin et Kineardine,
Gouverneur Général du Canada dz“ &° &°

MILORD,
Votre présence au milieu de nous est un événement trop heureux pour que
nous le laissions passer sans en temoigner a Votre Excellence notre gratitude la

plus vive.——

218 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

C’est pour nous, Milord, un devoir bien agréable que de donner au digne
Réprésentant dc Notre Trés Gracieuse Souveraine une marque ostensible du
respect & dc Pattachement que nous ont inspires la Stricte impartialité de votre
administration, et l’interet que vous prenez a notre prospérité.

Nous nous félicitons d’avoir l’oecasion d’exprimer a Votre Excellence que,
Sous Son administration, le peuple du Canada a joui, d’aprés les leis existantes,
de la plénitude de sa franchise élective, et que, graces a vos soins et a votre
Justice, la mise en pratique du Gouverment [sic] Responsable, en cette Colonie,
a reeu une sanction qui promet au Peuple un avenir de paix et de prospérité.

Nous Inanquerions de reconnaissance envers Votre Excellence, si aprés
vous avoir exprimé coznbien le Peuple du Canada uni a a se féliciter de l’impartia-
lité et de la Justice de votre administration, nous, habitants du Bas Canada, en
particulier, omettions d’offrire a Votre Excellence, nos remercimcnts les plus
cordiaux pour la libéralité avec la quelle votre Gouverment a préparé, dans les
Townships de l’est, pour nos industrieux cultivateurs, qui manquent (le terres, un
systéme de Colonisation tres large et conforms a leurs besoins et habitudes.——~

Ce projet do Colenisation, Milord, outre qu’il temoigne de Phabilité de
Votre Excellence at connoitre les besoins de la population que la Providence vous
a heureuscment appelé a gouverner, est encore une preuve du désire que vous
avez de promouvoir sa prospérité.

Au nombre des jouissance que nous procure la Visite de Votre Excellence a
St Hyacinthe, cello de vous voir donner a notre Séminaire une preuve de votre
affection et de votre estime occupe un rang distingué.—— Cette Maison fondée
par un homme dont nous ne eessons de eherir la. Memoire, Le Révérend Messire
Girouard, a rendu a notre pays, ct sans renumération equivalentc, -les services
les plus ixnportants.— Marchant d’apres la triple voie de la sience, de la
philanthropic ct de la religion, elle s’est acquis aujourdhui par l’ardeur des ses
savants professeurs une célébrité qui ne lui laissc rien a envier sur le continent
Américain.—

Veuillez, Milord, agréer Yassurance de notre profond respect pour Votre
Excellence et Lady Elgin, ainsi que nos veux pour votre bonheur commun.——

St Hyacinthe 19 Juillet 1848

Pour les Citoyens de St Hyacinthe

EUS CARTIER
Maire

[Enclosure]
No. 2 .
JOURNAL & Expnnss, HAMETON
RECIPROCITY OF TRADE.

The American House of Representatives has passed the Reciprocity Bill, as
will be seen by the following from the St. C’athc7“£ne’s Journal Extra, of last
Sat1n‘day:~—

A Bill to admit certain articles of the growth or production of Canada into
the United States free of duty, upon the condition that the like articles of the
growth or production of the United States are admitted into Canada free of duty.

ELGIN—G’REY PAPERS 219
[Enclosure]

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America in Congress assembled, That when the President of the United
States shall issue his proclamation declaring the articles hereinafter enumerated,
being of the growth or Production of the United States, to be admitted into the
province of Canada by law free of duty, then on and after that day, until otherwise
directed by Congress, -the like articles, being the growth or production of said
province of Canada, shall be admitted into the United States free of duty, when
imported direct from said province, so long as the said enumerated articles are
admitted into said province of Canada from the United States free of duty, to
wit: Grain and breadstuffs of all kinds, vegetables, fruits, seeds, animals, hides,
wool, butter, cheese, tallow, horns, salted and fresh meats, ores of all kinds of
metals, ashes, timber staves, wood and lumber of all kinds.

Wm. Hamilton Merritt, M.P.P., for the County of Lincoln, has just received
letters from the Hon. Washington Hunt, Chairman of the Committee of Com-
merce, and the Hon. J oscph Grinnell, the member who introduced the Bill, in the
temporary absence of the Chairman, announcing its passing the House of Repre-
sentatives on the 12th inst. ‘

The inliabitants of -both countries are indebted to these gentlemen, as well
as the Hon. J. Dix, Chairman of the Committee of Commerce in the Senate,
for their exertions in removing the unnatural and unnecessary restrictions on the
change of the natural productions of the represpective countries.

The value and importance of the measure is not generally understood or
appreciated. The actual difference in prices since August of last year, in the
markets of Rochester and Toronto, has ranged from 25 to 434]; per cent. The loss
the country has sustained by this diminution of its wealth, accompanied by the
prostration of all business, is sensibly felt. Hereafter the best markets in
America will be open to the productions of CaI1ada—an inequality of prices can
no longer exist on -the two sides of the boundary. The first step has been gained
for Free Trad<.L~the Home Government has manifested an earnest desire to
carry out this principle, as far as this colony is concerned. Under the British
Possessions Act, a Provincial law was sanctioned, increasing the import duties
on her manufactures from 5 to 712-. fifty per cent, and reducing the duties on
American manufactures from 121, to 712 per cent, double the amount of the former.
A more sweeping change was never ‘before attempted ‘at any one time, -by any
former Legislature.

Under the proposed Navigation Law, the Provincial Legislature will soon ‘be
invested with power to open our rivers and ports, and extend the same principles
of reciprocity to American vessels which is already extended to the natural
productions of the respective countries. Do we possess sufficicnt-intelligence to
meet the views of the Imperial Government in the like good faith? Are we
prepared to avow the policy, and without further loss of time -commence the
gradual reduction of Import Duties, and as soon as practicable remove them
altogether. _ ‘

Contemplate the effect which removing all existing restrictions would produce
on the commerce and wealth of Canada.

Situated on a direct line between Great Britain, where capital, manufactures,
and a dense population, -has been increasing for ages, and an inland coast

220 ELGIN-GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

exceeded, 4,000 miles, above the Falls of Niagara, capable of containing a popu-
lation of many millions, with a soil and climate producing the fruits of the earth
in great abundance, who will venture to predict the extent of the exchanges
between these two countries—tl1e profit to be realized (by indiv’lduals—the revenue
to be” derived from tolls ‘by the Government—the number of emigrants passing
through or the prosperity and wealth created?

To ensure this Trade, our _Canals -must be finished to admit the passage of a
vessel to or from Lake Erie to the Ocean, drawing at least nine feet six inches
water, after which, from May until October, the major part of the commerce
of the Western States will pass through this channel; for the remainder of the
season the trade of Canada will seek Atlantic ports through the United States,
thus securing to the inhabitants of each all the natural advantages that either
could possess were they under the same Government.

We heartily congratulate the country on the passing of this Bill, and trust
that no delay will occur to retard or defeat the cheering prospect it holds forth.

[Original MS]

Private.
BEAUMONT NEAR
QUEBEC Aug, 10. 1848

My DEAR GREY,

Your last letter dated July 21. is far from encouraging— We feel here the
contrecoup of your Irish troubles although We are tranquil in spite of the menaces
hurled over our frontier.——

We are now in the Country and our newspapers are so long in reaching us
that I have not yet seen Lord G. Bentincks assault upon me.1 I am at a loss
to imagine what good he is to atchieve in a party or any other View by showing
that the Board of Trade of Montreal consider that if the Navigation Laws be not
repealed Canada will forfeit her allegiance. As to the not sending home oificially
their rejoinder to M’ Sullivan’s letter? the fact is that it was not written till two

‘ Lord George Bentinek opposed the repeal of the navigation laws. For his speeches on this
question see 1Tansard’x ParZimneutzLrg/ Debates Third Series, under dates of 1l[U/1/ 15, June 9 and
August 1);, 181,8.

2A memorial to the Queen. and both Houses of Parliament, 26 May, 1848, urging the
repeal of the nnvigation laws. was presenterl to Lord Elgin. by the Montreal Board of Trade.
These documents were oclmow*le1lge Secretary. Mr. Sullivan declared that Lord Elgin would forward the memorials to the Colonial
Secretary. He added?-~

“I am further commanded to state, for the information of the Board of Trade, that the
subject of these Memorials has for some time engaged the attention of His Excellency, and that
His Excellency has communicated the views of his Government to Her Majesty’s Colonial Secre-
tary. The opinions expressed in these communications as to the expediency of relieving this
Q0117-IETY from my restrictions imposed upon its commerce. are strengthcnetl by the representa-
tions of the Board of Trade, and His Excellency entertains strong hopes that the liberal and
generous policy of the Imperial Government, towortls this Colony, will be further exemplified
in the rneasures which His Excellency believes are under consideration in England.

“His Excellency commands me to say, that feeling very strongly that he has not used the
words of form and compliment, in attributing liberality and generosity to the policy of the
Empire towards this Province; he observes with regret an expression in the Memorials which the
Board of Trade have requested him to forward, to the eifect that, should the River St. Lawrence
not continue to be the grout highway of the Commerce of Canada, a. commercial union of the
most intimate clmracter will he produced between the United States and this Colony, the incvit~

ELGIN—GItE’Y PAPERS 221

or three weeks after the Petition to which it referred had been forwarded. I am
sure I could not have desired to suppress it—nor hoped to do so, seeing that it
was published in all the Montreal Papers the day after I recieved it~—— Sul1ivan’s
own letter was sent in lieu of a report from myself on the Petition chiefly with
the view of showing the loyal spirit in which my Provincial Gov” dealt with the

subject.—

I trust that my report on my visit to Grosse Islel may have reached you at

a convenient moment to help you to reply to the enquiries which Lincoln has
been making with respect to the steps taken by the Gov‘ to obtain information

on colonization topics. I do not know exactly what sort of report you wish me
to furnish on emigration generally. When Sullivan returns (who is now at
Washington) I shall talk the matter over with him~—Hc is full of views but they
are not exactly yours, nor I am I [sic] at all satisfied of their practicability~—

An Upper Canada Judge is dead and I much fear that Sullivan may put in
a claim for the situation which could not be disallowed. He is a very able Man——-
Thc readiest with his pen (perhaps a little too much so at times) that I ever
encountered He has been much in oflice—is British in his sentiments-and
singularly free from party rancor—— He obtains therefore a great ascendancy
in the Council and exercises a very salutary influence there—— I shall feel his
loss seriously if he goes.~—

Zijhle result of which would be to dissolxe the ties which connect the latter with the Mother
ouiitry. _ _ ,

, I3‘ Tlliatathis e)ii1_pl‘€dES!ll0)’.lt Blxgtéld lie \lSe‘](:‘l 0,3 11 timedwhééi the only remaiaiing pzéotetction exfistanlg
in ‘11 an is a or e o D8.(1€.11 rs e; an a er so many cnions ra, ions o e
disiiitgrcstcd desire on the part of the Imperial Govermneiit to make the connection of Canada
with the Empire beneficial to the Colony, is 8. ground of surprise and disappointment to His
Excellency. If the observation of the Board were correct, there could have been no neces«
sity for making it a prominent argument with a Government only ’ desirous to benefit
the Province by the connection which is apparently threateiiedz. and, if it be not ‘correct
to assert that the allegiance and attachment of Her Majest‘y’s fazithful and loyal subjects of
Canada depends upon the successful competition of one route of Commerce with another, it is
peculiarly unfortlinate that in forwarding to the Imperial Government memorials recommending
incasures in which His Excellency talros at least as lively an interest as the Memorialists, he
should be found, in justice to the Canadian subjects of Her Majesty, to differ from a proposi-
tion contained in the Memorials, in which he cannot believe the people of Canada could, under
any circumstances, be induced to concur.” _ , V _

On 8 June, the Secretary of the Board of Trade, Frederick A. Willson, replied in a letter
which expressed the tlianks of the Council of the Board, for the assurance that the memorials
would be forwarded to the Queen and to both Houses of Parliament. He continued:—

“ I am further instructed to say, that while it would be a cause of sincere regret to the Council
that an objectionable expression should emanate from them, they consider it to be their boundcn
duty, as it is their undoubted right, rcspcctlully but unequi\_’oc-ally, to declare to the Queen,
Lords and Commons of England the baneful consequences which, in their opinion, must ensue
from the abandonment of the protective policy of the Mother Country towards the Colonies
unless promptly followed up by remedial measures to compensate for the loss of that protection;
consequences, which, as pointedly stated in the memorial, the Council would deeply deplore.

“It is true that a smnll remnant of protection still exists in England, not as you say, in
favor of Canada only, but also, of Nova. Scotia, New Brunswick, the West Indies and other
dependencies of the Empire; the Council however do not recognize in this any valid reason for
withholding the free expression of their opinion on the subject. The eaqircssion of that opinion
was prompted by an earnest desire to avert iv. dreaded calamity; and they would take leave most
respectfully to remark that it is in no small degree satisfactory to them to find that the view they
have taken in regard to the influence of Commercial interests on political feeling, does not
seem to be at variance with that of His Excellency the Governor General, as embodied in :3. dis-
patch of the Colonial Secretary, referring to the contemplated changes in these Laws, and cited
in the recent discussion of the question in the House of Commons, wherein His Excellency was

pleased to say that “ one of the most efficacious expedients for securing the allegiance of a high

spirited, and enteiprising people, is to convince them that their material interests will not be

advanced by separatioii,”
This whole correspond-once was publisliccl in the Montreal Gazette, June 13, 1848.

1 See below Appendim VIII.

222 ELGIN—C}’REY PAPERS

Movements are going on in the State of New York which are calculated to
give us annoyance. It is difficult to say what may not happen if things come

to a crisis in Ireland—- ‘
Yours very sincerely

EDGIN & KINOARDINE

The ‘
EARL GREY-

[Endorsed]
Aug‘ 10/48
Lord Elgin

[Duplicate MS. copy]

Private
Bnnensvn SQUARE
Aug‘ 22/48
MY DEAR ELGIN,

I reed yesterday your letter of the 2”“-—~ The address from S‘ Hyacinthel
is very satisfactory indeed, & it is encouraging to receive such a proof of the
success of the policy adopted in the Gov“ of Canadaw I entirely concur with
you as to its being clearly our policy to reduce both freights & duties in the S‘
Lawrence as low as possible— Low import duties in Canada with a great com-
mercial intercourse between Canada & the U. States w“ render it practically
impossible for the latter to Maintain a high protecting tariff & if they sh“ be
so unwise as to attempt it the results W“ be that Canada w“ derive a large rev-
enue from her neighbours, since goods wh. had paid the low Canadian duties
W“ infallibly find their way across the S‘ Lawrence for consumption if they e“
be afforded much cheaper than similar goods produced in America or more
highly taxed in the American ports-

In sending you Col‘ Tullochs paper? my notion was not that we were to cease
at present paying for the defence of Canada but to substitute a cheaper & More
effective defence.~« Our present Canadian Garrison is about 5000 men~— Now
if we were to substitute for 4000 of them (retaining a small body of regular
Troops) 16.000 military laborers or pioneers of whom 1/4”‘ sh“ be doing military
duty at a time & paid by this Country our expense W“ be the same as at present
while the other 12.000 if properly Employed on railroads or other public works
calculated to raise the value of the surrounding lands w“ I believe more than
pay the Province for their labor & Wd be undergoing the very best possible
training to become Settlers hereafter—— We sh“ thus in the Event of War have
a force of 17.000 always ready for the expense we now incur for 5000 only,
& as the proposal is to enlist these pioneers for 3 Years only discharging them
at the end of that time, we sh“ annually have to send out (allowing for casual-

1See above 12. :16.
2Bee above 12. 186.

ELGI N—G’RE Y PAPERS 223

ties) about 1500 men while those who were discharged w“ in the case of actual
war be available as Mi1itia—— The effect of pursuing this system a few Years
& settling the discharged men Judiciously w“ be to create a defensive power in
Canada wh. wd render it very difiicult to attack—— To this Country the gain in
the pension list & in obviating the necessity of sending out large reinforcements
to Canada at the beginning of a War when we sh“ want Every man we c” com-
mand at home wd be More than a compensation for the cost of transport.

The More I consider the subject of Emigration the More persuaded I am
that if the Gov“ sh“ ever attempt directly to convey emigrants to the American
Colonies it must be by placing them under the restraint of Military discipline.
The return of the Potatoe disease in Ireland as well as here may compel us to
have recourse to some such measure sooner than we think—

I have been correcting my speech & reply on Australian Emigration as well
as I could for publication & if I get any copies in time I will send you two or
three by this Mail—-

GREY.
THE Esnn or ELGIN & KINCARDINE

[Endorsed]
Aug‘ 22/48
Lord Grey to Lord Elgin

[Original MS]
Private

MONTREAL Aug 16. 1848.
My Dear: Gnnr,

The news from Ireland——the determination of Gov‘ not to proceed with the
measure respecting the Navigation laws-doubts as to whether the American
Congress will pass the reciprocity of trade Bill—menaces of sympathisors in the
States»-—all combine at present to render our position one of considerable
anxiety~—

The peaceful repeal Irish——-or, in other words, the Irish rcpealers who are
connected with the Gov” and within reach of its good things, determined to hold a
meeting last Monday ‘to take into consideration the state and prospects of
cruelly oppressed Ireland.’ These Gentlemen intended if possible to keep treason
within reasonable bounds, & to induce the Iish [sic] Body to express confidence in
the Provincial Gov“——They found however when the hour of meeting approached
that the violent party were determined not to allow them to have their own way,
and two hours before the appointed time they postponed it— The violent section
assembled nowithstanding and made some very furious speeches.~——

M‘ Sullivan has returned from the States where he has been spending some
Weeks. He returns, I regret to say, much disheartened. The prevalent feeling
as regards both Canada & England he describes to be very bad. The insolence
and overbearing tone insufi’erable—- Nothing can resist them after their atchieve-
ments in Mexico, is the faith of the Nation. Woe betide any man who does not

224 ELGIN—G’REY PAPERS

share it. As to Canada, they may take it when they please-—— hon gré or mail gré
its people~ the time of doing it and the mode are questions merely of con-
venience.—~— As to marauding expeditions of Irish or others, it may not ‘be quite
right that they should ‘be allowed to invade the territories of an ally, but— ‘how
can the General Gov‘ prevent them?’ & besides, ‘the Presidential contest is going
on & no party can afford to lose the Iish [sic] ticket? Altogether he returns,
uncomfortable as regards the future of this Province so weak as compared with
this nation of libertines who seem to owe fcalty to no principles but those of
the vulgarest self interest— and thoroughly disgusted with the institutions of
the States. It is curious to hear the observations of a Canadian liberal on this
subject: the total absence of any recognition of the principles of generosity or
moral rectitude— the wretched tone of low vulgarity in which the highest topics
were handled struck him forcibly & painfully—— I admit however that MW Sulli-
van is a superior man, and that I could find about me persons who might be less
sensitive on such points than he.

M‘ Cramptonl with whom I have established an extra ofiieial Correspondence
doubts Whether the organization of the Irish sympathisers be sufiiciently perfect
to admit of any serious aggression on Canada at the moment, but he looks
forward with apprehension to the winter when the Irish will have little work &
the disbanded miscreants who are now returning in hordes from Mexico with
appetites whetted for all deeds of rapine & blood will be ready for any congenial
job.

What then is our position here to meet any such movement from without?
Not very reassuring I must confess. Firstly, we have the Irish repeal Body—~—
I need not describe them—- You may look at home—— they are here just what they
are in Ireland. Secondly we have the French population—— Their attitude as
regards England & America is that of an armed neutralityw They do not
exactly like the Yankees «but they are the conquered oppressed subjects of
England.—~ To be sure they govern themselves, get all the places, pay no taxes,
and some other trifles of this description— Nevertheless, they are the victims
of British égoisme Was not the union of the Provinces carried without their
consent and with the view of subjecting them to the British? Papineau, their
press and other authorities, are constantly dinning this into their ears, so no
wonder that they believe it-—

Again—our mercantile and commercial classes are thoroughly disgusted
and lukewarm in their allegiance, if not disaf’fected— You know enough of
colonies to appretiate the tendency which they always exhibit to charge their
misfortunes upon the mother Country~—~i1o matter from what source they flow——
You have given the Canadians an excellent opportunity for indulging this
propensity by the course you have taken with respect to the navigation laws.~—
It is easy to show that as matters now stand the faithful subject of Her Majesty
in Canada is placed on a worse footing as regards trade with the Mother Country,
than the rebel over the lines. The moral to be drawn from this fact is -by no
means encouraging to the friends of British connexion.

Our vicinity to the States, and the peculiar character of the political eon-
tests which have been carried on in this Province of late years, have had one effect

1 The British Charge d’a1’faires at Washington.

ELGI N -GRE Y PAPERS 225

which can with difficulty be apprehended from a distance and the gravity of
which it is not easy to overestimate-

The forfeiture of allegiance occupies in the moral code of a large section
of Canadian trading politicians pretty much the same place which a change of
party does in that of a similar class in England. The same man who when you
canvass him at an English Borough Election says “Why. sir, I’ve voted red
all my life and I never got anything by it, this time I intend to vote blue”
addresses you in Canada in this wise. “Ive been all along one of the stcadiest
supporters of the British Gov‘ but really if claims such as mine are not more
thought of I shall begin to consider whether other institutions are not preferable
to ours”. The next time probably you see your friends’ name is at a New York
sympathising meeting where he delivers a most eloquent address representing
the anxiety of the people of Canada to throw off the baneful domination of the
Mother Country.

What to do under these circumstances of anxiety and discouragement is the
question.—-

As to any aggressions from without I shall throw the responsibility of
repelling them upon Her Majesty’s troops in the first instance-— This is the
service wk we profess to render to our Colonists without charge to them. It is
well that they should see this benefit resulting from the connexion, and I shall
be disappointed indeed if the military here do not give a very good ace‘ of all
Yankee 6; Irish marauders notwithstanding the swagger of the cutthroats from
Mexico.

With respect to internal commotions I should like to devolve the duty of
quelling them as much as possible upon the citizens—I very much doubt whether
any class of them, however great their indifference or disloyalty fancy the taste
of celtic Pikes or the rule of Irish mob law. I shall proceed of course with
caution in this matter and a good deal will depend on the tenor of our news
from Ireland: But I have furnished a sketch of my intentions to be filled up
according to circumstances-

I have just recieved the English mail with Your letter of July the 27”‘
I shall go over your views with Sullivan and get him to draw up a paper on
the subjeet.1—-

I left Mary last Saturday at Beaumont finding that my presence here was
indispensable—— She had derived some advantage I think from the change of air.~

Very faithfully Yours
EDGIN & KINGARDINE

The ‘
EARL GREY.

1For Su-llivan’s Memorandum on Colonel Tu.lloek’s paper, see below, Appendiay XIII.

9337-15

226 ELG’IN-«GREY PAPERS

[Original MS]
Private
MONTREAL. Aug 24 1848.

My DEAR GREY,

I trust that the news which we have this day recievcd from Ireland will
have the effect of allaying excitement here. Although no overt act has been
yet committed enough has transpired with respect to the formation of Clubs
and sympathetic movements in the State of New York to make us anxious.
In consequence of what was going on and of the necessity of keeping my Min-
isters right, I gave up my plan of rejoining Mary in the Country and brought
her home again————~

There is rather an angry feeling here about the delay in pressing the bill
for the repeal of the navigation laws.-— I enclose an article from one of our
leading Papers which shows the tone in which a very influential Party take
the matter up.1

The American Congress has adjourned without passing the Canada Reci-
procity bill-— It is M” Crampton’s opinion that they never will concede any-
thing except for a conside7’atiort——and that in dealing with Gentlemen who are
so smart it is better to grant no boon until you have the equivalent in hand.

I have not seen in our newspapers yet much comment on Sir W. Moles-
worth’s speech? By throwing out the suggestion he makes in favor of elective
Governors and annual appropriations in lieu of civil Lists, he hoists a standard
around which the disaffected may rally~— In fact he endorses MN Papineau’s
views, for M.P. whose motive is hatred to England, proposes nothing more
than this at present; knowing well to what it must lead.

Ever since my present advisers have been in office I have been much pressed
(by some of them more urgently indeed than by others, though all concur in the
recommendation) to extend an act of grace and amnesty to all persons who
were engaged in the Rebellion of 1837 & 183-8. I am decidedly of opinion that
if Canada passes through this season of trial quietly it would be highly expe—
dient to accede to this proposition— The mercy and favor of the Crown have
already been extended to several of those who were most guilty on that occa-
sion—~ as, for example, to M. Papinea.u—othcrs who are liable to indictment
have returned to the colony, being perfectly confident that the terrors of the
law will never be invoked against them. In Upper Canada many who have been
pardoned are still, notwithstanding such pardon, subject to penalties imposed
by special acts of the Legislature, which can only be removed by Parliamentary
enactment. I shall send you by this Packet or the next an official communica-
tion on this subject with all the information I can collect. The principal rebels
who are now precluded from returning to the Province are D” Nelson and Mac-

‘ This paper is not in the collection.
t_2 On 25 July 1818, Sir William Molesworth proposed and spoke at length on the following
me ion:—
“That it is the opinion of this House that the Colonial Expenditure of the British Empire
demands inquiry, with a view to its reduction; and that to accomplish this object, and to secure
‘eater contentment and iprosperity to the Colonists, they ought to be invested with large powers
oil‘ t(l71e udggili-sistruhon 0 their local aifairs.” (llamzm-d’s Pa:-liannmita/ru Debates, Third Series,
on . _, p. .

ELGI N—GRE Y PAPERS 227

Kenzie~— The former of these is a surly pig headed sort of person, very diifer-
ent I suppose from his brother Wolfred who fought at S‘ Denis, but he detests
Papineau which is no small recommendation in the eyes of La Fontaine—— Add
to which he has a reputation as a surgeon far exceeding that of any of his
brethern of the faculty here, and the day of his return would be one of jubilee
with all who desire to have their legs or arms out ofi. It is doubtful however
whether he would return or not if it were put in his power to do so. He has
never applied for pardon, & is in good practice at New York. Mackenzie as
you of course know was the most conspicuous among the Upper Canada Rebels
— He is very anxious to return, and wrote my Secretary a letter on the sub-
ject lately, of which I enclose a copy, which is interesting, as shewing the effect
which a few years residence in the model Republic has produced in his mind—
From what reaches me from other quarters I have reason to believe that he is
sincere in the sentiments which he professes in this communication——— ‘

I am inclined to think with respect to both of these individuals that it
would be far better to permit them to return under the shelter of a General Act
of Amnesty than to make them the objects of special acts of favor. The former,
though I do not think he would be likely to do any mischief if he returned,
has never humbled him to express any regret with reference to the part which
he took in former transactions, and the latter although he has made profes-
sions of repentance and amendment, is viewed with much disfavor by a con-
siderable portion of the inhabitants of Upper Canada. The best part even of
the Reform Party in Upper Canada would consider a Pardon extended to him
individually at misplaced act of Lenitym On the other hand I fear that we shall
get into serious embarasement if we do not deal with all these cases before
the meeting of the Provincial Par‘ in some way or other. It is not impossible
that Nelson or Mackenzie may attempt to reenter the Province without permis-
sion, knowing the reluctance of the existing authorities to prosecute. Again
La Fontaine feels very strongly on the subject, and I really think if he were
thwarted he wd resign and throw the whole Gov‘ into confusion. He is engaged
at present in a death struggle on the French territory with Papineau, and he
cannot afford to lose the credit which obtaining this act of oblivion would con-
fer on him.~« It is not easy to foretell how this struggle may terminate but in
the mean time it is very ludicrous, and must be nuts to the old loyalists to see
that more than one half of the space of the French Papers is occupied with the
controversy which is going on between two sections of the Rebel army of 1837
& 1838 charging and rotorting upon each other imputations of cowardice &c
&c—— Among the papers which I send herewith is a ‘Supplement 5, la Revue
Canadionne’ with a sample of this literary warfare.1 I think that if I were
to take the initiative next Session and to propose to Part that an act of oblivion
should be passed it would have an admirable effect, as conveying a tacit but very
telling recognition on the part of the Imperial Govt of the good conduct of the
Canadians during this year of trial, and enabling us to get out of the difli-
culties which I have just now signalized without sacrifice of dignit –—~

I have put the Papers on the subject of Colonization into S,ullivan’s hands
and I hope in my next to be able to communicate something satisfactory on

‘ This paper is not in the collection.
9337-15}

228 ELGI N —G‘RE Y PAPERS

this head.-— I regret however to say that I much fear I shall lose Sullivan-
He hates the tracasseries of Political life & will not I think forego his claim to
the Judgeship—-The fact is that notwithstanding all that Molesworth says
about Salaries, political life is ruin to men in these Countries & the best will
not remain in it a day longer than they can help. Landzjobbers, swindlers,
young men who wish to m-also a name when starting into life, may find in public
life here or in the States a compensation for the sacrifices it entails, but with
honest men who are doing well in their own line of business, & who have not
private fortunes to fall back upon, it is otherwise. Hence it is that when you
speak of the respectable citizens of the United States it is always perfectly
understood that you except all who have any thing to do with its Gov‘—— I
enclose a number of the Avenirl, Papineau’s Paper, which shews how perfectly
Lord M olesworths doctrines jump with his. ‘

A copy has just been placed in my hand of the United Irishman of Mont-
real :3. bold imitation of its prototype at Dublin—— 1 have not had time to read
it— Papineau’s name appears on the list of the Irish League as vice President
among a set of names of no consideration wha.tever——— A proof of his rnalignity
if not of his judgement

Very sincerely Yours,
ELGIN & KINGARDINE
[Endorsed]

August 24/48
Lord Elgin

[Enclosure]

Copy
Private, Not Ojficial

TRIBUNE OFFICE NEW YORK 14”‘ Febry 1848.
Sm,

A Passenger by the Acadia for Liverpool, left with me about a fortnight
since, letters from Toronto enclosing Copy of a Petition to the Governor General,
written by Mr. James Lesslie, and signed by one of my daughters, now on a
visit to her Uncle at Toronto & Kingston, in which is expressed a wish that I
may be allowed to return to Canada, together with your note of Nov’ last,
acknowledging the rec” of that request.

At same time I got copy of another Petition also drawn up I suppose by
M” Lesslie. It had been quietly circulated before the Election, but Mr Scubie
of the Colonist published & condemned it——- he then appealed to the Electors of
the North Riding, -but had no occasion to chronicle his success. M‘ Dyer the
Phonographer tells me it was supposed when he was at Toronto that 20,000
signatures would be aflixedg but recent advices from Your City say that its
further circulation was very properly delayed till after Election time.

3 This paper is not in the collection.

-qr

ELGI N —G1tE Y PAPERS 229
[Enclosure]

I had no hand in these proceedings, «but am well pleased. They afford me
some apology for addressing you, and should you deem it your duty to lay the
following explanatory remarks before the Earl of Elgin and Kincardine, I would
be glad to receive a reply in such form and manner, and at such a time as might
be deemed proper under the circumstances. This appears to be the proper
moment for me to enter into the merits of the question involved in my daughter’s
petition, and to invite attention to its prayer.

The late M‘ John Neilson with whom I was for many years acquainted,
Wrote me a letter to Toronto about a twelvcmonth before the outbreak, in which
he said that he took it for granted that I remained, as ever, true and faithful
to British Connexion. I replied by reminding him what I had done and risked
to put that connection on a firmer basis, and acknowledged that I was ‘becoming
utterly hopeless of attaining good government, and inclined to be friendly to inde-
pendence, or a closer intimacy with this country, which I had not been previously,
or my efforts in England would have been withheld. That letter closed our
correspondence. I had ceased to confide in the wisdom and experience of that
truly excellent man. He stood by his Country. In 1831 he drew the greater
part of a petition which was signed by many thousands, and which I carried
to England. I was wrecked in the Steamer Waterloo when she went down near
his country seat at Carouge, my sole object in then visiting Quebec, having been
to consult with him on the best course to ‘be taken to prevent future rev0ltr—
the result of our conference, was that Memorial.

On Nov‘ 28. 1846, I once more wrote M‘ Neilson (from Albany) at great
length, and received a very full and friendly answer. That part of it which
related to 1837-8. expressed a strong desire “that the British Government would
yet be induced to extend oblivion, without exception, to those who were con-
cerned in the overt acts of Rebellion.” His proceedings previously, in the Legis~
lature, had ‘been in strict accordance with that wish.

A Sister of my Wife’s, who is married to M’ John Macintosh, a Scotsman,
formerly member of Assembly for the Riding now represented by Robert Baldwin
Esq”, applied in 1843, to Lord Metcalfe, for my recall. What she said in her
Memorial, I know not, but the reply thro’ M’ Higginson, was sent to me, intim-
ating, “ that unless it should be the pleasure of Her Majesty to proclaim a
General Amnesty”, the Governor General saw no probability that I would be
singled out as an object of especial favor.

In answer to what was I believe the unanimous address of the House of
Assembly, dated the 17”‘ of Dec‘ 1844, asking that,—-“free pardon indemnity and
oblivion” might be extended to all concerned in the movements of 1837—8,
Lord Metcalfe replied on the 20”‘ that

“ The only exceptions, and these are extremely few, have been in those cases
in which other crimes of peculiar atrocity against the community, or against
individuals have been supemdded, and which it has been deemed that pardon
would be manifest injustice to some of Her Maj esty’s faithful subjects.”

Being thus included among the few exceptions, I wrote to a friend who was
near those in authority, for an explanation, Colonel Moodies’ death was said

230 ELG‘IN—GREY PAPERS’

[Enclosure]

to be alluded to,—— Cap‘ Bonnycastle, in one of his Books published in London,
had also set me down as the Colonel’s murdererl I immediately addressed a
note to Mr. Gladstone, the Colonial Secretary, saying that if that was the cause
of my ‘being excepted, I was ready to be tried on any indictment that could be
brought before any Court, Judge or Jury, at Toronto. There was no reply.

Even if there were no indictment I would «be glad that a judicial enquiry
could take place, in some form, for my Canadian friends tell me that even the
Colon’el’s son is impressed with the idea that I was there. Were this the case,
I would at once own it, but it can be proved by the clearest, most unexeeptionable
testimony, that I was not at, nor near the place, and could not have been.

If it is on that account that I am placed on the list of persons excepted, I

‘am ready to produce the facts that would enable You to come at the truth, and

to name most credible witnesses. When returning from the rencontre with
M’ Powell, we brought -back a messenger from the Justices, who had been on
his way to town, passed the dead -body of M‘ Anderson on the road, and. pn
arriving at Montgomery’s Hotel, M‘ Archibald M°Donell ‘being with us, a
prisoner, were told that Colonel Mcodie had «been shot and was dying fast.
Never to my Knowledge, had I met the Colonel, before seeing him on the bed
at the Hotel. I told his friends that it would be impossible to get a Messenger
thro’ to Toronto, ‘but that D’ M°Cague would be sent for. He said it was useless.
I then offered to write his will. He explained why he had fired upon the second
line of guards after safely passing the first. In the steps that led to the placing
of a guard over the road, every thing was done in strict conformity to the Wishes
of the gentlemen, in Whom those engaged had placed the chief control. His
express order was given, when he came to us with M‘ Baldwin the second time,
and stopt our progress, for the iburning of D‘ Horne’s house, first, because the
doctor had employed spies to watch and come through the rebel camp, and made
his home a place for such observations, giving Sir Francis information, and also
as a means of inducing the peaceful surrender of the City in the evening. The
stories of my intention to bum Toronto are visionary. I had not hesitated to
risk my life in 1834, by laboring like a very slave, in every place of danger during
Cholera. time. Why should I burn the City in December 1837, with my family,
relatives & numerous friends in it, and all that they possessed?

M‘ Papineau had been advised of D‘ Rclph’s appointment as the Executive,
by letters sent with M‘ Lloyd, our Messenger, who reached Montreal on the
5”“ or 6“‘ of November. A Magistrate of that City was soon after sent up to
Toronto to urge us to hasten our movement, owing to the outbreak in Lower
Canada. I was pledged to aid the Lower Canadians, and kept my word faith-
fully, even after advices of their disastrous failure had reached Toronto, of
which D‘ R, drew up a statement for supplement to my newspaper, and had it
published after I had left for the Country.

If M°Leod, in the ease of the Caroline, was, or would have1 justified in
obeying orders, We who had agreed to act under an Executive head, in operations
requiring the exercise of power, were also bound, if we acted at all. Thus

. 1Tl:re word “ been ” has been added in pencil.

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 231
[Enclosure]

it was that D‘ Horne’s house was bu.rned——- I was a party to it, as instructed.
as D‘ Rolph has long since, been included in an amnesty, and lost none of his
property, I am not clear that I, who lost every thing, should be forever excluded,
under the rule.

There may be political reasons for my exclusion, I will therefore state my
opinions with perfect frankness, and as little reserve as if it were the last act
of my life.

When M’ Isaac Buchanan went to England last, he wrote me at some length,
intimating the sense he had of the hardship of my situation, and his intention to
apply to Sir Robert Peel, Lord Stanley, and Lord George Bentinck, on my behalf.
He did so, and the answer of the Premier was unfavorable- other Gentlemen
have since interfered— several of them M.P’s and Lord John Russel1’s replies
are said to have been of a like tenor with Sir Roberts’.

Had I not been compelled to reside over ten Years in this Country—-— to
investigate closely and watch carefully the complicated operations of the machine
of Government, it is most probable that my ideas of its practical excellence,
derived from conversation, from reading its constitutions, journals, historians,
&c, & from hastily travelling through a part of it, would have remained as in
1837. That they are not so now, my efforts of late Years to induce the authorities
in Canada to remove the outlawry, or whatever it is, afford good evidence. I
am not of that class who would seek to return to a Country by the favor of its
rulers in order to betray them. No act of my life would warrant the inference.

Supposing that, as I have a large family to support, I might desire to begin
business, my old Scottish friends, the Mess” Bruce here, who are very wealthy,
but lost £500 by me in the affair of 1837, offered from their extensive foundries
last Year, while I was up at albany, the credit of a new establishment, such as
I might select. I replied to their letter that I felt daily less and less at home in
the United States, and, that if not permitted to do business again in Canada, I
should not desire to do so in a Country whore Scotsmen, Englishmen and Irish-
men are treated as an inferior class, by political leaders, used as instruments
at Elections, but always distrusted on account of their Ibirth place. Had I
desired to acquire influence here, I might have settled in the western States, set
up a large News & Printing establishment, taken but half the trouble I did in
Canada, gone with the Stream, and reminded the Million that I was the last
Upper Canada Outlaw, in the cause of “Liberty” &c- my success in the way of
popularity could scarcely have failed. But I could not act the part, and would
not have valued the recompense.

When admitted behind the scenes, such was my dislike of what I saw,
that at personal risk and loss, after resigning a Sinecure in the customs, I
exposed the hollowness of the class by whom I had been deceived, and who prey
upon society here—— 50,000 copies of the Book were sold, but I refused any
share of the profits, or other recompense. By this step I obtained the displeasure
of the Canadian ultras also, Yet was I not unfriendly to Elective Governments,
so far as experience would prove them capable of making society wiser and
happier. There is much to admire in the American People, & sorry would I

232 ELGI N —GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

be to see any more wars with them, but I doubt whether lovers of good Govern-
ment, & well regulated freedom, will go to Washington any more for a pattern
of the beauties of Democracy.

The false ambition which has ruined so many governments, Monarchical,
Republican & Despctic, is powerful here. Keeping three Millions of Slaves
degraded at home, they incur heavy debts under the pretext of Spreading
liberty abroad. Than the public leaders here, as a whole, I have known nothing
on earth more unscrupulous and selfish. No man living is more fully convinced
than myself, that the condition of Canada would not be improved by “the
Spoils ” system, a connexion with the United States, the sending of the prod-
ucts of Canadian taxation to aid in carrying on Wars against Mexico, and
leaving its public lands in pawn at any Money—Broker’s for funds to aid in
extending Slavery’s area,

Had I seen things in ’37 as I do in ’48, I would have shuddered at the very
idea of revolt, no matter what of our wrongs might have been. I ought as a.
Scotsman, to have stood by the Gov” in America to the last, exerted every
energy I possessed to make it better, more just, more perfect,-—left it for a
time if too oppressive, but never tried, as I did, to put it down. Surely, Surely,
there was cause of complaint, but, we took the wrong course to get redress.
Had I taken the other course, what an influence for good, never now to be
regained, I might have possessed by this time. Instead of which, for several
Years, I made every possible efi’ort to extend the Worship of the Idol enthroned
at Washington, as the best means of securing for all rational freedom and just
Lawsl Declamation is easy; but it would puzzle a reasonable person to show
how Canada could be made happier, by seeking through Revolution, the Sys-
tem of which every body here may now see the bitter fruits— One Gentle-
man on Your side, in addressing S‘ Maurice County, truly asserted, that annexa-
tion to the States, might raise the price of land in ‘Canada, a cheering thought
to those who deal in lands, and have much on hand; but not likely to help the
Millions much, who want to buy farms, and are scarce of Money.

I feel inclined to make up some of my leeway but may be too feeble, even
if allowed. Yet, if I trust myself in Canada, after all said and done, I think
the Governmentmay safely trust me under its own power, and eye; altho’ I
shall not object to take another years probation here, if I must do so. I might
feel inclined, if a full amnesty were granted, and the country tranquil, to estab-
lish a large printing concern at Toronto or the Capital, but confidence is a
plant of slow growth, and perhaps I won’t be allowed to do this.

I was sincere and straight fomvard, even in error. I asked no favor where
I could not yield an unqualified support-~ Never either when in England or
in Canada, altho in the former Country I had a long and an easy access to the
highest authorities, did I ask for the smallest personal favor, place or oflce.
Never in the Legislature, crude as my ideas often were, did I allow any measure
to slip, that I believed would promote good Government. I worked like a Slave.
In my place late and early. Often in Assembly did the Servants complain to
the Speaker, that I kept them from their rest. When in London I told Lord

ELGI N —GIBE Y PAPERS -233
[Enclosure]

Goderich that we would have to revolt if some concession or change was not
made. His reply has appeared in both continents. There was much of error
in my movements but there was no deceit. No great excuse that, perhaps.

Are error and enthusiasm with regard to the potency for good of the Ameri~
can System, or Systems, new or rare? What more can man do, than seek for
truth, and own himself in the wrong when he feels that he is wrong? There is
no man on this continent, who more sincerely desires that British Government
in Canada may long continue, and give a home and welcome to the Old Coun-
tryman than myself. Is this inconsistent? Because a man may have half
killed himself (and others) with quack medicines, is that a reason why he should
keep on.? Did I say that I felt as I now do, or as to an Amnesty, seven or eight
Years ago? Did I not study with unwearied earnestness the Workings of the
Institutions before me, and the manners and morals of this people, and looked
at what had been done, until few men, even natives, were better acquainted
with their country? The result was not a desire to attain power, influence, or
a permanent home here, but to help if I can, and all I can, and that is now
and will be but little, the country of my birth, and the land where I ever felt
at home from the first hour on which I set foot upon its shores.

Much have I wished to publish a narrative of the events of the last 15 or
20 years,. I would do it now, but the dissention and quarrelling and excitement-
which the facts I have carefully arranged and treasured up would produce in
Canada, would come amiss just now. It would be impossible not to arouse
feelings and passions which had better slumber. When I do publish it, the
impressions and opinions here expressed will be fearlessly avowed.

I have no right to thrust my correspondence on you, thus, yet I venture to
ask that this may not be considered an oflicial paper, but private——not for the
present or a future Ministry—but for the Earl of Elgin, if he will listen to the
leading facts, when at leisure. I think I am blamed more than I deserve, tho’
undoubtedly, much was said and done on this side, to some of which I was a
party, which it is impossible to justify, any more than the Earl of Durham
and Lord Sydenham have justified the Governments we had in the Canadas—
I am not soured at what I see here, on personal grounds—far from it—the ideas
I had of good, honest, upright Government, are not realized— I can not become
an American, and enter into the spirit of their parties and Assemblies, as I see
them; therefore I have given up the attempt, which ought not to have been
made.

Language like this from the most headstrong rebel of 1837, may seem
strange, but there are no lessons like those of experience. I write as I feel, and
if ever you find reason to believe that I desire to deceive, then if you think it
worth while, publish my letter as evidence of my hypocrisy—- Remember I
would not thus write, if I were a native of these States. In that case, if I did
not quit public life, I would seek popularity that I might therewith battle and
battle the factions, eovetous and wildly ambitious. I would join the best party,
for this is a government of party—that I might help onwards those in it who
wanted to do right, and to foster a manly, free & independent, se1f—sustaining

234 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

spirit in the Milli0ns~—« As it is I write much under a screen, urging, where I
dare do it, the folks in authority, to practice what their Institutions profess-
a hard task that, whether on the Civil or religious side, in this world.

The Houses of Assembly have, I believe, repeatedly requested an Amnesty
for 1837-8 «ice with no exceptions; and unless there are concealed charges as to
crimes of “peculiar atrocity,” which I could not meet, as I did not know them,
and which unexplained, may look very different to what they would, if both
sides were heard, I may have some hope of a favorable decision. At all events,
the Nobleman at the head of the Government had a right (if he felt it to be
worth while) to know my feelings and sentiments, when an application was
made for my return. If in this communication, I have adopted the wrong course,
or used language in aught offensive, most assuredly it was far from my inten-
tion so to do. The time will come when the Earl of Elgin, if he is not now, will
be fully assured of the perfect sincerity with which I write, and of the pleasure
I would have in seeing Canada united, happy, prosperous, prepared for what-
ever may happen, the voice of faction lulled, and all this achieved under the
auspices of the representative of a name and a lineage interwoven with memories
that will be dear to Scotsmcn (aye even to Scottish outlaws, when they come
to their senses) in all time.

I had some hand in the creation of Responsible “Ministries” as they are
called, but I beg that I may not ‘be turned over to their tender mercies. I hope
but little from them, of either side. If I am to be restored to my rights, let me
have the satisfaction of owing the boon to the Governor in Chief or the Colonial
Secretary. In conversation with Lord Howiek and M‘ Stephen at Downing
Street, 15 Years since, they objected to the virtual independence of the ” Respon-
sible Govi ” plan. “what can we do”? said I, “you send men to rule the Col-
“ onies who impede useful, practical Gov‘ and know not how to do otherwise.
“Give us a capable able Governor, a man who will exert himself to make the
” Country flourish, and P11 go home to Canada, and give him a thorough and
“independent support.” Some 10 or 12 Secretaries have followed one another
since, and how far the Governor is the Minister, and how far shielded by 9.
“Ministry ” I know not. Only I would most earnestly entreat not to be con-
signed to its kindness.

I have suffered hard here, and this letter places me in the category of
sinners who defer their repentance till late in life; but the moment I became
sensible that I was wrong, both as to means and end, I hastened to make all the
amends in my power. I have tried to be right,—I’l1 try again—— and without
having a great deal of confidence in this application, I once more venture to
request your good offices in keeping it before the Government till some decision
is arrived at.

With great respect.

I am the
(Signed) W” L. MACKENZIE.

ELGIN-GREY PAPERS 235
[Original MS]
Private.
MONTREAL Aug 30. 1848.
MY DEAR GREY,

Your letter of the 10″‘ only arrived this morning.— If Monteagle thinks
that he could manage Canada better than I do, I should not object with your
consent to change places with him. Su11ivan’s ‘memorandum on Immigration
is not quite ready but I hope to have it for my next letter. Meanwhile he has
just brought me two letters from M’ Barclay the British Consul at New York
which give me serious apprehensions with respect to the designs of the Yankee
Irish on this Province and to certain goings on at Quebec and Montreal. D’Urban
is in Town and I have sent for him to confer with him on the subject

Very faithfully Yours

ELGIN & KINCARDINE
The
Emu. GREY

[Endorsed]
Aug” 30/48
Lord Elgin

[Original MS]
Piivate.

MONTREAL Sept 7. 1848.
MY DEAR GREY, ‘

Mr Sullivan has just placed in my hand a very long paper on Immigration}
but as I have not had time to read it and it must be copied I cannot send it till
next week.

That the Gov‘ Genl should stand well with the supporters of the party in
power ca va sans dire. but it may be consolatory to see that I am not entirely
abandoned by the outs. This inference may I think be drawn from the two
extracts which I annex. The one from a Conservative Paper at Quebec in refer-
ence to a rumor that I was about to leave the .Colony~—- The other being the
terms in w“ my health was proposed at a dinner given by the supporters of
Papineaus’ paper the Avenir to the writers in that journal—«

Very sincerely Yours
ELGIN & KINCARDINE
The
EARL GREY~—
[Endorsed]
Sept. 7/48
Lord Elgin
7-For Sul.l.ivan’s memorandum on Colonel Tu.Llock’s plan, see ‘below, Appendix XIII.

236 ELG’IN~—GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

No. 1

LORD ELGIN.-“ We believe (says the Mercury) that on other grounds
(than the continued indisposition of Lady Elgin) but few will be found to
endorse the assertion of the Quebec Gazette, of regret for the noble Earl’s
departure.”

Nobody is bound to believe the bare assertion of any one; but if the Mercury
can find fourteen or fifteen men of respectability, that is, one out of every 100,000
inhabitants of Canada, of whatever party, to endorse its assertion, we offer to
publish their names.

No. 2.
DINER

‘ DONNE AUX COLLABORATEURS DE L’AVENIR, PAR DES AMIS DU

JOURNAL,
LE 26 AOUT 1848.

Le Dr. Bibeaud est appelé a présider le diner.
Aprés le dessert les santés suivantes furent proposées ct regues aveo
enthousiasme.
1—A So. Majesté la. Reine.

2″‘A. Son Excellence le Comte d’Elgin, gouverneur. Puisse—t—il suivre la ligne
de conduite fer-me et impartiale qu’il 8. touj ours suivi et qui l’a rendu eher 5. tous
les Canadiens. ‘

[Original MS]

Private
MONTREAL Sop‘ 13. 1848.

MY DEAR GREY,

I send you herewith M’ Sullivan’s paper on E1nigration1—— It is not an offieial
document being the fruit of his own reflections and not of consultation with his
colleagues—— It is however I think well worthy yr perusal as it throws a good
deal of light upon the economical position of this Province and our means of
recieving and profitably employing Immigrants.—- It contains the views upon
this subject of a. very able man, but of one, it is fair to say, who has no inclination
to look with favor on Wakefield Colonization theories. I confess I think there
is a great deal of force in what you say with respect to the advantage of sending
out Emigrants under a military system and thus providing at once for the
settlement and defence of the Colony. But I do not see how these military
laborers are to be made to Work except under their own oifioers in a country
Where there are so many temptations to desertion. In which case it appears to

1For- Sul.livan’s memorandum on Colonel Tulloclfs plan, see below, Azlperzdiw XIII.

ELGIN—GRE’Y PAPERS 237

me the Gov‘ must either undertake the works on its own responsibility and
provide the means, or become in some sort a contractor and execute them for
capitalists on terms to be mutually agreed on-

While however I beg your attention to Sullivan’s paper as calculated to afford
some useful information I must add that his individual opinions are of less
consequence as it appears to be probable that he will soon cease to be one of
my political advisers by ‘being removed to the Bench. So long as he remains
in the Council his views more especially on such a subject as Immigration are
sure to sway the deliberations of that body— But when he retires other influences
will of course come into play. It has been whispered to me that a certain M‘
Merritl of U. Canada is to be proposed as his successor. This Gentleman is a
man after Cobclen’s own heart. The active promoter of Reciprocity with the
Yankees——~l0w import duties —— low Salaries—- He has calculated the respective
advantages I am told of annexation and continued British Connexion and
satisfied himself that if equal Trade with America be secured and the navigation
laws repealed the Canadians had better on economical grounds remain as they
are. M‘ Merrit is I suspect a very different person from Sullivan in many ways,
and I certainly expect to find him much better disposed than the latter to view
with favor plans of systematic colonization~—more especially if they can be
made to operate as an attraction to Capital“ Whether he will exercise however
as great an influence over his colleagues as Sullivan on such questions may be
doubted»-

I am disposed tm think that Sullivan Wd be a very proper person for a C. B~——
He has been long in the public service—- Has a high reputation for ability and
is popular with all parties-

Very sincerely Your’s
The ELGIN & KINCARDINE

EARL Gnnr
P. S. I send herewith 9. copy of one of the best liberal papers of U. Canada
with an article contradicting Molesworth’s allegations of the Superior cheapness
of Gov‘ in the States— Perhaps it might be well if it obtained publicity in
England

[Endorsed]
Sep” 13/48
Lord Elgin

[Enclosure]
THE GLOBE.
Sap. 9, 1848.

COLONIZATION.—CANADA.

When countries become over—peopled, there can be ‘but one remedy ~— the
surplus must emigrate to other lands, and it is fully to contend against such a
state of things, when it has reached a certain point. No man puts twenty head

1W. H. Merritt.

238 ELG’IN—G’ItEY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

of cattle on a pasturage which is only fit to sustain ten. The comparison is
homely, but it is fitted to give an impression of the calamities of an over—crowded
population. Emigration has in all ages been the only cure for this evil. It is
well known that when the -barbarous tribes in the North of Europe emerged
from their forests, and poured into the fertile plains of the Roman Empire, the
impelling cause was to find the means of existence. The population had com-
pletely out—groWn the means of support afforded in their own sterile regions.
When the terrible Attila, styled “the scourge of God” placed himself at the
head of his followers, and carried desolation wherever he went, he was doubtless
actuated by the ambition of establishing a more powerful empire in more genial
regions, but his followers were chiefly impelled by hunger. The irruptions were
not those of regular armies overrunning foreign countries after establishing their
dominion, and falling back on their own country. Whole tribes, men, women,
and children, household gods and all, fell like an avalanche on the fairest part
of Europe. It was the colonization of war, arising from the same causes as
modern colonization———thc want of subsistence.

Ireland is in this position. Her population of about 270 to every square
mile, is now generally admitted to be far too large for her means of support,
and this can be proved by the clearest testimony. The produce of the three
kingdoms of all kinds of grain has been estimated at sixty millions of quarters,
and of this, Ireland may produce from 8 to 10 million%at most only a sixth
part of the Whole. England and Scotland have a population of eighteen millions
and Ireland eight millions. Every Englishman and Scotsman would thus eon-
sume about double the quantity of grain of home growth that is used by an
Irishman. But this is not all——for Ireland is an exporting country, while Britain
imports large quantities of grain, and if this be taken into account, the consump-
tion must be three to one in favour of the English and Scotchinan. This does
not include the potatoes which have hitherto been the chief food of a vast pro-
portion of the Irish people, estimated as high as five millions of the whole. When
the failure of this crop occurs it is impossible to estimate the amount of misery
it causes.— If we follow up this comparison between the countries, by estimating
the vast consumption of animal food in Britain, as compared with Ireland, we
shall have some faint idea of the sufierings of that country. There are masses
in England and Scotland «both in the manufacturing and agricultural districts,
who occasionally suffer severely. But these are greatly exceeded both in fre~
quency and extent by the suiferings of Ireland, and what remedy is there for them
but emigration.

It is absurdly said in the Repeal papers of that country, that as Ireland
produces twice the amount of grain that would support her own population, the
remedy is, to stop the export and consume the grain. If the estimate now given
be near the truth, Ireland produces no such quantity, and all her food would be
required, and more, for her own overgrown population. It is evident, however,
that were her population so reduced by emigration, and the land divided and
cultivated so as to allow free scope to the natural fertility of the soil, Ireland
might export grain and other agricult1n‘al produce, and her own people have the

ELG‘IN—G’REY PAPERS 239
[Enclosure]

full amount of support. The proposal of the repeal papers to stop the exports
and consume the grain on the spot, is as unwise as it is unjust. They seem to
think that Ireland receives nothing in exchange for the grain and provisions
exported. The labourers toil for the produce, and think it hard it should be sent
away, but they forget that the cotton spinners and manufacturers of Manchester
and Glasgow, and the woollen manufacturers of Yorkshire, also toil to make
cloth for the agriculturists of Ireland; and if the exports of grain cease to Britain,
the exports of cloth will also cease. They forget that China and the West Indies,
and Brazil, will not send their tea, and sugar, and cofifee to Ireland, without
receiving something in exchange, either directly or indirectly, through the
commerce of other countries. It is a popular theory, that the large exports of
Ireland go out solely to pay the absentee landlords. We showed in a late number,
that in the latest return we had seen, Ireland had exported seventeen millions
sterling of produce and manufactures in one year, and imported fifteen millions,
leaving a balance against her of only two millions.

Canada, too, exports grain, and she does not grudge sending away her
produce, for it supplies her with clothing and foreign produce. But the diEfer-
ence between Ireland and Canada. is, that Ireland is over—peopled, and has little
enough of grain for her own consumption, whereas, Canada has enough to eat,
for her land is broad, and she has room for millions more. She can feed all
her people, and send food to others. Canada presents advantages to Coloniza-
tion on a large scale, which no other country on the face of the earth does. The
climate, particularly of the Upper Province, is well adapted for European
emigrants. The land is already so possessed in every district as to show what
it is capable of. The lines for holding a vast population are marked out, and
in part occupied. Her government is fixed on Liberal principles, and these
combined with the stability of British Institutions, give promise of a long rest

-from political agitation. The taxation of Canada is the lowest, we believe, in

the civilized world. Many suppose that taxation is lighter in the United States
than in any other place. This notion is founded on the low salaries of certain
public officers, Sir William Molesworth gives countenance to this in his late
speech. It is true that the salaries of Judges are far below what they are in
England. But the consequence is, that inferior men are appointed. Men of
eminent abilities, such as Daniel Webster, who can gain large incomes by their
practice, rarely occupy the bench, which is left for the more common and’ordin~
ary men, who cannot make a good income by their talents. But it is a mistake
to suppose that the salaries are the sole incomes of the judges. They have
fees, a much more objectionable mode of payment, as it directly encourages
litigation. They have also considerable patronage. Nothing can be more unwise
than to under pay those who occupy the bench. The men who sit there should
have no uneasiness about pecuniary matters, and should give their whole ener-
gies to the duties of their high oflice. Since the Revolution settlement, few
instances have occurred of a challenge for corruption in the administration of
justice in Great Britain or her Colonies. That this could have been said, if
inferior men with limited salaries had occupied the bench, none will venture to

240 ELGI N —G1ZE Y PAPERS

[Enclosure]

assert. The paid magistrates in the States are often chosen from the common
ofiicers of the Court, and carry with them the feelings which a long course of
practice among the most degraded of the community is calculated to produce.
It is not long since a magistrate in New York was tried for corruption, arising
from his connection with a burglar, who it was alleged had broken into a sill;
warehouse for his benefit. The evidence was strongly against him, and it was
generally believed that he was guilty, but a bench of his brother judges acquitted
him. Such a case has not occurred in England since the days of Jonathan
Wild. We have alleged that Canada is a cheaply taxed country. Taking her
expenditure at £500,000, and the population at a. million and a half, it is 6s. 8d.
a head for each person. Sir William Molesworth estimates the cost of the North
American Colonies to the Mother Country, at 9s. a head, which we think should
only be 8s. Supposing 25 per cent. of this expenditure profit to the colonists,
it would be 2s. a head, and reduce the charge of each individual for government,
to 4s. 8d. In the United States the taxation, in time of peace, ranges from
twenty—five to thirty millions of dollars, amounting to a dollar and a half per
head, or 7s. 6d. currency. During the late war, if taxes had been raised as
they went along, they would have been fifty per cent more. This is only the
taxation of the Federal Government. Besides this, the State and local taxes
are very heavy, and we do not err when we estimate them as equal to the taxes
of the general government. After making every allowance for the local taxes
of Canada, we shall arrive at the conclusion that the taxation of the United
States is fully double that of Canada for each person. But the mode in which
the taxes of the United States is raised, forms an additional burden. The pro-
tective duties on imports, raise high the prices of many articles, and the public
pays heavily for the benefit of the manufacturers. We say nothing about the
vast consumption of time in the United States by the thousands who do little
besides attending to the elections by the millions. This is not the least item in
the vast expense in carrying on the United States government
We repeat that Canada is the most cheaply taxed country in the world.

[Original MS]

I send a newspaper with a spirited article on Canadian prospects—— I wish
such articles were more common than they are.

Private
MONTREAL, Sep 21. 1848.

My DEAR GREY,

It may be some consolation to know that when our Game Laws are abolished,
and our civil Polity is fashioned after the model towards which the sympathies
of the Bright and Cobden school are so constantly directing our regards, there will
yet be room for the indulgence of that love of sport which is deemed by many
so important and useful an element in our national character — Two notices
which have lately appeared in the journals of the neighbouring republic illustrate
my meaning and indicate the quarter from which I derive this consolation—-

ELG’IN—GREY PAPERS 241

The former of these notices which has -been more generally advertised and
more freely commented upon than the other, proclaims that a Bear Hunt is to
take place in the Sierra Madre during the Winter —— The promoters of this sport
appoint places of rendezvous and mention how each sportsman is to come
accoutered -— the provision of Bowie Knives, Colts revolvers, &o which he is
to bring with him ~ as well as the number of days provender. It is perfectly
understood that the game is two legged, and that the domain to be poached over
has been lately constituted a close preserve under special Treaty— Butthe central
Gov‘ stands by conniving & Wlnklng as is it’s wont in such conjunctures——

The other amusement projected and announced is a red For Hunt in
Canada. This game does not appear at the moment quite as popular as the
other — It may be that the love of sport does not encrease as it ought to do in a
direct ratio with the danger -attending it—

Indeed there seems to be a pretty strong probability that the latter sporting
expcditionmay be for the present adjourned. It is a pity after so much trouble
has -been taken, and so much has been said about it. We are quite prepared to
give the most ardent votarics of excitement their heart’s content if they come.

Seriously speaking I shall not consider it altogether an unmixed good if
that portion of the dregs of the American people who cherish against England
the most malignant feelings, the offspring partly of republican fanaticism, and
partly of an hereditary and acquired propensity for plunder, adjourn their
projects of aggression against Canada to some more convenient opportunity-—
To resist such intrusion I think I could now count on the hearty support and
cooperation of the great bulk of the population of the Province both French and
English — We might probably succeed if We had the opportunity in causing the
tide of annexation to ebb to a respectful distance from our shores, at least for a
time.

I forgot to mention in my last letter that I am very anxious to obtain the
Warrants for Legislative Councillors for which I have applied as soon as you
can furnish them~ The fact is I was requested to ask for them some time ago, but
I delayed forwarding the application being desirous to obtain all the information
I could about the individuals before doing so. The Provincial Par‘ will meet
probably in November and it is important that I should ‘be able to -make some
additions to the Council before it assembles—~

As regards the usury laws -— there is a good deal of prejudice here upon that
subject —quite as much among the liberals as among the Conservatives —— The
absurdity however of representing the want of Capital to be the master evil of
Canada and at the same time maintaining laws to exclude it is too flagrant to
be long endured — and I hope during the course of the ensuing Session to
obtain a modification if not the entire removal of these laws.~—~Ve,ry sincerely
Yours

ELGIN & KINCARDINE

‘ The

EARL GREY.
[Endorsed]
Rec“ Oct‘ 11
Ans“ d°
9337-—-16

242 v ELGI N—G’RE Y PAPERS

[Enclosure]
THE NIAGARA MAIL.
Wednesday, September 6, 1848.

Psooanssrou

Canada within the last few years has improved amazingly in every respect.
Scores of thousands of hardy industrious settlers have located themselves in all
directions in the backwoods, levying contributions on the primeval forests, and
making extensive uncultivated tracts, where the foot of the white man hardly
ever before trod, yield an abundant harvest of fruit and yellow grain.

The clearing of land is attended with peculiar, and not disagreable reflcctions.
There is something fascinating, encouraging, and satisfactory in the idea that
every tree that is cut down, is making way for the operations of husbandry, and
that the toilsome process will not have to be repeated. But what most gladdens
the heart, and nerves the hand, of the new-comer, is the gratifying consciousness
that every improvement he makes will Ibo for his own benefit, without the dis-
heartening drawbaek of rents, taxes or tithes, which were so oppressive in lands
he has left behind. Every sober immigrant, of industrious habits, while he
soon attains to a comfortable competence, contributes materially to the country’s
wealth. Thousands who individually penetrated the woods with nothing but an
axe, and the means of present subsistence, are now in independent circumstances.
Hundreds of acres of land are cleared, producing grain of all kinds, and fruit in
abundance. Oxen, cows and horses are found about their premises, and poultry
without number, and in great variety, appear in the farm yards.

The country has been generally settled by poor men, but men of enterprize
and perseverance. The hardships they endured, and the difficulties they sur-
mounted, are alike unknown to the inhabitants of the front and populous town~
ships of Canada, and to our readers in Europe. For the information of both,

We may put down the outlines of what we have witnessed in the formation of a _

new settlement, which took place about twenty-five miles from the front town-
ships.

There was no road, and every man carried on his back whatever quantity of
flour, or anything else he required, by a footpath, marked by cutting the bark

from the trees on either side. On reaching the spot of location, the first thing‘

was to out down some balsam saplings, and erect what is called a shanty on every
man’s lot, which consisted of 200 acres. A spot was generally chosen on a. rising
ground, and near a brook, if possible. Such temporary dwellings were generally
of about fourteen feet by twenty and covered with bark; the interstices between
the logs were filled up by pieces of wood, and plastered with mud. An opening in
the roof served to let out the smoke, and a bunch of hemlock branches made a
very good bed. Without belt or bar, and at a distance of a quarter of a mile to
a. mile from each other, subject to the visitation of wandering and pagan Indians,
every man enjoyed good and refreshing repose, without injury or molestation,
except What the cruel and busy musquetoes and gnats might produce.

The underbrush being cleared away around each domicile, and piled into
heaps, the monarchs of the forests were soon levelled with the ground. The

ELGI N -—GREY PAPERS 243
[Enclosure]

branches were cut off, and put on the heaps of brush-wood, and their trunks
were cut into convenient lengths for rolling into heaps to be burned. At a
proper time a fire was communicated to both brushwood and logs, and all were
consumed to ashes. These were scattered all around, and nothing remained
but to cast the seed on the ground, which was covered merely by the use of a
kind of barrow, called a drag, made in a triangular form, so as not to be inter-
rupted in its course by the trunks of trees which were left standing three or four
feet from the surface.

In the meantime roads began to be opened up not only through the settle-
ment but to the cultivated parts of the country. Stock began to accumulate,
and every settler found his circumstances improving. In February or March
the maple trees were tapped by a kind of gouge, and the sap received in a. trough
placed underneath. This sap was easily converted into sugar of an excellent
quality by boiling. Pumpkins, squashes, cucumbers, melons, and other fruits
were easily raised, and for every seed put into the ground a person might expect
to receive from thirty to two hundred fold.

All that can be attained by any individual is either necessaries, conveniences
or comforts. Anything beyond is superfluous. Our adventurers alluded to had
hardly necessaries at first, but they soon acquired conveniences, and ultimately
comforts. Not many years had elapsed before some had the greater portion of
their lots cleared. The shanties gave way to log houses, and these again to
frame houses, or houses of brick. Men who at first, went about their ordinary
business in red night—caps, and clothed in rags, are now magistrates, and men
of the first consequence in the land. All, unless from vicious behaviour are
comfortable and independent.

It ought to have been mentioned that in the process of their aggraudizemcnt
school-houses were erected, and churches made their appearance, and Methodist
ministers visited the people on foot, while the roads were impassable for vehicles
or horses, The pious zeal of this body of people ought to be had in everlasting
remembrance.

But when we sat down and penned the word “ Progression ” at the head
of this article we had no intention whatever of running into this strain. How-
ever, our readers in England and Ireland may like our hasty remarks from
their novelty. Our brief description may apply in their principal parts to
all the settlements in the country. Settlers without number have gone
through the process mentioned with a like result, and we have room enough
for millions more. The healthy sober and industrious cannot fail of suc-
cess—the effcnriinate, dissipated, and idle are sure to come to ruin,

We have given the commencement and progress of a new settlement,
and the country, in general, progresses in as great, if not a greater ratio.
Hamlets have given place to large villages, villages to towns, and towns
have arisen to cities of magnitude. New Post ofliccs are established in

all directions as they become necessary. Roads are being; opened into

the interior of the country. Telegraphs intersect various routes of general
communication, and railways are either contemplated or in course of con-
9337-15;

244 ELGI N —GRE’ Y PAPERS

[Enclosure]

struction. We have lakes like seas, and rivers like continuous lakes, and
these are studded with steamboats of magnitude, of the most elegant form,
and fitted up with every convenience and comfort which passengers can desire.

In a very short space of time there has been an immense alteration
for the better in this respect; and by means of our different canals the
lakes and rivers are made navigable to the ocean, a distance of several
thousand miles. No country in the world possesses such an internal navi-
gation, which is now rendered available by human art.

After all we are only in the infancy of improvement—our sun is but
rising—~—the British Provinces extending from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to
the Pacific Ocean possess all the elements of a great and mighty empire,
suflicient to control the destinies of this continent; and there is about the
same reason to suppose that they will annex the United States, as that
the United States Will annex them. As far as Canada is concerned there is
unprecedented unanimity among the people, and the prospect is of the
most flattering and glorious description. Education is attended to and
schools flourishwresponsible government prevails———enlightened and liberal
men are at the helm of affairs-—and the Imperial government spares neither
pains nor expense in promoting the best interests of the country,

[Duplicate MS copy]

Private
0.0.

Oct. 26/48‘
MY DEAR ELGIN

I have been in Town for a week for two Cabinets & before I go back
tomorrow I must write you a few lines— Hearing so little from you either
publiekly or privately by the two last mails is I trust a sure sign that every-
thing is going on to your satisfaction in Canada; there being nothing to write
about shows that you have no peculiar troubles —

I am sorry you have lost Sullivan from your Council from the account you
give of him, & his paper wh. You have sent me supports completely what you
said of his abiIity.—1 sh‘ be very glad tm have a great part of it (omitting
the reference to Tullochs paper) in an otficial shape that can be produced, with
a View of enabling you to send me in this manner the substance, I will write
to you oflicially desiring to be furnished with a report founded upon your experi-
ence of the Year’s Emigration as to the possibility of adopting any further
measures to extend & promote Emigration—« In answer to this you might trans-
mit to me a report from your Executive Council embodying as much of the
substance of M’ Sullivan’s paper1 as they may think proper with any additional
suggestions. ‘

1For Sull-ivan’s memorancluin on Colonel Tulloelfg plan, see ‘below, A.ppendia: XIII.

W…“

ELGIN-GREY PAPERS 245

I shall be very glad at once‘ to recommend MW Sullivan for the C.B. if
you think it right but ought not M‘ Draper to have it at the same time?

I have nothing to tell you from hence wh. you will not learn better from
the Newspapers from wh. you will see in what a fearful state Europe (&
especially Germany) continues; it im curious enough that amidst all this
agitation Canada so lately in rebellion sh“ continue so quiet. It is much to
the credit of your administration.

(Signed) GREY.
The
Earl of ELGIN & KINCARDII\’E

[Endorsed]
Oct. 26/48
Lord Grey to Lord Elgin

[Original MS]
Private

MONTREAL oct. 11. 1848.
MY DEAR GREY,

I have little to Write about but I send a few lines lest you should think
that I had neglected the post day. By the next mail I shall probably be able
to announce the decision of my cabinet respecting the meeting of Par‘. It will
take place Ithink in November. I send a newspaper which professes to give
a schedule of ministerial measures. it is not quite correct but it indicates the
points towards which a good many of our politicians are looking. With respect
to the Governor’s salary for example I do not suppose that my Ministers would
think of making the move to which the programme alludes without first com-
municating with me, but after what has been said on this subject by Sir R. Peel
and Lord Molcsworth it is not wonderful that the Press and popularity Hunters
should take it up.— Whether it might not be very good policy, if we get through
this winter quietly, and a peaceable President is elected by our neighbours, to
assume this charge and at the same time to reduce considerably our military
force here is a very grave question.

The assumption of this charge would make it patent to all men that the
Imperial Gov” had no interest in maintaining the civil list, and would thus put
all the popular ad captandum economical arguments in the hands of the sup-
porters of the connexion against the annexationists.- Meanwhile my ministers
do intend to introduce a measure for encreasing the representation. You know
that I have always been of opinion that the number of the present House of
Assembly is too limited and that there would be a better chance for the formation
of a sound public opinion if it were enlarged. The Papineau Party have been
clamouring for a representation on the basis of population with the idea that
this would throw the preponderance into the hands of the French. It is not
very certain that this would be the case, but at any rate my ministers have

245 ELGIN—-GREY PAPERS

resolved to adhere to the principle of equality of representation between the
Provinces. They also propose to carry through 8. measure for effecting a eoin—
pulsory commutation of the Seigneurial tenure——— For altering the constitution
of the Toronto University—— Paying certain Rebellion losses in Lower Canada,-—
Altering the Judicature system &c. In short they have 5. good deal in hand,
and having the prestige of the great Reform Party to support they feel bound
to atchieve much. I shall do all I can to ensure their doing some good and
as little mischief as may be—
Yours very sincerely

ELGIN & KINCARDINE
The
EARL GREY

[Endorsed]
Oct. 11/48
Lord Elgin

[Enclosure]
LE CANADIEN

27 Septembre 1848

Les Mélanges Religieux semblent donner a cntendre que les mesures sui-
vantes vont étre proposées dans la proehaine session du parlement provincial:

1° Un bill de réforme éleetorale. Ce bill conservera la. proportion aetuelle
des représentants pour cheque province, mais il augmentera le ehiifre des
représentants, et lc portera, selon les une, it celui de 120, selon les autres 9.
_ce1ui de 150.

2° Un bill dbrgenisetion postale. Ce bill ét-ablira un toux uniforme pour
les lettres dens toute la province, et ce taux sore. bien moindre que celui qui
existe aujourd’hui. Il diminuera aussi considérablement le port des journaux,
ear le port actuel est par trop élevé; il. établira. le bureau général de la poste
en Canada, et fera ainsi dispaieitre les mille et une justes plaintes centre
l’organisa.tion postale du jour.

3° Un bill do réeiprocité de commerce avec les Etats~Unis. Par ce bill
nous obtiendrons les produits des Etats~Unis $1 bien meilleur marehé, et nous
pourrons exporter les nfitres sans payer des frais do douane exorbitants.

4° Un bill d’organisation cloiianic‘-ire pour toutes les provinces anglaises de
l’Amérique du Nord. C’est une mesure qu’exig;ent nos intéréts commerciaux,
et qui nous rendra au centuple, par les_ avantages de l’exportation, ce que nous
perdrons par la suppression des droits des douanes intercoloniales.

5° Un bill de judicature. Nous n’entendons pas par cette mesure un nou~
veau bill, nous entcndons Yaneien bill perfectionné; car, de l’aveu de tous les
jurisconsultes, il vaut mieux amender que refaire en entier, et la raison en est
celle—ci: en refesant en entier, vous déroutez les gens et vous exposez votre
mesure :3. un non-fonctionnement, tandis qu’en reproduisant, vous ne faites que
perfectionner (au moins vous étes censés le faire) un systeme auquel on est déjb.
habitué.

ELGIN~GREY PAPERS 247
[Enclosure]

6° Un bill d’éducation.

7° Un bill pour le rappel des lois de banqueroutes. Les marchands parais—
sent désirer qu’il en soit ainsi, et les avoeats n’en seront pas fachés.

8° Une loi pour la profession du notariat.

9° Un bill d’enrégistrement. Une réforme en cette matiére est absolument
néoessaire, car la loi d’enrégistrement aetuelle parait, mécontenter bien des gens,
et nous pouvons dire avec raison.

10° Un bill pour le King’s College de Toronto. “De cette mesure nous ne
dirons rien pour le moment, nous nous réservons pour plus tard.

11° Un bill de municipalités. Ce bill no serait qu’unc loi d’amendement,
afin de faire disparaitre les plus grands vices du systeme actuel.

12° Un bill pour pourvoir 5. Pencouragement de l’agrieultu.re. C’est la
une mesure nécessaire et qui devra passer sans opposition, oar si l’on donne
de Pargent pour enseigner a la jeunesse a lire, éerire et chififrer, a plus forte
raison devons-nous voter de Pargent pour apprendre s cette jeunessc et au
peuple en général Ea. bien cultiver les champs.

13° Un bill pour Yebolition de la tenure seigneuriale. Cette mesure parait
étre généralement demandée dans le Bas—Canada, et nous sommes sfirs que sa
passation dans les deux ehambres reneontrera Yapprobation du peuple. Nous
n’entendons pas cependant faire de ce bill une loi de spoliation; bien loin de la:
tout en donnant aux populations uu systeme moins onéreux et moins féodal, on
substituera un paiement plus facile et qui puisse servir de juste compensation
aux seigneurs pour les pertes qu’ils feront par l’abolition de la tenure. Nous
croyons que les seigneurs eux-Inéines sont en favour d’une semblable inesure, et
que s’ils étaient assures d’une compensation equitable, ils seraient les premiers
a demander la fin du present systeme.

14° Un bill pour régler le mode et l’époque du paiement des indemnités
pour les pertes de 1837 et 1838 dans le Bas~Canade. La justice de cette indem-
nité n’est plus oontestable, car elle a été reconnue e trop de reprises.» Il reste
maintenant a determiner le temps on se paiera cette dette et les moyens de
Pacquitter; nous ne doutons pas que, s’il y a la moindre possibilité de faire
droit a cette dette d’honneu.r, les ministres s’emp1’essent d’introduire un aete
21 cet effet.

15° Un bill pour pourvoir au paiement des réolamations oontre les anciens
districts munieipaux.

16° Un bill pour la presse. On sent do plus en plus tous les jours la néces-
sité, d’une part, de protéger la presse, de l’autre de protéger les eitoyens contre
la licence de la presse.

17° Un bill cle rnédeoine. Ce-tte rnesure est clésirée par une partie des
rnédecins; nous no savons pas au juste quelles sont leurs vues a cet égard.

18° Un bill pour réduire et fixer les salaires des employés publies. Nous
n’entrerons pas dans les details d’une pareille mesure, car You eongoit que
personne n’est plus é, meme dc eonnaitre oe qu’il y a 2‘). faire 21. cet égard que
les ministres euxqnémes; seuleinent nous dirons que tout en voulant éeonomiser
(ee que nous aimons fort), i1 ne faut non plus nous Inontrer trop pareimonieux.

243 ELGI N—G’RE’ Y PAPERS

Il faut que le travail soit recompense’ autant qu’il est ne’cessaire; de plus nous
croyons que les emplois qui eomportcnt de la responsabilité doivent étre mieux
rémunérés que d’auti-es, le travail étant égal d’ailleurs; enfin, il est eertaines
charges qui, selon nous, exigent un salaire plus élevé qu’il n’est strictement
nécessaire pour réeompenser le travail. Nous ne serions pas d’opinion, en un
met, de faire cle Yéconomie quand meme, et nous pensons qu’il est quelquefois
utile de Voir en cette matiére ee qu’exigent l’honneur et la dignité.

19° Un bill pour fixer Yindemnité a accorder a ehaque membre de la
ohambre d’asseznblée. Cette mesure est domandée depuis trop longtemps pour
ne pas s’en oocupei‘ durant la session qui approclie. D’ail.leurs, au, dire de bien
des gens, s’il y a de l’éoonomie a faire quelque part, c’est en cette matiére.
Nous n’entrerons pas dans les details pour cette fois, sauf a y revenir en temps
et lieu.

20° Une adresse 5. la reine pour obtenir que le salaire du gouverneur-
général du Canada soit a la charge du trésor impérial. Plusieurs des premiers
hommes d’Etat anglais se sont déja prononcés en faveur de la justice d’une
pareille mesure, et il faut espérer qu’il sera fait quelque chose :3. cet efiet; car il
nous semble qu’il n’est que juste que le gouverneur soit payé por [sic] l’Angle-
terre. Le peuple du Canada n’aucun [sic] contrcle sur le gouverneur, qui lui-
méme n’a aucune responsabilité a Pégard du peuple de ce pays. Toute la
responsabilité du gouvenieur est envers l’Angleterre, o’est done a elle a
le payer; d’ailleurs, c’est elle qui le nomme, et qui nomme doit payer.
S’il n’en était pas ainsi, une des premieres mesures a passer serait celle de la
reduction du salaire du gouverneur; car pour le Canada il est un peu fort de
donner a ses gouverneurs la somme assez ronde do $30,000, tandis que nos riches
voisins les Américains, qui connaissent assez bien la valeur de Pargent, ne
donnent £3. leur president que la somme do $25,000. Si l’on proportionnait le
salaire au nombre d’habitants, les Etats-Unis ayant 20,500,000 habitants et le
Canada 1,500,000, le salaire du gouverneur du Canada ne s’él‘everait pas a plus
de $1,825. Mais, comme d’apres ee que nous avons dit plus haut, il faut con-
sulter un peu l’honneur et la dignité, nous pensons que personne ne trouverait a
1-edire a un salaire de moitié moindre que le salaire actuel; néanmoins, avant d’en
venir la, il vaudrait rnieux tenter de le faire payer en entier par le trésor im-
périal.

21° Une adresse a la reine au sujet du rappel des lois de la navigation.
Cette adresse du parlement du Canada devrait étre d’un grand poids en Angle-
terre, et peut~étre hater la passation d’un aete a cet égard.

[Duplicate MS copy]
0.0
Nov‘ 10/48
MY DEAR ELGIN
I shall only write you a few lines to day as I find on my return to Town

(2 days ago) so much to do that I have not time for more, but I will not let
this mail go without saying that‘I sh“ be very glad to know more fully your

ELGIN—GRE Y PAPERS 249

opinion upon the subject just mentioned in your last letter of the practicability
of making an arrangement for reducing our Military expenditure in Canada &
in return taking upon this Country the salary of the Governor. Of couise this
principle 0“ not be adopted in Canada without being acted upon more generally,
but for many reasons I am of opinion that it W“ be right——
Indeed it is curious enough that before Peel stated his opinion to this effect last
Session I had already expressed it (wh. I have no reason to believe him to have
been aware of) in giving evidence before the Comm“ on Miscellaneous Estimates
»— With regard to the Salaries of Governors the reasons for charging them upon
the British Revenue are so obvious that I need not dwoll upon them, the great
question is can We safely meet this expense by reducing colonial Military
Expenditure? My own opinion is that we might, & that this is to ‘be effected by
laying down the rule that Colonial Barracks & fortifications, except as regards
some particular fortresses of importance to the Empire rather than to the
individual Colony, are to be paid for by the Colonies themselves, & also that
the Troops we keep up are to be confined to these great Garrisons & to what
are requisite for repelling any probable attack from some great civilized power,
what are wanted for the maintenance of internal tranquillity & the protection
of the lives & properties of the Colonists to be provided by themselves —— This
rule with regard to Barracks & fortifications W“ be a very important one——
The expense incurred in the Colonies under this Kind since the peace exceeds 4.
Millions & has been probably increasing till of late Years it has exceeded £300,000
a Year. In old times as you are aware these expenses were entirely defrayed
by the Colonies. The American Provinces now the U. States had wonderfully
little help from the Mother Country in all their wars with the Indians & even
with the French & Dutch — To this day the fortifications of Jamaica have
not been transferred to the Ordnance ‘but remain under the charge of the Colonial
Authorities — The service is I believe thoroughly ill performed by the Ordnance
& the only check wh. seems to me likely to be efiective on the waste of money
wh. has been going on is to place the management in the hands of the local
authorities leaving them also to provide for the expense — In Belgium it is the
practice to make the Towns where the Troops are Quartered provide Barracks
for them & they are very glad tm do so in consideration of the advantage wh.
they derive from the Military expenditure & the presence of the Troops. In
the same manner I think that we might call upon the Colonies to provide Bar~
racks for the Troops as the condition of our furnishing them.— Of course there
must be exceptions to this rule — In important fortresses the Barracks Must
continue to belong tm the Ordnance as well as the works of defence as they
are so much connected together, but I think the number of fortresses wh. sh“
be considered “ Imperial” might be very greatly reduccd—~ In Canada I Wd
confine them to Quebec & to Kingston harbour to secure the communication
with the sea & a hold upon the Lakes -»— In the other N. American provinces
I am aware of no other position except Halifax of wh. we need undertake the
maintenance——

I have writen this very hastily & it is a subject on wh. if I had had time
I e” have said a great deal but perhaps what I have said is enough to enable
You generally to understand my views & I sh“ be very much obliged to you if

250 ELGI N»-G1x3E Y PAPERS

you will consider the subject & let me have your opinion fully upon it as soon

as you can for the time for preparing the Estimates is now -at hand & we must
if we are to do anything towards the change of policy this Year come to a very
early decision upon it. You will of course understand that if the charge I
propose were tm be thrown upon the Colonies the existing Barracks sh“ be
given up to them — In Canada you hint at a. reduction of force as being also
practicable —- It W“ be of Great importance tm us to effect this, as you Must
be sufficiently aware from the tone of last Sessions debates how urgent is the
need of a reduction of expenditure, & unless Military & Naval Establishments
can be diminished this is impossible V
(signed) GREY
[Endorsed]
Nov’ 10/48
Lord Grey to Lord Elgin

[Original MS]
Prziizate

MONTREAL Oct 19-—-1848
MY DEAR GREY,

The Packet with your letters of the 30″’ Sept’ has reached New York but
our mail has not yet arrived—— I need hardly therefore trouble you with a letter.~—~
I write however one line to say that I think it probable our Par‘ will not meet
till January— Meanwhile my Ministers are getting their measures ready — I
am frequently asked whether I have rccieved any communication on the subject
of the Post oflEice.~— It is very desirable that we should be able to settle this
matter next Session as the public mind is excited about it— I trust also that I
shall succeed in getting our tariff modified and its more objectionable features
expunged.

M‘ Merrit my new Councillor informs me that he is preparing a written
statement of his plans for encreasing the prosperity of the Colony, which he will
place in my hands in a few days. He is considered sanguine speculative and
not very safe~—— but on the other hand he is unquestionably a man of large
views and it is of great importance to kindle hope in the Public mind, for there
is among the mercantile classes more especially much sullen discontent I fear
at present.

Very truly Your’s
ELGIN do KINCARDINE
The
EARL GREY
[Endorsed]
Oct. 19/48
Lord Elgin
Rec‘ Nov‘ 12

E’LG’IN~GREY PAPERS 251

[Original MS]
I”rivate

MONTREAL—00l5. 25 1848
MY Dam Gnnv,

I can well understand that you require rest after your toils. As respémts
this quarter there is nothing I think at the moment to give you much anxiety or
trouble although in the unsettled state of the World it will not do to slumber
at any post——more particularly in the immediate vicinity of a territory which
may be Cass’s within a Fortnight.

I am not surprised at what you say in your letter of the 27”‘ Sep‘ respecting
the unwillingness of British Statesman and the H. of C. to make efforts and
sacrifices for the preservation of the Colonies‘ I ventured some time ago to
liken myself to the Captain of a vessel who navigates under a shrewd impression
that the owners are thinking more of the proceeds of the Policy of insurance
than of the safety of the ship.1 I do not think the illustration a very faulty one
although it had no reference to your own sentiments or those of the Gov’-—-.

We shall see what my speculative Minister M‘ Merrit will bring forth. Our
greatest present danger arises from the impossibility of getting money on any
terms and the consequent paralysis of all trading operations. Your English
Capitalists who are buying up large portions of the United States Loan will not
look at our Provincial Securities—- Private credit is equally iow—- It begins,
I fear, to ‘bc whispered in many quarters——- “ so far from our deriving any
advantage from being Colonists, England would trust us much more readily
if we were to cast her off for ever!”

Yrs very sincerely
ELGIN & KINCARDINE
The

EARL GREY

[Endorsed]
Oet—25/48
L“ Elgin
Rec“ Nov‘ 14

[Duplicate MS copy]
Private
Belgrave Square
Nov’ 16/48

MY DEILR ELGIN

I have received within two days of each other your letters of the 19”‘ &
25”‘ of Oct”—~—I shall send you by tomorrows mail a Despatch2 wh. is of some
importance with reference to your observations on the stagnation of trade &

1 See above p. 141.
“Printed below, Appendiw X.

252 ELG’IN—GREY PAPERS’

want of credit in Canada & to the effects wh. these are producing on mens
Minds in the Colonies.—I refer to the Despateh in wh. I have transmitted tm
you copies of Major Robinson’s report on the Quebec & Halifax rai1way.1 I
think this report a very able one, & in spite of the discouraging opinion of your
late prudent & matter of fact minister M’ Sullivan,2 I confess I am greatly bit
with the plan, & have a very strong desire to carry it into efYect——Nor do I
quite despair of being able to do so, if the Colonies come forward handsomely,
because tho’ the economical fever is very strong upon John Bull at this moment,
the desire to promote emigration is also a reigning fancy of the day, & as nothing
certainly Wd do near so much to promote emigration as undertaking this rail-
way I think we might carry a plan for this wh. did not promise to throw a very
heavy charge upon the country.
You will see that in my Despatch I have suggested dilferent modes of carrying
the scheme into execution but have carefully avoided giving an opinion in
favour of any one of them or of doing anything at all. I was obliged to observe
this caution because as yet I have had no opportunity of consulting any of my
colleagues on the subject, nor do I know how our ways and means may be for
meeting any considerable charge, but in writing privately to you I need not be
so much afraid of committing myself & I have therefore no hesitation in saying
that I think if the project is to go on at all by far the best measure Wd be to
raise the whole sum of 5 millions in this country by the creation of stock &
then have the work executed by contract.—— It c“ not I suppose be less than
5 Years in progress, or say even it c“ be done in 3, this wd only make it necessary
to raise in each Year about £1.700.000 no very formidable amount on our stock
exchange. I presume the money Wd be easily got at somewhat less than 3+} per
cent, creating for the whole loan an annual charge to be divided between the
Colonies & the Mother County of about £185.000 even supposing that the traffic
did nothing more than pay itself —« Now this is a charge wh. I think there
ought to be little difliculty in providing for, & wh. it W“ be well worth While
incurring for the great political objects wh. W” be gained (in addition tm the
commercial ones) by such a work. There is one source from wh. I believe the
whole money might be got at once without being felt as the slightest burthen
anywhere. You are aware that the timber duties are the last remaining duties
of any importance wh. are of a highly protective character. The duty ‘on B“ N.
American Timber is a nominal one while that upon Baltic timber is still if I
remember right as much as 15/ a load. Now if the former duty were raised to
the same amount as the latter, I believe there can be no doubt that it w“ yield
more than the whole required amount of revenue, but I hope to have tomorrow
more accurate information on this subject wh. I will send you. If I am right in
my calculations it seems to me that there is no source from wh. the interest of
the proposed loan ed be so well provided —— In this Country the tax certainly wfl
not be felt & my firm conviction is that N. Brunswick & Canada wd rather gain
than lose by getting rid of the protection. The evidence upon this point of
Major Robinson’s report is most curious, you will see that he describes the
Province of N. Brunswick with capabilities of the very highest order as an agri-
1’I’his report is dated 31 August, 1848, and was presented to both Houses of Parliament,

February, 1849. Sac, Parliamentary Papers [1031] (1849, vol. XXXV).
2See below, A.p[)(3ndiz XIII.

ELGI N -GREY PAPERS 253

cultural country, actually unable to feed her own population because her industry
has been to so great an extent artificially misdirected towards the timber trade,
wh. like every other protected trade is liable to such reverses as that wh. it is now
suffering from the great check to railway works in this Country wh. has reduced
so much the demand for sleepers & indeed for timber of all kinds. The same
argument applies tho’ with less force to Canada. I believe that both Provinces
W” at this moment be infinitely richer than they are, if for the last 20 Years their
timber had had no advantage in our market, & less of their capital & industry
had consequently been diverted from the improvement of the soil -—- I do not
however expect the Colonists to believe (nor do I think you sh“ tell them) that
they Wd be gainers by the simple abolition of the protection they now have for
their timber, but what I do think might be cautiously suggested to some of their
leaders, is that this wd be a very cheap price to pay for a work of such infinite
importance to them as the projected railway. It might be pointed out to them
that this last relic of an abandoned system is not likely at any rate to be long pre-
served, & that it W“ be very good policy for them to come forward themselves & at
once propose that it sh“ be given up as the mode of providing for the interest
of the debt to be created by the construction of the railway. One great advan-
tage of such a mode of raising the income required wd be that it w“ obviate any
necessity for apportioning the charge between the Mother County & the 3 Prov-
inces a division it w‘‘ be very diflieult to eficct without dispute. In this Country
it W“ also be felt that this was a much safer way of ensuring the contribution of
the colonies than trusting to their paying annually any fixed sum from their
revenue. Such are some of the reasons in favor of this proposal, if I had time
I ed enumerate many more but they will no doubt occur to yoursclf.~— But
advantageous as I believe this measure wd be, it is one wh. ed not I think be pro-
posed with the slightest chance of success, unless by the Colonies themselves.—
The question is therefore whether the Colonies c“ be prevailed upon to suggest it?
this is a question for your consideration & that of Sir E. Head. -~ Should this
idea be found to be incapable of being acted upon, I do not think the Colonies
ought to provide a less amount towards the annual charge than 1/3“ of the whole,
I mean that this slid be provided among them & that it sh“ be 1/3“ of the charge
after deducting any profits arising from the traf:fic.— I further attach great
importance to the proposal I have thrown out in my Despateh that the hitherto
ungranted lands in all the provinces within a certain distance of the line (say
10 miles) sh“ be invested in the hands of Comm“ to be made use of towards
promoting the object in view. I believe that the sale of these lands if judiciously
managed Wd go some way towards extinguishing the debt incurred for the Rail~
Way & Wd at the same time be of great use in promoting Emigration.—The pros-
pect of this wd command the support of a very large number of the members of
the H. of Commons including most of the Irish—If this Notion sh“ be adopted
I W‘ suggest that the Comm“ to whom these lands sh“ be assigned in trust sh“
be one member of the Executive Council of each of the 3 Provinces & the two
Engineer Oificers Major Robinson & Capt“ Henderson who have conducted the
Sluyeys. Very large powers sh“ be given to them as Comm“ not only for the
management of the lands thus granted but for making all the arrangements for
the construction of the railway——~ You will perceive that all I have said is merely

254 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS

intended as throwing out suggestions who I think might be made to your Execu-
tive Council, but of course only as from yourself, & if it sh“ appear to you that
they wd be favourably received by your advisers & by the Assemblyw I shall
send privately an extract from this letter to Sir E. Head with Whom & with Sir
J. Harvey you will probably communicate upon this subject —-

I have infiicted upon you so long 9. letter on this Subject that I will not enter

upon any other —

(Signcd) GREY.

Earl of Enenv & KINCARDINE

I find that the reports you sent home about the Post Ofiicol was referred
tm the Treasury on the 22“ of July & that no answer has yet been received here-
I have sent to remind them & to urge a speedy decision——

I send you two Copies of -a pamphlet? in answer to Molesworth wh. is worth

looking at —«

[Endorsed]
Nov’ 16/48
Lord Grey to Lord Elgin.

[Duplicate MS copy]
Private
0.0.
Nov. 24/48

MY Dam ELGIN.

In continuation of my letter by the last rnailil now write to say that I have
ascertained by enquiry that a duty of 73/6 imposed upon Colonial timber w“
more than suflice to provide for the interest of the loan wh. it w“ be necessary to
raise if we sh“ determine to construct the Quebec & Halifax Rai1way.—The
further consideration I have given to the subject since I last wrote to you has
confirmed my opinion that we ought to undertake this Work, & that we might
with advantage combine with it the expenditure of another million (making it
6 millions in all) on the settlement of emigrants on the line— I am also satisfied
that the imposition of the duty I have mentioned W‘! be by far the best mode we
od adopt of providing for the interest of the loan, it Wd be the only one free from
the great objections I see to calling upon the Provincial Legislatures to provide
for an annual payment to the Bsh. ’I\-casury. By adopting this plan we sh“ be
enabled to avoid calling upon the Provinces to contribute anything but the land
wh. W“ be wanted.—— This last I think We sh“ be bound to ask for— The hitherto
ungrantcd lands traversed by the railway shfl as I have already proposed be placed
in the hands of Comm“, but if the Home Gov“ provides the whole of the money
wanted for the railway, it sh“ in return have the proceeds of the land for a sink-

1See above 12. 250. This report was transmitted in a despateh of 19 Nov., 1847 (G. .661, p.

170)
-‘3This pamphlet is not in the collection.

ELGIN—G’REY PAPERS 255

ing fund & to promote Emigration, & the Comm” to be named shd therefore be
selected by the Home Gov“ & represent its interests, instead of being as I before
proposed members of the Provincial administrationslw The lands already
granted wh. are wanted for the Railway each Province sh“ take upon itself to
buy; this I consider of great importance because experience at home convinces
me that if this Land had to be purchased by Comm“ representing the Imperial
Gov“ the prices wh. W“ have to be paid W“ be excessive. It occurs tm me that
my proposal in my oflicial Despatch to impose a rate upon granted lands traversed
by the railway might with advantage be adopted for the purpose of paying for
land requiring to be purchased & for this only. This W“ make each township or
other district, merely give the land wanted for the railway, & the individual
proprietors who w<‘ have to give up what belongs to them w“ no doubt sell on much better terms when the payment was to come from their own district than if it were tm be drawn from the British or even the Colonial Treasury. I enclose a paper I have had prepared for me at the B5 of Trade? wh. will show‘ how little a duty of 7/6 a load wd. be likely to affect the demand in this country for Colonial timber—- You will observe how singular it is that the variations in the amount of protecting duty on Colonial timber sh“ have produced so little effect on the proportion of it consumed, & that the per centage of the whole importation of timber into this Country wh. has come from the Colonies has continued so nearly the same. The explanation I believe to be that Colonial timber is far better than Baltic for certain purposes & especially for internal fittings in houses & for packing cases. If the duty I have mentioned were imposed I learn that it W“ only be from 10 to 13 per cent on its selling price, whereas Baltic timber pays a duty equal to from 24 to 27 per cent. I am persuaded that this duty W“ not be in the slightest degree felt by the Colonies, & that they W“ make an excel- lent bargain if in consideration of the partial surrender of a protection wh. it is irrational to suppose that they can long keep they can obtain the great advantage of the construction of the railway by Bsh. Capital. I have sent tm Sir E. Head extracts from my letters to you to explain to him my views, but I have not sufliicient confidence in the discretion of Sir J. Harvey to venture to do so, if therefore you sh“ find that such a plan as I have proposed W“ be Well rec“ in Canada it W“ be advisable that you sh“ Suggest it to him, as from yourself; it is of great importance that we sh“ be able to determine our course before Parl‘ meets so that if as I hope we sh“ bring forward the measure we may be able to do so at the very beginning of the Session— (Signed) GREY. TEE EARL or Enem. 3-See above 1). 262. 2This document is not in the collection. 256 ELGI N—GRE Y PAPERS [Original MS] Private M0NrRuAL———Nov———16. 1848. My DEAR GREY, I am very desirous to obtain for you such a report on Immigration or Colonisation as you wish for, having the sanction of the Executive Gov” of Canada, (for private opinions of mine on the subject without such sanction would not, I fear, answer your purpose) but it is not so easy as you may suppose, to comply with this requirement. My new President of the Council, MW Mer- ritt, differs, as I gave you to believe he would, materially from M’ Sullivan on these matters. In some respects his views are much more conformable to your’s than Sullivan’s are. He is averse to all gratuitous alienations of land, and w“ desire by pushing improvements, and rendering the Public Lands & Canals pro- ductive, to atchieve the result of paying off the Public debt, charging upon the revenue derived from these sources the whole expenses of the civil Gov‘,, and doing away with Import Duties altogether. Unquestionably if this end were attained it would be a great thing for England—— All the more important if America reirnposes, as she threatens to do, her Protective Tariff—- But situated as we are, Without either money or credit, Public or Private, it is exceedingly difficult to move a step in the right direction. I do not think that you are blind to the hardships which Canada is now enduring, but I must own I doubt much whether you fully appreciate their magnitude, or are aware of how directly they are chargeable on Imperial legislation. Stanley’s Bill of 1843 attracted all the Produce of the West to the S” Lawrence, and fixed all the disposable capital of the Province in Grinding mills, Warehouses, and forwarding establishments-— Peel’s Bill of 1846. drives the whole of this Produce down the New York channels of communication, destroying the Revenue which Canada expected to derive from Canal dues, & ruining at once Mill owners, Forwarders, & Merchants. The consequence is that Private Property is unsaleable in Canada, and not a shilling can be raised on the credit of the Province. We are actually reduced to the dis- agreeable necessity of paying all Public officers, from the Gov‘ Gen‘ downwards, in debentures, which are not exchangeable at par. What makes it more serious is that all the prosperity of which Canada is thus robbed is transplanted to the other side of the lines as if to make Canadians feel more bitterly how much kinder England is to the children who desert her than to those who remain faith- ful. For I care not whether you be a Protectionist or a Free Trader, it is the inconsistency of Imperial legislation, and not the adoption of one Policy rather than another, which is the bane of the Colonies. I believe that the conviction that they would be better off. if they were annexed is almost universal among the commercial classes at present; and the peaceful condition of the Province under all the circumstances of the time is I must confess often a matter of great astonishment to mysclf.. I do not say all this in a tone of reproach but that you may understand how we are situated. and how necessary it is for me to be cautious lest I irritate sores which can only be healed by patience—— I am very much afraid of urging my Advisers to commit themselves to great schemes on ,_ ‘___‘____‘ W_ .3: ELGI N -GREY PAPERS 257 Emigration or other subjects of this class lest they should include conditions to which the Imperial Gov‘ would not accede and become thus an additional cause of dissention—— I have requested Merritt to put his plans in such a shape that they can be submitted to you in order that we may see whether we can reduce them to dimensions in which they may be made really conducive to the interests of Canada and of the Empire at large. It is a curious proof of the dissatisfaction (not political but commercial) which now exists in Canada that although Merritt has been hitherto looked upon rather as a speculator and visionary his appoint- ment to office was hailed by all parties—All appearing to concur in the opinion that something must be done——~that it was better to make a rash move in advance than to stand still. This is a state of the Public mind in which you will at once percieve that much circumspection may be necessary on my part-— I am very anxious about the Post o€fice—having twice in my speeches from the throne informed the legislature that the matter was to be arranged to ‘their satisfaction it is of great importance that I should be able in January next to apprize them that I have kept my promise. I find by a letter which I have reeieved from Sir E. Head that there has been some delay in communicating with you from New Brunswick——- But as I believe they adopt our views on the subject without qualification I trust that you will be able to furnish me with your decision upon the proposal we have sent home before the Legislature meets—- I hear every now & then of emissaries from the New York Irish con- federates, and I have reason to believe that gentry of this class are dropping in among us occasionallymbut I hardly think they can have anything very serious in hand at present.—Yours very sincerely ELGIN & KINCARDINE I shall write in my next concerning the C’.Bs [Endorsed] Nov’ 16/48 Lord Elgin [Duplicate MS copy] Private 0.0. Dec‘ 1/48 MY Drum ELGIN There has been no meeting of the Cabinet, but since I last Wrote to you I have had an opportunity of consulting several of my Colleagues who are in Town on the subject of the Quebec Railway. We have all agreed as to the great importance of the object to be gained by undertaking such a work, but at the same time we feel that in the present state of our finances (wh-~ I am sorry tm say is far from improving, the revenue for the current quarter being exceedingly unsatisfactory) there will be very great difliculty in obtaining the assent of Pearl‘ to any proposal for charging this Country with any additional buithen whatever D33’l—l7 258 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS for the sake of executing a great public work on the other side of the Atlantic—— You know that the ultra economists do not conceal their wish to get rid of the Colonies altogether rather than continue to incur any expense for them, & there will not be wanting many persons to contend that if we are to promote the con- struction of any Railways by assistance from the public purse our first object sh“ be to complete the great Irish lines.—« It will require therefore much further deliberation before we can resolve on bringing forward such a proposal as I have described to you in my last letters, even if the Provincial Legislatures sh“ be ready to come forward & express their willingness to assent to the imposition of the increased duty upon Colonial Timber, but without such a declaration from them it is Quite clear we e“ not suggest it to Parlm‘—- I am therefore most anxious tm know as soon as possible what is the view wh. is taken of this subject in Canada?— As your Perl’ does not meet till January there Wd not be time for us to receive any account of its proceedings on this subject before we deter- mine upon the measures we must propose at the commencement of our own Session, but I do not anticipate any difficulty on the part of the Cabinet in accept~ ing resolutions of your Executive Council as to what they w“ be prepared to pro~ pose to the Provincial Legislature as expressing the opinions of that body;—~ considering the confidence wh. the Assembly has shown in your present advisers I think we might safely do this— What I regard then as indispensable to enable us to bring forward any plan for promoting the construction of the railway is that you sh” be able in an official Despatch to transmit to me resolutions of your Executive Council declaring their opinion that it W‘ be for the benefit of the Province to consent to the imposition of a duty of 7/6 a load on Canadian timber with the View of providing the means of executing the projected railway, & also pledging themselves to propose & support to the utmost in their power in the Provincial Legislatures measures for placing at the disposal of the Home Gov‘ in the event of its undertaking the work, the land required for its construction, & also the still ungranted lands of the Crown of wh. the value will be raised by the construction of the Railway. I sh“ not object tm this being accompanied by a condition that an account sh“ be kept by the Comm” of the Railway of the ex- penditure upon it & of the receipts, & that whenever the debt incurred sh“ have been discharged by these receipts whether from the sale of Land or from the traf- fic the lands still undisposed of sh“ revert to the Provinces & the Railway sh“ be considered as the property of the three Provinces jointly. I am far from being able to undertake (this I repeat for it is very essential there sh“ be no mistake on that head) that even if the Province sh“ be ready to assent to these terms, the Cabinet W“ determine upon recommending the measure to Parliwbut I think there is such a reasonable prospect of our doing so as to justify your explaining the plan in strict confidence to your Council as one whv— we have had under consideration & on wh. we are anxious to have their opinion. You may therefore if you think it advisable communicate to them the information respecting the probable operation of an alteration of the Timber duties contained in the enclosure in my last letter, but you must take care that what has occurred to me must be made Known to them in the strictest confidence; & only for the purpose of assist- ing their Judgment, & that in any resolutions they may come to & wh. you may transmit to me oiiicially no allusion must be made to my suggestions, as it is I, l ,.,_____,.._._.‘—.v ELGIN-GREY PAPERS 259 absolutely necessary that We sh“ reserve to ourselves the most complete liberty to decline submitting any proposal to Parl‘ if circcs [sic] before the opening of the Session sh“ render that course in our opinion advisab1e— I must add that it W“ very much indeed tend to facilitate our coming to a determination favorable ‘cm the plan if you c“ in recommend“ it to us also propose on behalf of the Prov- ince some reduction of the charges we now incur there, & particularly the Military expenditure- There is one portion of the latter Wh-—— if the Province were to take upon itself it W“ I think be of great advantage to us—— I allude to the Barracks & fortificationsw I am convinced that a distant authority like the B“ of Ordnance cannot possibly manage a service of this kind with economy, & that much money might be saved by a transfer tm the Provincial Gov” of the property in the existing Barracks & of the duty of providing both accommodation for the Troops & such Works of defence as it may consider nccessary— In making such an arrangement I sh“ propose to except the Citadel of Quebec & the works at King- ston; the one as securing the navigation of the S‘ Lawrence, the other as main- taining a hold on the lakes, these I think that the Home Gov“ might reasonably be called upon to keep up but it Wd effect a considerable saving if all the other Barracks & works were made over to the Province it being responsible for pro- viding proper aocommodation for the Troops as the condition of our maintaining a Garrison— It wd be a still more immediate & direct economy if you c“ at the same time propose a reduction of our force in N. America & a concentration of that wh. we maintain there in the 3 or 4 places of most importance in the Prov- inces— Now that they have so completely all the advantages of self Gov‘ they ought to have some of its burthens, & while we maintain a regular force sufficient to defend the Provincial Capitals & principal fortresses & to support any local force in the event of War or disturbance, the Colonists ought maintain [sic] for themselves the troops Wanted in ordinary times to preserve the tranquillity of the Country— I conceive that the success of the measures to wh. I have now adverted might be greatly promoted by the settlement of Military Labourers along the line of the projected railway but I must put off tm another opportunity Writing tm you upon -this part of the subject- I think I see the means of sur- mounting the difficulties pointed out by M‘ Sullivan serious as they are1—— (signed) GREY Tun EARL or ELGIN & KINCARDINE [Endorsed] Dec‘ 1/48 L“ Grey to L“ Elgin ‘See below, Appendia: XIII. 0331-17; 260 ELGI N —GRE’Y PAPERS [Original MS] Private MoN’ranAL——Nov’ 22. 1848 Mr Dnm Gear, I send you herewith a newspaper containing an article on British N. American Politics taken from the North American Review1 which is considered I believe the most respectable of United States Periodieals—It is interesting as showing what a certain class of the more enlightened and moderate of our neighbours think of our prospects. The reviewer asserts broadly enough that a tithe of the concessions which have been granted to Canada would have secured the perpetual allegiance of the older Colonies and yet he seems to argue that these concessions lead in our case infallibly to separation. This may however be less paradoxical than on the first blush it appears to be-—for the situation of our present Colonies with the swaggering prosperous communities founded by their rebellious elder brethren along side of them is so different from that of the original thirteen who grumbled & quarrclled at a time when seperation from the Mother Country was a result which the boldest and bitterest hardly ventured to dream of, that it may not be altogether unreasonable to anticipate that similar causes may be attended in the two cases by very opposite , consequences.——As 9. commentary on the review I send an article from the Pilot 8. sort of ministerial organ on the subject of the Usury Lawsal dare you [sic] will think the theory of Responsible Gov‘ therein propounded extravagant enough, but the fact is there is nothing which makes the Colonial Statesman so jealous as rescripts from the Colonial oifice suggested by the representations of Provincial cliques or Interests who ought as they contend to bow before the authorities of Gov‘ House Montreal, rather than those of Downing Street Nevertheless though I admit the hazards and difficulties [of our position I do not think the issue so certain as the Reviewer pretends to believe it to be—- If the Governor acts with prudence and is properly supported at home, I do not think it so impossible for him to reconcile his duties to the Colonists and to the Metropolitan Gov‘ While on this subject I may observe that the opposition Press here are now laboring to prove that I have entirely forfeited your Lordship’s confidence, and that my recall will shortly be announced. I annex a paragraph with a statement to this efi‘ect. I am greatly perplexed about the C.B.’s, I do not like to recommend Sullivan & Draper to you without the Chief Justice who stands perhaps higher than either though the Representive [sic] of the Family Compact.——and then again I do not like to recommend three Upper Canada Judges particularly when I have no name to suggest from Lower Canada. If Valliéres whom I found here in the situation of Chief Justice were still alive it would be easy to manage it for the French Canadians were very proud of him, but except Papineau & La Fontaine there are no marquant men among them now»- 1This article is not in the collection. _.._ …..- “..\ …____ ‘ ‘ ” ‘ a»‘‘—>v%~,._

ELGI N~GRE Y PAPERS 261

The mail with your Despatches to the end of October has just arrived but
I do not think that there is anything particular for me to notice——I am

Very sincerely Yours

ELGIN & KINCARDINE
The
EARL GREY

[Endorsed]
Nov” 22/48
L“ Elgin

[Enclosures]

No. 1
THE PILOT

Tunsnsv Moxuvme, Novnruenr. 21.

The last Kingston Chronicle and News contains some interesting information
on the subject of the Usury Laws. The Loan and Trust Co., incorporated some
years ago, is, of course, much interested in obtaining the repeal of this antiquated
law; and it is only to be regretted that they have evinced such utter stupidity
in their proceedings. The Chronicle publishes a letter from Mr. Hawes, Under
Secretary of State for the Colonies, to a Mr. Auldjo, informing him that Earl
Grey has directed the Governor General of Canada to recommend to Parliament
the Repeal of the Usury Laws. Mr. Hawes shews by his letter how little he is
fitted for his responsible position. Both Earl Grey and Mr. I-Iawes have, on
several occasions, announced most distinctly their adherence to the system of
Responsible Government in Canada, and nothing can be more obvious than
that it is wholly inconsistent with that system to address such letters to persons
like Mr. Auldjo. The C’h7-om’cle and News ought to know, though from his
editorial remarks he appears not to know, that this question cannot be submitted
to Parliament, as a Ministerial measure, unless the Administration recommend
it. Holding, as We do, a very strong opinion in favour of the total repeal, or at
least the modification, of the Usury Laws, we have noticed with regret, not
unrningled with disgust, the course taken by the Loan and Trust Co. and their
friends. Instead of attempting to produce an influence on public opinion in
Canada, where discussion is so necessary and where the facts, which the
Chronicle does not publish, might produce the desired impression, the Loan
and Trust people keep boring Lord Grey and Mr. Hawes, who have no influence
whatever in the matter, and who have their opinions quite formed already.
All this, we repeat, efinces very great stupidity on the part of Mr. Auldjo and
his friends; and Mr. Hawes evinces very little knowledge of his duty in not
pointing out at once to these gentlemen What they ought to do.

Our impression is, that there is very little probability that the Governor
General will be advised to recommend any measure to Parliament regarding the

262 ELGIN~GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

Usury Laws, because it is hardly probable that the present Cabinet will be more
unanimous than the last on the subject. It so happens that gentlemen who agree
on most other political questions, are at variance on that of the Usury Laws.
Mr. Sherwood could not induce Mr. Cameron or Mr. Morris to make the
modification of the Usury Laws a Cabinet question; and it is pretty well known
that Mr. Baldwin has so strong an opinion against any change in this law that
there can be little hope of its being made a Cabinet question in any Ministry
of which he forms a part. On the other hand, it is well known that the
Inspector General is in favour of the total abolition of the Usury Laws; and as
other members of the Administration entertain the same Views, or at least are
prepared to move forward to a certain extent, We have no doubt that a measure
will be introduced, and we are not without hope that it will be carried. But we
must say that nothing is more calculated to injure the cause than the slightest
appearance of Downing—strcet dictation, which has been evoked by the foolish
appeals of Mr. Auldjo, who is one of that class of Tories who have learned
nothing and forgotten nothing. And We are often inclined to think that however
liberally the Secretaries of State may speak in Parliament on Colonial matters,
they often forget, when writing their despatehes, that measures can no longer
be submitted to the Canadian Parliament at their dictation.

MONTREAL Gnznrrn, Nov. 22, 1848.
No. 2.

We find the following in the correspondence of the Quebec Mercury. We
have some reason to think that the Writer is well informed:——

MONTREAL, Nov. 17, 1848.

‘Pay no attention to the assertions made by the Pilot, and papers of
that political stamp that Lord Elgin is not going home. ~‘I have the very
best authority, not from any one in Canada, but from a gentleman in
London, well informed of all that is going on in the Colonial Oflice, for
saying that Lord Elgin and the Colonial Secretary do not set their horses
at all Well together, and that the Home Government is by no means satisfied
with the present aspect of aflairs in this country. It is true that Lord
Elgin and the people about him strenuously deny the truth of these state-
ments, but I shall never have been more mistaken in my life, if they do
not turn out to be true.’

[Duplicate MS copy]
Private Wonunn Annnr V

Dec‘ 15/48
My Dnnn Emnv

I have rec“ to day your letter of the 22“ of Nov’, this & your letter by
the last mail certainly prove that there is much ground for anxiety in the

‘, ..

ELGIN-GREY PAPERS 263

present state of affairs & of opinion in our N. American Provinces, but it is
consolatory to think that whatever may be the result the policy We have
pursued is that wh. affords the best chance of Maintaining the connection
between them & this Country—— It is amusing enough that the Newspapers in
the Colony sh“ gravely inform their readers that we cannot get on together &
that you are to be recalled— No wonder however that the Provincial Papers
sir‘ venture upon such lies when the Morning Chronicle here under the guidance
of Lincoln is equally regardless of truth.——

By the next mail I hope to hear from you what you think of my project about
the railway & the timber duties, the more I consider the subject the more desir-
ous I am that it sh“ be adopted, but it is not the less clear that it cannot be
so unless the proposition for a modification of the protecting duty on timber
sh“ come from the Colonies— If this had been doubtful before, your last letter
& your account of the effect upon Colonial interests & upon opinion of our
changes of commercial policy in the article of corn W‘ be quite conclusive against
trying any more experiments upon the patience of the Colonists in such mat-
ters——

Our Parl‘ is to meet on the 1”‘ of Feb? & one of our first measures I hope the
first will be the repeal of the Navigation Laws it W“ I think be of use to us in
the battle we shall have on this subject, if you W“ send as before another good
strong Despatch upon it, nor W‘ there be any harm in a joint address to the
Queen or petition to Perl“ from the two houses of Your Legislature

(Signed) GREY
[Endorsed]
Dec’ 15/48
L“ Grey to L“ Elgin

[Original MS]

Private
MoN’rnEAL——Nov[‘l 30, 1848.
MY DEAR GREY,

While so much that is malignant and unjust is propounded by interested
parties with respect to Colonial affairs, which being out of sight are the most
convenient topics for calumny to fix on, it may not perhaps be amiss to invite
you to bestow a moment’s glance on Canada.—~ to contrast what is with what
might have been here: and to observe how far the satisfactory position of our
relations with the Mother Country, and the absence of disturbance and political
excitement among us, is distinctly traceable to the mode in which under instruc-
tions from you the Imperial authority deposited in the hands of the local Gov‘
has been administered.— Now I certainly possess in a greater degree than any
one else can possibly have them, the means of presenting these matters in their
true light— for, for two years, I have been in constant communication with
the leading men of the Province—- poring over the multituclinous records of

264 E’LGIN—GREY PAPERS

opinion which the local Press supplies- and with my hand on the popular pulse
diligently noting its every beat.—— And although I may not be regarded as
altogether an indififerent Judge, because of course I am interested in the verdict
to be rendered if the wisdom of our local administration be called in question,
still I think I can almost undertake to promise that I will oifer you a perfectly
impartial opinion,—for, in the first place, amid the general wreck of systems
and policies I take a great interest, apart from all personal feeling, in watching
the results of the experiment which we are making here— and in the second
because our system deserves credit, if any, on the score of its having prevented
very great & formidable evils; whereas, it is not in the prevention of the growth
of suchevils, but in their successful extirpation after they have been allowed
to attain maturity, that persons desirous of distinction should seek it in troublous
times. ‘

Looking then calmly at the state of feeling and parties both here and in
the States, and at all that has occurred during the last 12 months, with the
utmost desire to see things exactly as they are, I have no hesitation in expressing
my conviction, that if I had failed in conveying to the leaders of the liberal
Party here (who form as the last General Election sufficiently proved the large
majority) an impression of my perfect sincerity and fairness——— if I had not
(having thus prepared the ground) allowed constitutional principles to have

full scope and play during the General Election and in the subsequent modification V

of my Cabinet, we should by this hour either have been ignominiously expelled
from Canada, or our relations with the United States would have been in 9. most
precarious condition —-

I cannot of course furnish you in 9. letter with a record of all the symptoms
by the observation of which I have been enabled to draw this inference—but
I may mention some of the more prominent grounds on which it rests —— First—~—
there was the French Revolution— now I am confident that if when that event
occurred there had been a weak anti French Ministry in power herevif it had
been imagined that such a Ministry was sustained by the sympathies of the
Gov’ Gen‘ and the Imperial authorities; Papi11eau’s commonplaces against
British Aristocracy, Perfidy, humbug of Responsible Gov‘, &c &c, would have
been echoed in one assenting yell from the whole French population of Lower
Canada—and hints more or less explicit of their determination when the fitting
occasion should present itself to -throw olf the hated yoke would assuredly not
have been wanting.——

Then came the Irish movement, and the American Irish sympathy. Instead
of being discountenanced in their endeavors to provoke an agitation here, the
New York emissaries would, most infallibly, in the case which I have supposed,
have found the bulk of the Irish Party here ready to respond to their most
violent anti British propositions. A very slight acquaintance with American
Politics enables one to aflirm with tolerable confidence that if the reckless and
powerful faction who were advocating in the States the annexation of Canada
as a species of retaliation for British misdeeds in Ireland had recieved such
encouragement from this side of the Border it would neither have been in the
Power of the United States Gov‘ nor in its will pending the canvass for a
Presidential Election to have restrained them—~ .

‘,._

ELGI N —GREY PAPERS 265

I need not press these conjectures further. It is diificult to imagine how we
could have got out of the scrape, without a very serious sacrifice in money or
honor or both, if American sympathy had manifested itself in overt acts, and an
appeal to the Canadians to arm in self defense had been responded to by
indifference or disaffection openly proclai-med—Nor is it easy to foresee to what
extent this untoward conjuncture might have affected the allegiance of Her
Majesty’s Subjects in other parts of the Empire — what effect it might have
had on the election of the President of the States. You may perhaps not have
forgotten a curious anonymous letter of which I sent you a copy some months
ago, & which I had recieved from the States} shewing how materially the success
of our violent men here and the promulgation of their rebellious doctrines would
tend to encrease Cass’s chances for the Presidency.

Now observe the contrast——We have had, it is true, our French Republican
sympathy, soaring occasionally into the cloudy region of a sort of mystical
sentimental treason: but this has only served to mark out Papineau and his
adherents as a faction disconnected from the Body of the French Canadians
who say, “ we are satisfied with things as they are~—we do not intend to rebel-—
and if Yankees come across the border to revolutionize us in spite of ourselves
we will give them as good as they bring ”——We have had too our Irish excitement
—But it has only given the body of the Respectable repealers an opportunity of
protesting against the introduction of Irish Politics into Canada. On the whole
I cannot doubt that the occurrences of the year must have produced on the minds
even of of zealous annexationists in the States the impression that their only
chance of getting Canada is to eschew violence and to drag her in by bonds of
commerce & good fellowship -— If we play our cards well I think we may prevent
even that Policy from being successful. But at any rate it is a policy which as
we have entered on the path of Free Trade rather tends to promote our present
objects, and which suggests the hope, if the worst comes tm the worst, that our
connexion——with Canada will terminate in a euthanasia~—— .

Very sincerely Yours

ELGIN & KINCARDINE
The
EARL GREY

[Endorsed]
Nov’ 30/48
Lord Elgin
Rec“ Dec’ 21

1See above 1:. 1.90.

266 I/’LGIN—GREY PAPERS

[Duplicate MS copy]

Private C.O
Dec’ 26/48

My DEAR ELo1N——
With reference to a confidential Despatch I have written to you by this

mail I enclose a memorandum prepared for me by M‘ Smith of this Ofl”1ce.1 The

subject to wh. it relates is one of great importance & great dilficulty on wh. I –

sh“ be glad to have your opinion. My own is rather in favor of having no naval
Establishment on the Lakes in peace. Any we have will only make the
Americans have a larger one, & their superiority at the commencement of a
War W“ be less if both sides did nothing till the War began, we ca probably by
sending out large means from here create a force almost as quick as they cd, but
we certainly ed not afford to keep up permanently near so large a force as they
can with the advantage of having all their resources at hand—I shall probably
have to write to you again before the mail goes but while I think of it I send
you this, & I must also thank you for your very interesting & satisfactory letter
of Nov‘ 30”

I have no doubt that we are entitled to the credit of having prevented a
great catastrophe in Canada, & of this I am glad to think by far the greater part
belongs tm you.—What I can chiefly claim credit for is having seen the extreme

danger of leaving a mere soldier as Gov’ General & recalled Your predecessor & .

persuaded you to succeed him—

I am very anxious about the transfer of Ordnance Barracks &c to the Col‘ Gov‘
on wh. I have already written to you—& I sh“ be glad to extend this to giving
up the Canals also——This was I am told formerly proposed‘ to the Col’ Gov”
and declinedwwfl it not be better received now if such a proposal were renewed,
it W“ seem to me much better for the province to have the complete control of
all the Canals & surely the receipt must now pay for repairs & superintendence,
if not our enormous expenditure has indeed been wasted

(S0) GREY
Trrn EARL or ELGIN & Kmcnnmnn
[Endorsed]
Dec” 26/48
L“ Grey to L“ Elgin

Enclosing Memorandum by M’ Smith respecting Naval Force on the Lakes
of Canada

[Original MS]

Private Monrnnan. Dec” 6. 1848

MY DEAR Grow, .
I confess I should view with considerable apprehension any attempt which
might be made under existing circumstances to induce the Colony to assume

.,___ -_–,.___‘.

1See below, Appendix XXXIII.

,,

,,……——~…….., —…_

ELGI N—G’RE Y PAPERS 267

part of the charge for its military defence which has hitherto been defrayed
by the Mother Country. The following are among the reasons which lead me
to think that such a proposition would be at the present time inopportune.
Firstly— It would encrease, I fear, the uneasy feeling which the free Trade
Policy of the Mother Country and the language respecting the Dependencies of
the Empire in which British Statesmen have of late years indulged both in and
out of Parliament have tended to produce in the Colonial rnind.~It would
confirm the opinion, which already. obtains too widely, that Great Britain begins
to feel her Colonies a burden and a nuisance~——that she desires to sever one by
one the bonds that unite her to them—that the connexion will therefore be of
but uncertain duration—and that annexation to the States must perforce be
Looked to as the inevitable goal, the only practical mode of terminating a
provisional, and entering upon a definitive national existence.——

Secondly_—- The finances of the Province are at the moment in a Very
unsatisfactory eondition—The unproductive state of the Public works; and the
great falling off in the Import duties——too certain an indication, I fear, of general
distress—-have seriously affected the Revenue; rendered it very difficult to make
the necessary provision for the ordinary requirements of the public service; and
provoked a loud and not always very discriminating cry for economy & retrench—
ment. Any proposal for placing new burdens on the Colony would be regarded
at present therefore with especial disfavor. If the offer to relieve the Province
of the charge of the Govcrnor’s salary were thus accompanied it would be
deprived I fear of all its grace.
and Thirdly— I must repeat what I have already more than once observed in
writing to you on this and kindred subjects that Canada has a special claim
for protection beyond any other Colony, because it is the fact of her connexion
with Great Britain which exposes her to hostile aggression—She has no enemy
to dread but the States, and they would cease to be dangerous to her if she
were annexed.

The same objections do not however in my opinion exist at least in the
same degree to a reduction of the Military force here if the measure be accom-
plished prudently, as one of economy, without unnecessary parade, and without
calling on the colonists for any unwonted sacrifices» I do not indeed go the
length of saying that I should consider even such a measure as this in itself
desirable— Until the S‘ Lawrence has recovered some of the trade which has
slipped away from it, and the commerce of the Province has in some degree
rallied from the depression -under which it labors, I should be disposed to
contend that Englands’ wisest policy is “Quieta no movere”.—to bear patiently
for a while the burdenwhich Canada now imposes upon her, and to console
herself with the reflexion that she has passed through the crisisof Free Trade
and the Revolutions of 1848 without furnishing the occasion for much more
serious expense and alarm. Looking however to the great and natural anxiety
which exists for the diminution of our colonial military expenditure, I do think
that if we get well through the Winter, and the Americans under Taylor prove
themselves to be in truth peacefully inclined, something material may be
effected in this direction here Without much risk, particularly if the Governo1″s
salary be assumed by Great Britain—

268 E’LG’IN—G’REY PAPERS

For, let us for a moment consider with what views we maintain a military
force here. I object, as I have already said, to your calling on the colonists to
contribute to the cost of their own defense. I do not think that you can make
such a proposal at present (for I do not, you will observe, commit myself as
regards the future) without considerable hazard, or even with perfect fairness,
situated as Canada is, unless you have determined to give her a gentle shove
into the Union~ You must therefore, according to My judgment, avoid any
measure or proposition which would lead Canadians to imagine that Great
Britain is less resolved and prepared than she has ever been to protect against
aggression by British means and British Power this as well as other portions
of the Empire. But, on the other hand, you have declared, and I see no reason
why your acts should not correspond with Y‘ professions, that You do not
intend to maintain the connexion with Canada against the will of the inhab—
itants, and that having conceded free institutions and selfgovernment to the
Colony you are by no means prepared to keep troops here to preserve internal
quiet or to do Police duty— What You really want then is a sufficient body of
troops to occupy the forts, to form a nucleus around which a great force mainly
composed of militia may be gathered in case of regular warfare, and to give the
peaceful residents on the frontier, who have the misfortune to dwell in the
vicinity of a population combining the material force of high civilization with

the loose political morality & organization of barbarous hordes, a reasonable (

security against marauding incursions——

There are two ways in which America may give us serious annoyance here
and occupation for our troops-—-either by going regularly to war with the view
of wresting Canada from England, or by permitting bands of citizens under
the denomination of fox hunters, buflalo hunters,~—sympathisers, or what not,
to invade this tcrritory——If she prefers the former game I trust that it will be
played out by Her Majesty’s fleets off New York and Boston, and by my old
friends the West India Regiments in Florida & South Carolina, as well as here
by Regulars and Militia——And, as to the other species of desultory warfare, I
must own that I have little apprehension that it will be attended with any
material or permanent results unless there be wide spread disaffeoiion in the
Colony itself—Although, unquestionably, if we were to do nothing to defend
the Colonists against such attacks, the borderers might concieve a just indigna-
tion and listen to the suggestions of those who whisper to them that the honor
of being subjects to Her Majesty is hardly worth the cost—-

On the whole I am disposed to believe that what is essential in this matter
might be atchieved in ordinary times with the aid of a smaller regular force
than we have now in Canada—I would not ask the legislature to vote money
for militia, or the towns to keep up barracks, because I think You would lose
more in moral than You would gain in physical force by making such proposals
——at the present time. But I would quietly, and sans phrase, remove the troops
altogether from some points—~reduce them in others, and aim at the eventual
substitution of a Major Generals command for that of a L‘ General in Canada
—I enclose a memorandum which has been drawn up by my military Secretary
in which the mode by which the proposed object might be accomplished is
sketched—— I wish you however to look on this paper as “confidential” inasmuch

-r”*

ELGI N -GRE’ Y PAPERS 269

as it has been prepared without communication with the Military authorities,
by whom I have no doubt it would be severely criticisedwlt suggests measures
too which I should think it desirable to carry out gradually when the times are
propitious rather than hastily or per saltum.—

As regards the Governor-’s salary I deem it expedient that Great Britain
should assume that charge rather with a view to future contingencies, and to
calls which at a period more or less remote we may have to make on the loyalty
and patriotism of Canadians, than in consequence of any present agitation or
pressure. I certainly do not think that the people generally grudge much what
they pay to the Governor-—— They are pretty well aware, I suspect, that they
get the change in full out of His Excellency one Way or other—- Still, being
higher than the Salary of the American President, and paid to one not elected
by themselves, it is a. mark to be aimed at by mob orators, or by economists of
the doctrinaire school who who echo the genteel republicanism of Molesworth.
Under most heads the argument from economy concludes clearly in\favor of
the connexion as against an!1exati0x1—— Still, there is an impression, which party
writers and speakers in England do all they can to confirm, that monarchical
forms and the propensities of that bughear the Home Gov‘ are towards expense.
If the Gov“, now the only offioer appointed from England, were also paid
from thence, I think it Wd thein be manifest, at least to every individual in
America, that, except as hearing on the interests of good Gov‘, the colonial

‘ office could have no possible object in maintaining civil list or salaries

Very sincerely yours’

The ELGIN & KINOARDINE
EARL GREY

[Endorsed]

Dec’ 6/48

Lord Elgin

Rec“ Dec’ 29/48

[Enclosure]
DI.S‘1″!tDSU’I‘ION or Tnoors IN CANADA1

MONTREAL
6 December 1848

Schedule of Military Stations in Canada
Above 200 strong.

Confidential

Name of Station Inf~’_ Arty
989 177
Montreal………………………… 966 183
278

Kingston………………………… 758 138
Toronto………………………….. 490 9
London………………………….. 489 80
Niagara…………………………… 253 5

1T’his document is found in M-iecellvzrzeoua Papers, Elghvarey.

270 ELG’IN-GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]
Under 200 strong.

GrosseIs1e.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 103

77
Chamb1y………………………… 74
IsIeAuxNois………………………. 147 11
Prescott……………………….,.. 68 3
69
Amherstburgh………………………. 100 7

Staff of the Command

A Lieutenant General and Two Major Generals with their personal Stafis.
Dep” Adj‘ Gen”
2 Ass“ Do.
2 Depw Ass‘ Do.
Dept’ Quarter MW Gen‘
1 Ass‘ Do.
2 Dept’ Ass‘ Do.
Commissary General –
Deputy Do.
12 Ass‘ Dep” Do.
12 D. Ass‘ Dept’ Do.
Surgeon General of Hospitals
2 Staff Surgeon 1“ Class
5 Do. Do. 2“ Class
3 Staff Ass“ Surgeons
5 Oflieiating Chaplains
3 Town Majors
2 Fort Adjutants
1 Town Sergeant
In addition to the above, there are about ten small Posts varying in strength
from 12 to 4 men each principally for the prevention of desertion.
There are also 3 Troops of Provincial Cava1ry—~A most valuable force.
Proposed reductions in the Military Force stationed at the under mentioned

Posts. Infy
QuebecandG1’osseIs1e.. .. ,. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 100
Montreal,StJoh11s,Cha.mbIy………… …… …. un4l 350
Kingston. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 200
Toronto.. .. .. .. .. .4 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 290
London.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 380
Sore1.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 77
Bytown. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 66
Niagara… .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 100

1,563

-«I

ELGI N —GREY PAPERS 271

[Enclosure]

Note. In addition to the above I have no doubt that eventually from 500—to
1,000 men may be safely withdrawn; but it would be advisable meanwhile to
encourage the formation of Volunteer Artillery and Infantry Corps among the
better class of the town populations which from the military spirit existing among
them it would not be difficult to accomplish.

Quebec

Montreal

St Johns

Kingston

Toronto

London

Ni ngora

Crrosse Isle

This is the most important place in Canada & the fortifications
being very extensive it is susceptible of a very trifling reduction of
force, which however might be made to supply the detachment at
Grosse Isle‘

Requires to be garrisoned as being the Seat of Government. It
is unfortified & the Barrack accomodation very defective. I think
that the troops now stationed there might find the detachments at
Chambly (if that Post be maintained) & at St Johns between which
place & Montreal the communication by Railway is easy and
expeditious.——

An important point in the event of invasion as it stands at the
head of Lake Champlain- The approach to it by water however is
covered by the strongly fortified Post, Isle Aux Nois, about 20 miles
lower down the Lake, & it can at a short notice be reinforced from
Montreal.-— The Barrack is fortified by a work of some strength.

Here also the extensive fortifications demand the presence of a
considerable body of troops— Perhaps a reduction might be effected
by occupying the Barrack in the Town with one Wing only, and
leaving a Battalion at Fort Henry which immediatelyadjoins the
Town & forms its principal defence.

I see no reason for keeping the force here at its present strength.—
It possesses no fortifications, nor are there any apprehensions I believe
or” internal commotion.—One half the number of troops would be
amply suflicient.

Would be a valuable position for a reserved force in the event of
hostilities, being the most central point between the Lakes Ontario,
Erie & Huron.——At a distance from the frontier & surrounded by a
quiet agricultural population the present garrison might be reduced
to one Wing or even less.

A fortified position of importancc~—The river is narrow & the
Americans have a Fort on the opposite bank; so that the Works on
our side should be kept in good repair (which I believe is not the
case at present) & effectively manned.

Notes on 2“ Schedule

The Quarantine Station for Immigrants——The Detachment only
remains there during the summer months.

272 E’LGIN—GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]
Sorel Residence of the Commander of the Forces
Chambly A large Barrack~—A detachment is stationed here, solely I

conceive, for the Plirpose of occupying it.

Isle Aux A most important fortified position in case of invasion by
N” water.—It entirely commands the navigable channel of the Lake
Champlain, & can be speedily reinforced from St Johns & Montreal.

Prescott This town is in a Very exposed situation for the attacks either
of a regular or marauding force from the American side of the river
St. Lawrence——— .

Bytown A Town in the interior at the head of the Rideau Canal.
Excepting that it stands in the centre of a somewhat unruly population
I know of no reason for retaining the Detachment here——

Amllersfv A Fort on the river St Clair—~The observation upon Niagara

burgh equally apply to this post—— The American Fort on the opposite bank
is at Detroit some miles higher up and has lately been renewed-

Memorandum

Referring to the foregoing notes I am of opinion that viewed strictly as a
peace Establishment a reduction of about 2,000 rank and file may gradually be
made on the Infantry force now stationed in Canadar-— It is assumed that
3,000 men would be found sufiicient to render the numerous fortified places on
the banks of the St Lawrence and the Frontier Line secure against the sudden
attacks of Insurgents or Foreign invaders—«. These appear to me to be of the
greatest importance, for the protection of the large towns, to prevent an enemy
from making incursions into the interior and thus exposing himself to be
assailed in rear, and by aifording shelter to our troops until the arrival of
reinforcements should enable them to take the field— but they would obviously
be a source of weakness were they so imperfectly armed as to be exposed to
be taken by a “ coup de Main” While however the Military force in Canada
should be strong enough for this purpose, I am of opinion that a. considerable
reduction might be effected at the several unfortified Towns and Barracks
throughout the Province. Some of these Posts may perhaps be abandoned
entirely, and others such as Toronto and London kept slightly garrisoned but
always available for an increased force if necessary—~ .

Under the head of General Staff a considerable saving might be ef1”ected-—
Indeed the Colony might perhaps be eventually converted into a Major General’s
command with experienced Colonels on the Stafl? stationed in the principal Towns
at a distance from Head Quartcrs— The Departments of the Adjutant Gen‘,
Quarter Master Gen‘, Commissariats and Medical would of course undergo a
corresponding reduction—

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 273
[Enclosure]

For reasons with which you are acquainted I have not consulted with the
Military Authorities and am prepared to find that they take a very dilferent
View of the matter——They may say and say truly that in case of hostilities the
existing force is hardly adequate to the protection of so long and exposed a
frontier as Canada presents-—. But it appears to me that the question is rather
a political than a military one, and must be decided on grounds which can be
better appreciated by the Statesman than the Soldier— Nor should it be
overlooked that some of the most experienced and influential of the superior
Oflieers stationed in this country must necessarily be somewhat biassed in their
Judgment by recollections of the rebellions in suppressing which they played a
distinguished part. Undoubtedly a greatly increased force would be required to
enable us to cope with a regular invading arxny— Even a sudden irruption of
Marauders or an insurreetionary movement might perhaps commit considerable
depredations before a suflicient body of troops could be collected to crush the1n— .
But to be in constant readiness to face such contingencies as these, the Military
establishment of the Colony must be kept on a war footing—And in the present
temper of the American Government with their small Army dispersed over their
immense territory is invasion probable? or is the disposition of our own people
such as to warrant much alarm on the score of Rebels or Sympathizers?

The project of placing the Fortifications in charge of the Provincial
Government appears to me at first sight to be open to grave objections, and one
which should not be adopted without much c0nsideration.—~ They have been
erected at much cost to the Mother country, and must be carefully preserved,
if, in case of necessity, the attempt to hold the country by force of arms be
conteznpIated.— It has sometimes occurred to me that the Canadian Rifle
Regiment now 9,00 strong might with a slight change of organization and under
the direction of one or two Engineer Officers be employed as a species of
industrial Corps to repair and strengthen the Works especially in Upper Canada,
as well as to garrison them—- Without however dwelling on this or any other
specific plan. I am inclined to think that the present defences may be kept up
by the Imperial Government without incurring any very ruinous expenditure,
and I should be loathe to see them intrusted to other hands— As to the Barracks
if the Provincial Government can be persuaded to take charge of them I fear
it will lead to constant squabbling between the Civil and Military authorities if
not to more serious inconveniences.-

These hints and speculations I venture to offer for consideration, although
I have neither had the opportunity of enquiry, or consultation with experienced
Officers, which I should have desired before addressing myself torso important
a subject.

[Endorsed]
Distribution of troops in Canada
Private & Confidential

Dee’ 8/48.
9337-18

274 ELGI N ~GRE Y PAPERS

[Duplicate MS copy]
Private 0.0.
Dec’ 29/48

MY DEAR ELGIN,

I have today rec“ your letter of the 6”‘ & I have but a moment to answer
it as I have much to do before I go to Howick for a week tomorrow. Your
reasons ag” making any proposal about the transfer of Barracks &c to the
Province at present are conclusive, & you may be sure that I will never start
any such proposal otherwise than in the most strictly private letters tm your-
self until you think it may be safely made— In the mean time I am inclined
to think with you that some reduction of force might be advisable tho’ I sh”
be content with one much less extensive than that suggested in the enclosure
to your letter, & if one Reg‘ can be spared reducing your effective force little
more than 500 men it W“ probably be as far as it w“ be safe to go at present-
It may however be a question whether instead of sending home a Reg“ it might
not be better to reduce the strength of all the Regiments in Canada to about
the same or perhaps rather a greater amount than this in all by ofi’eri11g favor-
able terms to soldiers of good conduct to take their discharge–— Maule has
already been considering about organizing the Pensioners in N. America in the
same way that this has been done at home where you know we have found
the enrolled Pensioners an economical & most useful force. By allowing men
of good conduct who have not served long enough to be entitled to pensions
to obtain their discharge upon the condition that they sh“ serve as enrolled
Pensioners 12 days in each Year gratuitously, & with the same rate of pay as
the Pensioners (2/ a day) if wanted for a longer period, & permitting them to
reckon two Years of this service as equivalent to one Year of actual service
towards establishing a claim to pension, it appears to me that we sh“ at a very
small expense indeed have all the advantage of their services on an emergency.
This w‘1 be much promoted if they cd have land assigned them for settlement
& c‘‘ be assisted to settle somewhere in a body. By the aid of the labor of their
comrades wh. I have no doubt wd be cheerfully given for such a purpose a
small patch of ground might soon be cleared for cropping this season, & a log
house might be built, & with these advantages & the superintendence of a Staff
Ofiicer soldiers of good conduct w“ I sh“ think easily maintain themselves—-
The prospect of obtaining a discharge on these terms w“ I think he an encour-
agement to good conduct & a check to desertion—- You will find in the mail a
confidential Despatch wh. I have addressed to you on this subject as I do not
think it right to take any measures for a reduction of the Force without a
previous Oflficial report from ‘you—— You will observe in this Despatch I have
called for a report not only upon the amount of force but upon the possibility
of making arrangements wh. may render the Force less expensive— In this I
have special reference to the question of Barracks. You are aware that if the

ELGI N—GRE Y PAPERS 275

present amount & distribution of the force were maintained a large outlay upon
Barracks Wd be difficult to avoid, but if in addition to some reduction of the
amount of force we cd also effect a concentration of what is retained on some
of the most important points, it seems tm me possible that by selling Barracks
We sh“ no longer want, we might cover a large proportion at least of the expense
of putting those we retain into a good state—

I have been interrupted half a dozen times in writing this & I must now
stop tho’ there is much more I sh“ Wish tm say. I will write to you again by
the next mail but I am anxious to send this at once as it is of great importance
that we sh“ receive your report upon the amount of force to be retained in
Canada as early as possible

(Signed) GREY

THE EARL or Emm

[Endorsed]
Dec‘ 29/48
Lord Grey to Elgin

[Original MS]
Private
Morrrnmn Dec‘ 19. 1848

Mr Dunn Gsnr,

I confess that I am not a little disappointed by the tenor of your letter of
the first Dec’.——— for although I was quite aware that the former communica-
tions which I recieved from you suggesting a scheme for the construction of the
Quebec and Halifax Railway were confidential,—still, as they arrived by suc-
cessive mailswas the measure appeared in the second to have been thoroughly
matured by you——and as, moreover, you required me to endeavour to induce the
Governments of the three Provinces to concur in recommending it,—-I was not
prepared to learn that it is so very doubtful whether, after all, even if such
concurrence be obtained, the Imperial Gov‘ will move in the matter. I shall
endeavor to cast as much cold water as I can over the hopes of my Councillors;
but You will, I am sure, percieve, that it is not easy to induce persons situated
as they are to commit themselves to proposals which would seem to imply that
they are prepared to abandon Without a remonstrance the protection which an
influential section of their Constituents enjoy, unless some reasonable
expectation be held out to them of their procuring the object for which the
sacrifice is made.

9:31-13}

376 ELG’IN—G’REY PAPERS

However, the minute which my Council has drawn up1 seems to me to
place the subject precisely in the position in which you wish it to stand~as a
recommendation coming from this Gov‘ We express in it a perfect willingness
to hand over the wild lands to Imperial Commissioners———to purchase the settled
land required for the linc—~and to consent to the imposition of a tax of 7/6 on
Canadian timbcr—provided that the work is executed—~Unlcss my council are
alarmed and induced to draw back by the more discouraging representation
which I shall be obliged to make to them tomorrow you will recieve a minute
thus concievcd, and invested with all the authority that a resolution of the
Canadian Executive Gov‘ can impart to it, at the same time as this letter.——.

Respecting the question of a reduction of our military force I have so fully
explained my views in my letter of the 2 that I do not think it necessary to
trouble you with the repetition of them. I think it is altogether a mistaken
mode of dealing with this subject to enter into bargains with the local legis-
lature for the maintenance of barracks &c. The adjustment of the terms of
the bargain in the first instance and the construction to be put upon them
afterwards will furnish perpetually recurring occasions for jealousy & mutual
irritation—~ But I do not, as I have already explained see the same objection
to a very material diminution of the force here, if Taylor intends to be peace-
ablc and to respect the laws of Nations. And more especially would such a
measure be safe and practicable if You were to undertake this great work
which would give life to the commerce of the Country, strengthen the connexion
between the colonies—encrease their means of material dcfence—-& revive their
attachment for the Mother Country~—There is very little political discontent
in Canada and let the commercial prosperity of the Colony be once restored.
I will not say to what extent You may not then entrust the safe keeping of the
Province to the Patriotism of the inhabitants——— But do not broach new doctrines
respecting colonial defence when there is no enemy in the field and at a moment
when every individual in the Colony is contrasting its unexampled depression
with the prosperity of the neighbouring States and ascribing all the mischief to
the inconsistencies of Imperial legislation-

12O“‘ December 1848.

“On a. Memorandum of the Eon”“’ the Inspector General dated 18“’.Deceml1er instant on
the mode of providing for the Construction of the Halifax and Quebec Rail Road.

The Committee of Executive Council have had under consideration a..Il/Icnicrandum
(hereunto annexed) on the Subject of the Halifax and Quebec Rail Road, Submitted for Your
Excellency’s consideration by the Inspector General of Public Accounts.

The Committee of Council concur in the Opinion expressed by the Inspector Generalhs to
the importance of this work in a national point of view, and earnestly hope Her Ma.;csty’s
]I3)npIe}‘iuI (government may be induced to recommend it for the fo.\*oral)le consideration of

ar lumen‘.

The Committee of Council are of opinion that by devoting the Revenue to he obtained by
an increase of the duty on Colonial Timber, to ‘Such a purpose, Her Majesty’s Government
would do much to reconcile the Colonists to the niodificntion of the protective System.

The Committee of Council have no doubt that the Canadian Legislature would be prepared
to Sanction any measure having for its object the transfer to Her l\Ia.jesi:y’s Government of
the unsettled Crown Lands, throu h which the proposed Rail Road would pass to the extent
of Ten Miles in depth on each ide. And that it would further undertake to obtain at
the expense of the Province, all the private property required for the Rail Road line in
Canada, and for the Several Stations. And the Committee of Council recommend that,
:3, Measure Should be Submitted to Parliament at the Ensuing Session for the purpose,
in case Her Mu.1esty’s Government Should determine to undertake the wor 3’ (Canada
State Book, I, 1). 1,19). For memorandum see below Aylpemliat XI.

2lv7lgt’n to Grey, Dec. 6, 1848. See above 12. 266.

ELG’IN-C-‘ItE Y PAPERS 277

Dec“! 20.

My ministers have taken the cold Water douche more calmly than I anti-
cipatcd— I send you the Minute on the Railway with a despatch which I am
just finishing hastily at 2 A.M. in which I have boldly propounded Military
reduction as a. thing to be ventured on at once if you undertake the Railway.1
——If Taylor proves a villain and invades us I shall die at my post that is all.»-
I also send by this mail a minute on Emigration and public works2 which was
drawn up and under consideration before ym hints about the Quebec & Halifax
Railway reached me.—It contains a great deal that is useful and which it W“
be well British Capitalists knew although of course if you take up the Quebec
& Halifax line I cannot think of y. aiding our other Ra.ilways—— There is also
among my despatches an excellent letter from my Inspector General to the
Baringsa-«Very sincerely Yours.

ELGIN & KINCARDINE

The
Earl Grey

[Endorsed]

Dec’ 19/48
Lord Elgin

Rec“ Jan” 9/49

1In this dcspatch, Lord Elgiii, cninineriicd on the many a<1\*cnt-ages which the Mother
Country would gain from the undertaking. On the question of military reduction, he aaid:——-

“Ii; is obvious that so soon as Railway communication is extended tlirougli the Provinces,
a smaller Military Force than is now requisite will sufiice for their protection. But looking
to the anxiety which your Lordship has repeatedly expressed that a diminution in the
expenditure incurred by Great Britain on this account should be effected at the earliest
period I am prepared to go 0. step further in this direction-—So confident am I that the
mere undertaking of the work in question will tend to rziise the Colonists from the despond-
ency into which recent changes in the Commercial Policy of the Empire have plunged
them—i;o unite the Provinces to one iinothcr and to the Mother Country—to inspire them with
that consciousness of their own strength and of the value of the connexion with Great
Britain——whicli is their best security against aggression,—~ that I would not hesitate to
recommend that an immediate and considerable reduction should take place in the Force
Stationed in Canada in the event of the execution of the Quebec and Halifax Railway being
determined on.” (El;/in to Grey/, 20 Dec, 1848, No. 153, 001211, 0. .561, 17. 299.)

. “This Minute beers date, 20 December, 1848, and is leased upon the sliggestionscontainerl
In a memorandum of the Inspector General. In recommending the adoption of this memor-
niidiiin, the Council declered:—
“The Committee of Council concur in the Opinion expressed by the Inspector
General, that loans might Safely be Made on certain conditions to Commissioners incor-
porated under the ziuthority of the Provincial Parliament forfche construction of
the Public VVorl<.s referred to in the Memorandum, The Committee of Council are
further of Opinion that in case the Imperial Government Should Sec fit to obtain the
Money required for the Conipletion of these Woi’l:s, it would be expedient to recommend
to Perliameiit the Special appropriation of the proceeds of the Sale of Public Lands
to the redemption of the Debt So created——and the Committee of Council entertain no
doubt that the Public Lands would afl’oi~d ainple Security for Such zi loan.”

The Memorandum of the Inspector General follows. It comniences:——

“This Memorandum is based on the following nssuu1ptions:—

1“ Tlizit the Mother Country contains a redundant population which it is her interest to
have removed to a Country whore under a. System of free Commercial intercourse the products
of the Soil will be exchanged for British Manufactures.

2d That the British Province of Canada containing, as it does. immense tracts of waste
land Susceptible of profitable cultivator [sic] is deeply interested in facilitating by every means
In its power the immigration of an industrious population,

A 3″ Thst.it is_ possible to procure English Capital to promote Colonization through the
mstrumentality either of the Imperial Government or of ‘Associations of individuals in
England.” (Canada Slate Back, I, 1;. 899.) The Mexnorundiim is printed below, Appemli./c XII.

5 This letter is not among the despatclies in the Public Archives.

278 ELG’IN~GREY PAPERS
[Duplicate MS copy]
Private
0.0
Jan? 12/49

MY DEAR ELGIN,

I rec“ three days ago your letter of Dec’ 19”‘ & your olfioial Despatch on
the subject of the railway—— You have indeed succeeded far beyond my expecta-
tion in obtaining from your Executive Council all that we ed ask from them,
their offer of assistance towards the work is most handsome & their minute most
skilfully drawn with a view to its production here—their bringing forward as if
it was their own suggestion the proposal of a duty on Colonial timber is a great
advantage to us, & if my opinion were to decide the question, there W“ no longer
be any doubt as to our propounding the scheme to Parl” early in the Semion,
but I fear. that there is a good deal of hesitation upon the subject still in the
Cabinet & that it is very uncertain whether the measure will be agreed to in
the face of the agitation against all new taxes & most of our old ones wh.
Cobden & 0° are getting up—

I am sorry tm say that Sir E. Head does not seem likely to find his Council
& Parl‘ so much alive to their true interest as yours——but I hope when they
learn what yours have resolved they may be induced to concur.——

I hope you have communicated with him By the Next Mail I hope to be
able to tell you our decision & to answer your Despatch officially in the Mean
time I am very much obliged indeed to you for having accomplished obtaining
so useful a minute from your Council-

With regard to the Military expenditure 1 have No doubt you are right——

I am much hurried today & have no time for More

&c

(signed) GREY

You will probably be anxious to know who is to succeed poor Auckland at the
Admiralty & therefore tho’ it is still a secret here I may tell you that Sir J.
Graham is to be invited to join us & this is to be done in a way wh. may I hope

induce him t[.,, accept-—

[Endorsed]

Jan? 12/49
L“ Grey to Lord Elgin.

[Original MS]

Pnlvate
MoN’mmI.——Janl5’3 4. 1849

My DEAR GREY,

We are still without our letters which we are anxiously waiting for, a whole
fortnight’s news of no ordinary importance being now due.-—— The telegraph
brought us last night a hint of what we are to expect.

ELGI N-GEE Y PAPERS 279

Meanwhile we are proceeding with our preparations for the Session which
is likely to be a memorable one. The Ministers bring in a bill to encrease the
representation. You know that I have always been in favor of such a measure—-
And, at any rate, it is a matter in which I should be loathe to interfere with the
volition of the local Parliament-— Moreover, the Union Act requires that two
thirds of the members of each of the Legislative chambers shall assent to the
first and second readings of a bill affecting the Representation before it pass.
So that it can hardly come up to the Gov‘ for his sanction unless it be very
generally acceptable to the Country. I do not know what part the Tories will
take in reference to this measu.re—— Papineau and his followers have been
clamouring for representation based on population, alleging that if this system
were adopted Lower Canada would have for a time at least the advantage-
To what purpose he would endeavor to turn this temporary advantage if
obtained, is hardly concealed, dissolution of the union between the Provinces,
and annexation, being the themes which his Journal the Avenir is constantly
treating. Indeed as the population of U. Canada is encreasing in a vastly more
rapid ratio than that of the Lower Province, it is manifest, that his proposal
would be suicidal but for the hope of accomplishing by its means some immediate
object. Such no doubt is Papineau’s motive at present, if indeed it be necessary
to look beyond the principle which constantly actuates him, a love of mischief——
We shall see what he will be able to do when the time comes-«my present belief
is that we shall succeed in reducing his following in the House to one~——a certain
M. Chauveau, who has obtained a marvellous insight into the merits of Papi-
neauism and American Institutions since he was passed over for the Solicitor
Gcneralship— At any rate I trust I shall be able to confute the very confident
prediction of Mess Daly and others who used to assure me about a year ago
that Papineau would infallibly withdraw from my new Ministry all the French
Canadians——- To revert however to the subject of the Representation My Minis-
ters have determined to adhere to the principle consecrated in the Union Act of
equal Representation between the P1-ovinces—— There is to be no disfrancl1isc-
ment— Counties with a population of 15,000 and upwards are to return two
members—- Some are to be divided— The encrcased Representation will raise
the Assembly to about 160 in number. On the whole I think the measure likely
to do good, more especially by creating more of an independent public opinion
in the Legislative Body-«but if it fails the administration need not go out upon
it for the provision in the Act of Union which requires for measures of this class
the support of two thirds of the Legislative bodies places them in an exceptional
position. M’ Baldwin has prepared a measure for the -regulation of the Munici-
palities with very stringent clauses obliging these bodies to make provision for
the payment of interest and sinking fund on any loans they may contract, and
enabling the lenders to obtain redress in the event of the local authorities
neglecting their duty in this particular—— I trust also that we shall succeed in
carrying some legislative enactment for getting rid of the local petty works
(always as you may suppose jobs or quasi jobs) in which the surplus Revenues
of the Province have been heretofore frittered away—putting an end altogether
to the system of applying the Public funds in this way——and thus reserving our
Whole income for its legitimate purposes. the payment of the expenses of Gov‘

280 ELGI N—GRE Y PAPERS

—«of the Interest of the Debt——and of the sinking fund- If these plans he
carried out I think we shall place the credit of the Province on a much better
footing than it now stands upon.——

Besides these there are to be a vast number of ministerial measures—~
The Amnesty Bill——indemnification to certain parties in Lower Canada for
Rebellion Lossesea questionable measure, but one which the preceding admin-
istration rendered almost inevitable by certain proceedings adopted by them
either in Lord Metcalfe’s or Lord Catheart’s time—a bill upon the vexed
question, the Toronto University~—a bill to make a court of appeal & to alter
materially the constitution of the Bench in Lower Ca.nada——a new Bank-
ruptcy Law——

Meanwhile a new agitation is getting on foot of which the mot d’ordre is
“protection to home manufactures ”— It is contended that the prosperity
of America results from the protection which her manufactures enjoy & Canada
is invited to adopt a like policy— The free traders and liberals allege that this
means annexation inasmuch as it would be practically impossible to exclude
American manufactures by high duties whatever you might do with respect to
British which are seaborno—- Be this as it may, a section of the old British
Party are making a war cry of it—-

M‘ Hincks alludes to this movement in the note which I enclose. It is in
fact merely a symptom of the generally uneasy and diseased condition of the
public mind which commercial depression has engendered.

In other respects we are tolerably quiet and I certainly thought that after
the election of Taylor we should hear no more of invasion for a time It is
right however that you should see the letter which I recieved yesterday and I
send a copy of it. The writer is Moore the agent for the British mails and a
very respectable person. I only wish the scoundrels Wd come—-we would give
them a proper thrashing, and put a stop for a while to the eternal talk about
annexation which has Well nigh sickened me.

Very sincerely Yours
ELGIN & KINCARDINE

[Endorsed]
Rec“ J an’ 23/49

[Enclosures]
No. 1

M‘ I-Iincks has the honour to transmit to the Governor General the memo-
randurnl referred to in Conversation with His Excely yesterday——— He Would
most respectfully suggest that the present Agitation of 9. Protective policy for
Canada is a strong argument for the repeal of the Navigation Laws the only
boon which the Free traders of Canada have to ask, and which would remove
every just Cause of Complaint on the part of the Colonists The failure of the
Bill for repealing the Navigation Laws would Naturally have the efiect of

1This mamomndum & not in the collection.

_,,A..,..__

ELGIN—GRE’ Y PAPERS 281
[Enclosure]

Stimulating the Protectionists, who would take advantage of the public dis-
content to excite feelings of hostility to British Connexion— M‘ Hinoks has
also the honour to enclose a table giving a portion of the Statistical information
relating to Upper Canada1 which has been Compiled with great care by M‘
Croften who has charge of the Blue Books. This information may be inter-
esting to Earl Grey. at a time when -Colonization is so much discussed.

Inspec Oflice
4: Jany. 1849——

No. 2

Copy

Private Bosrron, U.S. Dec” 26. £848.

MY Loan,

I think it my duty to state for y. Lop, information that I have learned
from Good authority that ernissaries or deputies from Canada are at present
in this city, their object being to form among the Irish Clubs or Societies to
raise men & money for the invasion of the *Cana<las—— Already 5000 men
have joined headed by men of education and property. Very many more are
expected to be enrolled, each member paying a quarter dollar p week sub-
scription—— Similar proceedings are going forward in New York 15000 having
subscribed the rules in a few days—- These statements have been communi-
cated to me by a respectable ‘Irish Physician who was solicited to join the
Assooiation—— I should consider myself culpable were I to withhold these facts
from the knowledge of your Lordship, and have now only to request that my
name may be confined to my own breast Were it known here that I was the
writer of this letter, I should consider that I held my life by a short tenure

I have the honor to be

The

EARL or ELGIN

No. 3
(The following clipping is attached to Lord Elgin’s letter:)

The “Land Of The Frec”—President Polk furnishes a text for present

use in his annual message:—
“With our free institutions, we may congratulate ourselves that we are
the most favored people on the face of the earth.”

A fact supplies the illustration:— ‘
“Peter Roberts, a methodist preacher, was the other day sold on the
Court House steps at Louisville for seventy-five dollars and a half I”

1 This table is not in the collection.

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS 381

[Enclosure]
are sold at 124} p’ C‘ Prem for 6 per C‘. he appeared pleased with our appropria-
tion of the Tolls on public Works to create a sinking fund similar to this State———
thinks it will produce a good cffect———and will represent it on his return——he
sails today———but he draws a wide distinction between U.S. and Can. Sec‘?

I have this day seen the Agents of C.—R. & Co.—~the elder Riggs and he

thinks M‘ Coreoran who is in Wasington will make a Loan. I therefore leave _

at 6 O’Clock in the morning without making any other enquiry. I give no
assurance or even lead to a hope until an arrangement is made, but will in a few
days write the result
I have the Honor to be
&e &c &
(Signed) W. MERRITT

[Original MS]
Private

MONKLANDS. July 2. 1849
MY DEAR GREY,

We have not yet recievcd our letters which left Liverpool by the packet
of the 16*“ Their arrival at New York and the commencement of a debate in
the Commons on Canadian affairs with a “furious” speech by M‘ Gladstone
have been telegraphed1—Meanwhile I have culled from the newspapers pub-
lished since the departure of the last mail some extracts which may perhaps
interest you.

No 1. Is a specimen of the style of Articles which coupled with rotten eggs,
brickbats, insults to myself & Lady Elgin &c &c, lead me to entertain the doubt,
which I expressed in my last letter, as to whether it will ever be possible to rear
in the Canadian mind that standard of conventional respect for the Representa-
tive of the Sovereign which is indispensable to the working of the system estab-
lished here.—— If I were the only Gov‘ Gen‘ who had been thus abused the blame
might be cast on myself—— but, excepting always the rotten eggs and briekbats,
and threats of personal violence which are novelties, every one of my pre-
decessors sincc the Union who has been in the Province has been treated as badly
as I have been-—

No 2. Is an article from the New York Tribune which is curious inasmuch as it
expresses a positive opinion that annexation is at an end if reciprocity of trade
between Canada and the U. States be established—

No. 3. Is the prospectus of a Journal about to make its appearance in the
interest of annexation. You will remark that the humbug about Rebellion
Losses and Lord E1gin’s unpopularity is droppcd—-—- the true grounds, commercial
dcpression—« hatred of free trade——- and impatience of Imperial authority are
alone put forward.

No 4. Gives some valuable information respecting vessels which have come from
the lakes to Montreal with cargoes.— I saw the Captains of these vessels and
they fully confirmed the statements contained in the paragraph which I send.

1 See above 52. 560.

382 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS

No 5. Shews that in this French ridden colony about one tenth of the sum
paid in Salaries goes to French Men!

No 6. Furnishes a singular illustration of the working of American Institutions
— M‘ Polk, late President of the U. States, the Son of a “pious Presbyterian
Lady,” was not baptized till he was on his deathbed!-

I have no great change to record in public sentiment here since I last wrote.-—
I think that the violence of the Press has in some degree subsided—— We shall
see whether the ‘ furious M‘ Gladstone ’ can stir it up again.-

We are recieving many pressing invitations to proceed to the Upper 1_’rov-
ince-— A few of the more ‘violent of the opposition Papers threaten us with ‘a
warm reception. I think however that they will find it necessary to change their
tone or they will provoke a reaction which will be most injurious to their party—

Yours very sincerely
ELGIN & KINOARDINE

The
EARL Gnnr

[Endorsed]
Rec“ July 16

[Enclosures]
No. 1.

MORNING COURIER
Monrrznan, Tonsmr, June 26, 1849.
An extract from the debates in the Imperial Parliament, which we publish

to-day, furnishes additional proof of Lord Elgi.n’s dreadful dishonesty—a dis— _

honesty which we could hardly suppose any man pretending to be a gentleman,
much less a nobleman and statesman, could be guilty of, by any possibility.
It appears that in sending home the documents necessary to a right understand-
ing of the Act for Indemnifying Rebels, His Excellency has totally omitted the
“Votes and Proceedings” of the Legislative Assembly, with reference to the
earlier stages of the Rebellion Losses Bill. Consequently, Parliament is not
officially in possession of these very important documents; fortunately, they
have been furnished by private means, and the Imperial Parliament will discover,
spite of His Excel1ency’s infamous duplicity, that a. majority of British Members
voted for an amendment which would have excluded every man proved to have
been implicated in the Rebellions. But we would entreat the people of Canada
to remark, that though His Excellency could not send to England the “Votes and
Proceedings” of the Legislative Assembly, with reference to the earlier stages
of the Rebellion Losses Bill, he found ample time and means to send an accurate
copy of the proceedings “which referred not to the Bill, but to the Address of
confidence which was presented to the Governor—General after the riots at
Montreal.” In answer to a direct inquiry, Mr. Hawes distinctly stated that,
with the exception of the documents connected with the latter proceeding, the

ELGIN—GRE’Y PAPERS 383
[Enclosure]

lying Address of the Lower House, no “Votes and Proceedings” had been received.

And what do our readers think is the reason alleged for this unheard-of
infamy? Why, that it is not usual, unless on special occasions, to send home the
“Votes and Proceedings” till the end of the Session! So then, according to Mr.
Soap-boiler Hawes, the “Bouncing Ben ” of the Spectator, the “Votes and Pro-
ceedings ” in reference to an Address, which was in itself the very embodiment
of falsehood, the meanest, most contemptible, the most notorious, are specially
worthy of being sent to England, but the ” Votes and Proceedings ” on the main
question can he quietly kept over till the end of the Session. Most infamous and
most disgusting! We had always been inclined to believe that Lord Elgin,
though mistaken and deluded, was a gentleman, and a man of honor, the terms
being synonimous; but when we find him guilty of falsehood, of equivocation and
subterfuge, as in his Despatches, and now when we find him practising, not only
the assemb falsi, but the suppressio veri, if possible a meaner thing, there are
no words in the English language sufliciently strong to enable us to express our
opinion of his utter baseness. He is a man with whom, if he were guilty of such
conduct in private life, no gentleman could condescend to associate.

No. 2.

REBELLION Lossns TO BE PAID——THl’J LEAGUE—-ANOTHER Mom: or Ammo
A.NNEXATION——CHOLERA-VVILL LORI) ELGIN VISIT Urrnn CANADA?—
AN Enncrron Rumon.

Our correspondent X. Y. Z. writes to us from Montreal, under date of
Friday last, to the effect that politicians there have ceased from agitating, and
that the people are exceedingly quiet and peaceable; that the support Lord
Elgin is getting from England and its Government, and the prospect there is
that the Whigs will keep power, leave the incendiary party scarce a hope of
more favorable times. He does the gentlemen of the press the justice to admit
that they have done their best to keep up and prolong excitement; says there
are more newspapers than can get support; that the Pilot is the only English
paper in Montreal not opposed to the Government of Lord Elgin; and that the
Rebellion Losses Act will undoubtedly be put into immediate force; but he does
not mention how the proofs of loss are to be taken—all the claims as yet resting
on a mere assertion of damage sustained, without investigation by disinterested
and capable judges or arbitrators.

The League agitation progresses; the agitators agreeing at least to oppose
the authorities. One of their watchwords is protection to Canadian manufac-
turers, to National Industry; against United States competition, we suppose, on a
line of inland frontier of 5,000 miles: X. Y. Z. believes that on the working of
Colonial Free Trade depends the continuance of British connection, and he gives
the following hint to those on this side the lines who want the Canadas, to be
sure to oppose reciprocity, because it would remove a real grievance:

“I suppose there is but little hope of your passing a Reciprocity Bill to
admit our productions. I f you want to annex us, such a measure would greatly

384 ELGIN~G’REY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

obstruct your designs; but if you had rather be without us, the passing of a
Reciprocity Bill would prevent our troubling you with an offer of junction.”

X. Y. Z. is evidently no enemy to annexation. A hint to harass the com-
merce of the colonists and refuse to allow it a free ingress here, if we want to
‘ripen the pear’ will no doubt receive consideration from those who desire no
tenants to have holdings between us and the American possessions of Nicholas I.
He gives a brief narration of the circumstances connected with the grape—shot
conversation, about which the telegraph has made some misrepresentations
here.-—Had Mr. Ferric given the public the Whole of the facts elicited in his
conversation with Mr. Secretary Leslie, or none, his conduct would have been
less reprehensible. Our correspondent thus concludes:

“ The weather has been intensely hot for the last three or four days. Ther-
mometer above 90° in the shade. There have been two or three cases of sickness
which have terminated fatally, with all the appearance of Asiatic Cholera. There
is not the slightest reason to believe that the disease has been introduced into
the city. It is supposed to be sporadic. The cases were all persons of very
intemperate habits.

“ Not very much travelling just now for your people to visit us.

“Nothing believed to be decided as yet as to the future seat of Government.
A rumor is curent that the Governor-General is about to visit Upper Canada,
and that he will probably remain there most of the Summer. Not unlikely, I
should say. A dissolution of the House is again talked of, but it emanates from
the other side, who can know nothing of what Ministers intend; and in fact the
-object of circulating the report is to attract their followers to join the League.”

No. 3.
ADVERTISEMENT

ACOMMITTEE having been formed to give effect to the intentions of the

Projectors of a JOURNAL, the Prospectus of which is now submitted to
the Canadian Public for their consideration-those gentlemen who reside at a
distance from Montreal, and who may be desirous to communicate with the
Committee, will be pleased to address their letters, post paid, to the Undersigned,
Secretary, pro. temp. ‘ ’

EXPOSITION or A Dnsron
‘I‘O nsrrnsnrsn IN ran orrv or MONTREAL
A Jounmn,
INTENDED TO ADVOCATE TI-IE PEACEABLE SEPARATION or CANADA neon: IMPERIAL
CONNEXION.

THE permanent subjection of the Canadian Provinces to British rule has

ceased to be the doctrine of any class of British Statesmen. The termina-
tion of Colonial dependence can only be delayed so long as, split up into hostile
parties, and torn by internal disscnsions, the people of Canada shall continue
to waste their energies upon fruitless expedients and to neglect using the power,
they inherently possess, of applying a heroic remedy to their manifold ills.

ELGI N -GREY PAPERS 385
[Enclosure]

But though delayed, union and organization for a common purpose will yet
prove the salvation of Canada.

That common purpose is already openly named—~alre8.dy it warms the
heart of the aspiring, cheers the timid, and assists in sinking into oblivion
asperities of every kind, whether growing out or irrational political attachments,
or differences of religion and race. In fact, the predicted day and hour are at
hand. Independence is the inevitable solution of the convulsions which now
distract the Provinces.

The desire for independence is no longer confined to a scattered few; it has
its most ardent votaries among the agricultural and laboring masses. External
causes have aided in producing this healthy political feeling.

English Free Trade is a death blow to the Colonial connexion. The Cana-
dian is no stranger to the fluctuations and temporary stagnations of commerce;
nor is he tempted to despair, when suffering from their effects. But under the
altered cozmnercial system of Great Britain, he loses all hope of future prosperity.
London and Liverpool become foreign, and not friendly, ports; and he turns to
New York and Boston as the natural outlets for the products of his industry.

The traveller who crosses the line which severs Canada from the United
States is compelled to make painful comparisons. On the American side, he
beholds well compensated industry, unceasing activity, untiring enterprise,
liberty of action, and security of property from Government exactions. He
leaves behind him commerce in decay, a country bereft of life, a desponcling
people, a corrupt government, and an aimless social condition, embittered by
foolish jeallousies and strifes.

The opponents of self—government are staggered when they contemplate
such results, and are constrained to admit, that where the soil, climate, and
the people have so many features in common, the advancement of the one
country, and the languor of the other, must proceed from the difference of their
political institutions.

The enervating influence of Imperial rule is felt in every department; of life.
The intellectual inferiority of the Canadian Colonist to the American Citizen,
is but too well established by comparative statistics of art, science, literature,
and education. –

The Canadian Colonist holds a very humble rank in the estimation of the
Metropolitan. The Roman pride in presence of the Provincial is renewed in his
case. He commands no voice in the Imperial Senate, and has, consequently,
no share in Imperial Legislation, even when it specially affects his own interests.
Consigned to an obscurity which stifies talent and checks ambition, he drags
out a moody and discontented existence. His country is chiefly valuable to
British Statesman, as atiording facility for assaili-ng a rival maritime power;
and his soil becomes the inevitable battlefied, whenever a contest arises.

As year has succeeded year, the public mind in Canada has been gradually
moulded by circumstances to the contemplation of a great revolution in their
relations with the Parent State; to many separation has appeared to be the
only solution of the innumerable embarrassments brought upon this country

@145

386 ELG’IN—GR,I/FY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

by the total abandonment on the part of England of her old Colonial policy;—-
and recent events have brought to maturity principles and yeamings which
were already germinating in the breasts of a large majority of the people.

A Convention, elected by the masses, will assemble in August next. This
Convention, called into existence by the present critical state of affairs, will
inaugurate a movement, to terminate, it is hoped, in providing permanently for
the peace and happiness of a distracted and suffering people.

The moment is deemed opportune for the establishment, in the City of
Montreal, of a Journal which shall advocate the peaceable emancipation of
Canada from the Imperial dominion, and the institution of a. form of Govern-
ment harmonizing with the economical and elective principles of the United
States.

The boundaries separating the Canadas from the conterminous States are
purely artificial, and under any form of Government except a Colonial, those
boundaries must disappear, and commercial intercourse, the interchange of
products and the combined use of capital become as free and unrestricted as
between adjoining Commonwealths of the Union.

@ Moderation in action and Force in argument!

SYDNEY BELLINGHAM,
Sacarmmy, pro. temp.
Montreal, 29th June, 1849.

No. 4.

We had occasion lately to notice the arrival in our port of three American
schooners, from ports on the Upper Lakes. On enquiry we are much pleased
to find that the corn, with which these vessels were principally loaded, could,
at our present rates of freight, be taken to Liverpool as cheap, or cheaper, than
if the same corn had gone through the Erie Canal, via New York to Liverpool.
We give below a comparative statement, the figures being based on actual
transaction:—

VIA THE ST. LAWRENCE.

Cost of Com at Toledo, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..41 cts.
Toledo to Montreal, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 “
— 2s. 2id.stg.
Montreal to Liverpool—freight has been offered at this date,. . 0s. 9d.
23. 11%d.stg.
VIA ERIE CANAL.
Cost of Com at Toledo, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . , . . ..-$1 cts.
Toledo to New Yorlg… ..17i “
——-— ‘ls. 6!rd.sl:g.
New York to Liverpool . . . . i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .05. Bid. “
3s. 1d. stg.

Showing a difference in favour of the St. Lawrence of 1%d. sterling per bushel.
If this can be done now, What may be expected when the St. Lawrence is thrown
open to allow American vessels to go to Quebec, and when the Navigation Laws
are repealed; when German and other ships, bringing emigrants for the West,
will enter into competition with British vessels in outward cargo?

ELG’IN—G’REY PAPERS 387
[Enclosure]

We are also pleased to find that each of the American schooners takes back
a return cargo. The Moses and Elias, for Toledo, has 3,000 bushels coarse
packing salt, 100 barrels pease, (for Cincinatti) 5 hhds. brandy and 5 hhds.
Hollands Gin. The Western, for Chicago, is loading coarse packing salt, 150
barrels mackarel, 30 casks soda ash, 45 bbls. cod oil, and 10 hhds. brandy. The
Miranda, for Cleveland, will load pig iron, mackarel, salt and brandy. The
Canadian schooner Sophia, Capt. Gaskcn, is loading pig iron at Quebec for
Chicago, at 22s. 6d. per ton, and will probably load at Chicago direct for Halifax.
The steamer Commerce, the property of Messrs. McPherson & Crane, is also
loading pig iron at Quebec, for Cleveland, at 17s. 6d. per ton.

The result of this enterprise is most encouraging, and gives us good grounds
to believe that under a system of complete commercial freedom, our trade will
be rapidly enlarged and improved. The fact of the St. Lawrence being adapted
for large sail craft, is a very important point established.

The Captains of the American schooners state that there is no difliculty in
the river navigation, and that after two ‘or three trips they will be their own

Pilots. –

No. 5.
FRENCH DOMINATION?

So much has been said by the organs of the Tory party about French
Domination, and the fallacy is still clung to so pertinaciously by some persons,
notwithstanding the irrefragable proofs to the contrary, that we have been
induced to look into the public accounts to see how the public money is distrib-
uted amongst the two classes of dififerent origins; and, as money and olfice are
power, we leave the world to judge from the following statement, taken from the
public documents of 1848, in whose hands that power rests.

NAME on owzcsn. SALARY. NAME 0)? omvxcna. SALARY.
English. Fr. Oaizadian. it s. d. at s.d. J. 87 11 0
Si!‘ J. Stuart . 1668 13 4 P. S. Hill” 83 6 8
.. 0 0 Geo. Boxall. 56 0 0
Jas. Leslie. 0 0
E . . . . . .. 600 0 0
4 4
4 4
0 0
D 0
. . . . . . . .. 175 0 0
6 8
11 0 0 0
11 0 I3 4
0 0 4 4
10 7 .. . 8 8
13 4 ‘ . . . . . . . . . . .. 1000 O O
14 8 .
4 4 225 0 0
13 4 225 0 0
. 83 6 8 0 0
_ R. S. M. Bouchette…i. 300 0 0 . Hedge…. 200 0 0
Major Campbell . . . . . . .. 1111 2 0 . Ruffenstein. 175 0 0
H. Cotton . . . . .. .. 277 15 4 .. Hmcks… 1000 0 0
W. . . .. 222 4 4 05. Gary . . . . .. 666 13 4
M. 175 0 0 P. Durnford . . . . . . . . . .. 300 0 0

388

[Enclosure]

NAME OF OFFICER

W. Dickenson ……….
N. Goddard…. .

A’. S. Menzies. . .

.€5“_€~*”S
Q’-4
Oocoocooocoo

‘ ooooo¢¢ooaoo<:¢>. ca. 95¢:

I‘.
. A. Hinsworth.
B. Smith.. .. ..
O. Cote

2

US?”

as

..A.B l
Biilfgnnn…

>

Wm. Ermatinger
W. E. M’Cord. . .
E. A. Clark…

oaljczc-Ooooooooi ¢oZ $3» ¢¢¢¢o¢c,¢°°c¢

H.
J. S. M’Cord

J. A Tascliergaxil
W. C. Crofton . . . . … . ..

J. Hallowell . . . . . .. . . . . .
A. Desalaberry. . . . . . . ..
D. G. M’Donell……… 500 0 0
Ch. Petitclaire. . . . . . . . .
J. Tl.\ompsou……….. 135 00
W. Rowan. . . . .
E. R. Antrobus . . . . . . . . .
R. E. Caron…………
Ch. DeLery. . . . . . . . … .
J. F. Taylor . . . . 350 0
E. L. Montizambert. . . . . 250 0 0

R, Lemoine…………
F. S. Jarvis . . . . . . . . 100
0. d

W. B. Lindsay’–……… 500 o o
G. B. Faribaull: . . . . . . . ..
G. W. Wiclfioteed. . . . . . . . 350 0 0

F. S. Primrose

Gr. E. Park. .. 250 0 0
W. S. Burrage. 100 0 0
“ “ 67 15 4

ELGI N —GREY PAPERS

NAME 01:‘ OFFICE}?.. SALARY.
. aul. . . . . . .
W. R. Wright.
Joseph Hutton..
F. Gla
J. Lappsrre.
James Ryan.
H. Driscoll
W. C. Meredith as
200 0 0 A. Buchanan Q. .
A. W. Cochran 536 2 6
I. Hollowell
175 0 0 D. Ross
H. Stuart
W. S. Bewell . . . . . . 111 2 0
750 0 0 Boston and Coflin……. 111 2 0
J.Gr.(:)§den……. . 83 68
G. F. owen…. 55110
M. Sheppard……….. 88 17 8
B.A.Panet . . . . 111 20
J. Jones…………… 55 11 0
C. R. Coursolles. . 55 11 0
V. Guillet……. 55 11 0
C. . . 50 0 0
Wm. Tilly. . . 0
R. W. Fitton 15 4
J as. Greene. 44 8 8
A 44 8 8
4: 4
89 17 7
. . . . 140 0 0
0
79 8 8
. . . . . . .. 7 15 4
W. Downes………. . 40 0 0
‘ B. DeLisle…………. 40 00
500 00 1?. Burns 30 00
E. . 80 0 0
130 0 0 G. 22 4 4
P. ‘ . 20 0 0
F. Mirnee . . . . . 42 44
P. I’ortuga1s………… 27 15 4:
1000 00 F. 60 0 0
500 0 0 0 0
0 0
0 0
225 0 0 J.
J.
100 0 0 C.
J.
T
R.
45 0 0 I’.
J.
D.
400 0 0
$1.13 Johnson . . . . . 00
250 00 J. Wi1kie,….. 50 00
G. F. Tremblay,…….. 28 5 0
15° 0 0 Perrsult and Doucet,… 557 0 5
W. H. Brelmut, . . . . . . .. 348 0
A. M. Delisle,……… M8 00
H. B. IE[ugl\e.s,… (3 11 2
Wm. Bell, 2nd,. . 32 8 4
0 0 C. E. Shiller, …. 356 o o
Jos. S. Lee, I. G. O 175 7 6
350 0 0 I’. Derbishire,…… 75 0 O
G. Ironside,……. 25 0 0
200 O 0 H. Bisl1op1’icl§,………. 25 00

ELGIN—GREY PAPERS

389

[Enclosure]
NAME or omens. SALARY. NAME or onmczn. SALARY.
Grown Lrmda. R. Terroux, (8th)
J. H. Price, . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1000 0 0 Temp. elk.
T. Boutl1il1ier,………. 666 13 4 . at the rate of». – . . . 100 0 0
J_LangeVju’,____,___‘ 325 00 J5. S1mpson………… B0 00
A, McNubb, . . . . . . . . . . . 250 0 0 P. 90 0 0
J C T b” 2:3 M.Murphy………..i). tag
. . ar u ,… .
170 0 0 E. A. R. Huddell . . . . .. 30 0 0
150 0 0 P O O
W 170 0 9 C113. Loofs. . . . . 0 0
J. _, 150 0 0 W. H. Gmflin. .. 0 0
C.W.Sh_ .. 150 00 _ 128
W. F. W1tel1er,. . .. 125 0 0 W. Harrington . . . . . . . . . . 48 0 0
U. 13‘. Laurent, . .. . 125 0 0 Po 354 4 3
I c’W.Ma90n)____ 150 00 E.S.Freer…. . . . . . . . .. 240 00
J C. G:bl),.. . .. 1 P- 748 0 0
P. Warburton… . . . . . .. 120 0 0
‘ J D P‘ $33 3 (1)
(LA. Po1t1‘us,…….. 137 5 o – ewe–~-~-~~.-m
J. Peolnnan,..,……… 97126 ~ P- 592 00
Geo. Fight?” .. . 66 0 0 37 R W- St!IY‘l1C1′ – – – – – – 3 8
03. 0110 ette,………. 5 00 –
E. T. F]ebc11er,……… 175 oo J.Sewe11 ————- .. 360 00
P.L.MOTiD,…s…- .. 175 00 . P- 139 00
C. Bouchette,….. 75 0 O D- L08“?-; – – < – — 144 0 0
A. E.Labrosae,……… 125 00 D-MAWrxght…. 96 00
J. C. Jar%y,.:.B..;:i.];J..t.. 37 5 0 89 12 6 Jmn Watt —— 3% 33
. er 0 ,. . . . . . . . . . . ~
A_R,,sse11, _ _ . _ _ 325 0 0 R. Patton . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 62 0 0
H. Devlne,. . . 137 5 0 P- 46 0 0
m_ Sprflgg’ ‘ 325 0 0 R. Glover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 0 0
Then. Hector, . 275 0 D P- 50 9 0
. J, Jones” _ , 200 9 0 0. Cazeau . . . . . . . . .. 63 0 0
ing’ _ 170 00 R. Deacon…..,…. 03
. . cc e . . . 150 0 0 ,
A_11ey’,,.,’__., 115 00 I’.Lmdsuy.. . . . . . 30 00
G-. HoImes…. 116 o o P- 72 0 0
Wm wa11;er,. _ 33 9 0 C. Berzcy. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 240 0 0
Jam. »Sf:evez1son,. . 360 O 0 , P- 5’35 0 0
A.Doug1as,… . 150 0 0 J- M01°s1 of £28546, the
E. K651; Acct”, , _ , _ _ , 420 o 0 $1113! ar]E’;cnch names we
J_’ ‘ mksteed” 8 8 1 Leon Grlobensky Unknowln
R_ H 120 0 0 2 L. C Vnndz;le.. 70 0 0
E_ _ 120 0 0 3 Leon Fourmer.. 125 0 0
J_ 94; 0 0 4 T. J. Taschereau 75 0 0
J_ . 96 00 5L._H.Masaon.. 200 00
smith A119,)” _ _ 30 0 0 Eng. Ongm. . . ._ . . . . . .2807O 0 0—————-
=;- Mum ~ ~ 5,33 33 s.1…::’°£.:’* z:’§:’:;.£,;. —— ~ 47° ° °
:13. or eous. . J . v . .
P_ W‘ g°0De1.__” 170 0 0 of Englgh oz-xgm….£837I)3 8 1
G. E. Laughlin. . 150 0 0 Salaries: ca ?.°.I>er9°n-‘3
IL ivcrr N 120 0 9 B of Fre_nch ongm . . . . . . . . . . . . ..19176 3 2
3. Macevcnue 110 0 0 “lance ’.”.£°’V°uT °f EH9‘
C_ R_ Huddel . 90 0 0 hsh o1’1gm…………Ma527 4 11
W. J. McDonald. 90 0 0 ‘-ff’
-T. C. Lilly 90 0 0 Note.——-P. stands for Perqmsxtes.

[Editor’s note] On comparison with the Blue Books, ommissions and discrepancies appear

in the list.

390 ELGIN-GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

And this, it will be borne in mind is exclusive of those numerous olficos and
places which are local in Upper Canada,—all of which are filled by persons of
English origin,—besides the patronage of the Board of Works, which involved,
in 1848, the distribution of about £144,000, whether in the construction or repair
of public works, the payment of agents, arbitrators, superintendents, and other
oflicers~—all of whom, with very few exceptions, are also of English origin.

On the whole, it may be said, that assuming the population of both origins
to be numerically equal in the United Province, yet upon an annual expenditure
in round numbers of about £250,000, not £25,000 goes from the public treasury
into the pockets of Her Majesty’s subjects in this Province of French Canadian
origin, Whilst £225,000, or ninc—tenths, are paid to those of English origin. Is
this French domination?

No. 6
J. K. POLK,

BORN NOVEMBER, 1795.
DIED JUNE 15, 1849.

The body lies in state to—day. The drawing rooms are shrouded in black,
and every window is in mourning, with black scarfs of crape. The tall white
columns of the portico facing the south are shrouded in black, giving a funcreal
aspect to the mansion.

The funeral took place at four o’clock this afternoon; masonic ceremonies
being first performed in the drawing room over the body. I saw the body
before it was encofiined. He was habited in a plain suit of black, and a copy
of the constitution of the United States was placed at his feet. Before being
taken to the cemetery the body was hermetically soldered within a copper
coffin.

From the house the funeral cortege, which was very large, all places of
business being closed by order of our good Whig Mayor, proceeded to the
Methodist Episcopal Church, where, after services performed by the Rev. Mr.
McFerran, it was conveyed to the cemetery, followed by a vast concourse. The
body was deposited in the Grundy vault, temporarily; but it will soon be
removed to a. vault on the lawn of the mansion, where a willow now stands,
and over it will be erected a marble cenotaph; thus the body of the President
from Tennessee will lie entombed in the heart of its capital, Mr. Polk, by will,

the evening before his death, gave the lawn to the state, in perpetuity, for this

purpose.
Mr. Polk sent for the Rev. Dr. Edgar, of the Presbyterian church, seven
days before his death, desiring to be baptized by him. He said to him impres-
sively:—
“Sir, if I had suspected twenty years ago that I should come to my deathbed
unprepared it would have made me a wretched man; yet I am about to die

—1.~1-_.

.17/‘LG’INvGRE Y PAPERS 391
[Enclosure]

and have not made preparation. I have not even been baptised. Tell me, sir,
can there be any ground for a man thus situated to hope?”

The Rev. Doctor made known to him the assurances and promises of the
gospel, that mercifully run parallel with man’s life.

Mr. Polk then remarked that he had been prevented from baptism in
infancy by some accidental occurrence, that he had been several times strongly
inclined to be baptised during his administration, but that the cares and per-
plexities of public life hardly gave him time for the solemn preparation requisite,
and so procrastination had ripened into inaction, when it was now almost too
late to act. In his conversation with the clergyman Mr. Polk evinced great
knowledge of the scriptures, which, he said, he had read a great deal, and deeply
reverenced, as Divine truth; in a word, he was, theoretically, a Christian.

The conversation fatiguing him too much, the baptism was postponed to
the next evening; but in the interval the ex-President recollected that, when
he was Governor and lived here, be heed to hold many arguments with Rev.
Mr. McFeri-an, the popular Methodist minister of the place, his warm personal
and political friend, and that he had promised him that, when he did embrace
Christianity, he should baptise him. He therefore sent for Doctor Edgar, made
known this obligation, and expressed his intention to be baptised by his friend.
The same day the venerable mother, a pious Presbyterian lady, arrived from
her residence, forty miles distant, accompanied by her own pastor, hoping that
her distinguished son would consent to be baptised by him.

“Mother,” said the dying ex-President, taking her affectionately by the
hand, “I have never in my life disobeyed you, but you must yield to your son
now, and gratify my wishes. I must be baptised by the Rev. Mr. McFerran.”

His mother did not hesitate to give her consent, and, in the presence of Dr.
Edgar and Rev. Mr. Mack, of Columbia, the ex—I’resident received the rite of
baptism at the hands of Rev. Mr. McFerran.

Mr. Polk has died Worth about one hundred thousand dollars, the bulk of
which is settled upon his amiable lady.

[Duplicate MS copy]
Private
Belg‘ Square
July 20/49

MY DEAR ELGIN

I rec“ your letter of the 2“ on Monday—~ I hope very soon after you Wrote
it the account of the division on Herries’s motion reached you & that it more
than destroyed the effect of Gladstone’s furious speech1———I am very sorry indeed
to perceive from the tone of the Extract from the newspaper you sent me & from
the newspapers sent to Alice that the Canadians continue to show so utter a
want of right feeling & of comprehension of the proper situation of the repre~

1 See above, p. 350 note.

392 ELGI N ~GRE Y PAPERS

sentative of the Crown in the Colony.—They seem not yet to have arrived at
any Knowledge of even the rudimentary principles of their constitution— I
confess that looking at these indications of the state of feeling there & at the
equally significant Indications as to the feeling in the H. of Commons respecting
the value of our Colonies I begin almost to despair of our long retaining those
in N. America; while I am persuaded that to both parties a hasty separation
will he a very serious evil. But whatever may be the result our duty is clear,
it is to act steadily on the policy we have hitherto pursued, so that if a catastrophe
sh“ occur the fault may rest exclusively with the Canadians. Our best hope lies
in the improvement of the trade of the Province wh. is I think likely to take
place; if the people become prosperous they will be indisposed to change the
system under wh. that prosperity has arisen hence your account of the success
wh has attended the commercial enterprises by the S‘ Lawrence is of great
importance–

Here we are I am happy to say within sight of the End of the Session, the
prorogation will I hope certainly take place the week after next but the interval
is one in wh we shall have much wh. is disagreeable to go through—— In the Com-
mons most of the more respectable members unconnected with the Gov“ are
gone & there remain some rabid protectionists & radicals a union of whom may
at any time place us in a minority on the most foolish questions as happened last
night—— In the Lords we shall this Evening I suppose certainly be defeated on
Brougham’s resolutions ag“ our foreign I’olicy.———

[Endorsed] (slgned) GREY

July 20/49
Lord Grey to Lord Elgin

[Original MS]
MONKLANDS

My DEAR LORD] July 5. 1849.

I take the liberty of giving this letter to M. Joly seigneur of Lotbiniere who
has requested a note of introduction to y. Lordship —— M’ Joly is very desirous
to obtain a Commission in the army for his Son, and although I know that I
am not entitled to trouble you on such a subject, I trust you will permit me
to mention that the young man represents one of the most distinguished families
in Canada —— his mother being sister to M” Bingham. M‘ Joly is a Gentleman
of good fortune & high a.mbition—~ He resides chiefly at Paris —-

I have thm hon to be

My dear Lord

The Your’s truly

EARL Gm ELGIN & KINCARDINE
[Endorsed]

July 5/49

Lord Elgin

respecting M’ Joly

ELGI N —GRE Y PAPERS 393

[Original MS]

Private .
MONTREAL July 9. 1849.,

Mr Dena GREY,

The two mails recieved since I last wrote have brought us very important
intelligence — The vote in the House of Commons was so decisive1 that I do
not think your Lordships will do much harm. As to M°Nab’s plan for an amend-
ing Act next Session I do not think it -practicable— Of course it would suit
him—- It would add considerably to Papineau’s contingent— It would weaken
the Gov‘——— Perhaps break it up—— Perhaps make a quarrel with me. In short
it would open many chances of which the gallant Knight would not be slow
to avail himself— Ask Lord John what L“ Sydenham thought of him as an
intriguer. No—— there is one thing you could do and only one thing which
would really gratify that party.-— I have suggested it —- Turn noe ofif — They
flatter themselves, perhaps vainly, that they will never get another who will
adhere so steadily as I have done to the rule of impartial justice——- At any rate
they calculate that if I were dismissed the warning would not be thrown away
on the most obstinate successor. If this were done you would not hear of any
more objections to the Rebellion Bill — But I confess I am not sanguine that
any persons who will not accept the Bill with our Commissioners and instructions
will be content with any modification that does not imply either my removal
or a change of administration ——

Meanwhile the news from England has produced a marked and so far as it
goes satisfactory change in the tone of the Press.—~ In proof of which I send
you the leading articles of the Tory papers of Saturday.

N° 1 To begin with the worst, is my friend the Gazette -« He, relying on
arguments borrowed from the M8 Chronicle demonstrates that Canadians are
absolved from the obligations of allegiance. You will observe however that he
goes not for annexation but indepen.dence—-and holds out an olive branch to
Papineau’s ultra democratic, ultra French, ultra rebel followers.

No 2. Is the Herald-—He is for obeying the law, forgiving old foes— and
fraternizing with the French— He adtnits that the Rebellion Losses bill never
was a sufficient cause for the violent talk which has ensued upon it-«but it has
removed a little difficulty which has hitherto prevented him from giving utterance
to his real sentiments on the annexation question—of which he is on commercial
grounds the advocate.

No 3. Is the Transcript —— a paper of considerable circulation especially in the
rural districts ——~ It takes a very satisfactory view of adairs Pronouns-es strongly
against annexation—says that the Bill as it is to be carried out ought to
satisfy reasonable men—points out that 3 of the Commissioners were oflicers
of volunteers during the Rebellion:— .

The Party, it would therefore appear, is now split into three; We shall see
which of the fragments reeieves the greatest increment as they roll through the
Province. On one point all are agreed — We must have done with this habit
of abusing the French — we must live with them on terms of amity and

1 See above, p. 360 note.

394 ELG’IN—GREY PAPERS

aifection-—Such is the first fruit of my policy w” was to bring about, we were
assured, a war of races. I am -no less certain that notwithstanding the talk
about annexation; it is much less imminent now than it was a fortnight before

I sanctioned the Rebellion Losses bill.—-
Very sincerely Yours

ELGIN & KINOARDINE

The
EARL GREY

{Endorsed}
July 9/49
Lord Elgin

{Enclosures]
No. 1
MONTREAL GAZETTE

SATURDAY Mormrno, J ULY 7, 1849.

The Montreal Weekly Gazette was published this morning, and may be had
either at Mr. M’Coy’s Store, Great St. James Street, or at the office of this

paper.

“With those who say that it does not signify whether they (the rebels)
are paid or not, and, that we have nothing to do with the matter, we will not
argue. By a strict parity of reasoning they are bound to hold, that the
decisions of the Canadian Courts Martial might be reversed, and their members
punished; or that a grant of public money might be made, from the funds of New
South Wales, to Frost and Jones, to compensate them, (in the modest language
of the Canadian claimants), “ for loss of time, inconvenience sustained by
transportation to Van Diemen’s Land,” and that we should ‘have nothing to do
with that matter.

If such a doctrz’ne be true, we can only say, that the Oolonists do not owe
allegiance to the Queen of Great Britain.”

The above extract is from the London Morning Chronicle of the 14th June.
We entirely agree with it. “If such a doctrine be true, we can only say that
the colonists do not owe allegiance to the Queen of Great Britain.”

For the last four months people have made up their minds to stake their
allegiance upon the truth of that doctrine, as exemplified in the Rebellion Losses
Bill. The example has been certified, and the truth of the doctrine confirmed;
allegiance they maintain is no longer due. Nor does England desire any longer
to retain the colony. She found the rebels -troublesome when they rose in arms
to drive her troops out of the country; she found the loyalists troublesome, when
she only demanded of them to pay for the mischief she had called upon them
to inflict. And she has asked herself the question, “ of What use are these people
to me? Better to give them up and have done with it.”

ELGI N—GItE Y PAPERS 395

[Enclosure]

The ex-loyalists enter into her feelings, and accept her determination. They
are tired of a system of government which affords no guarantee for peace, no
security for freedom, no check to party legislation. They now have moved
one step in advance, and it is a great one.

The British American League will consolidate the opinions, the efforts, and
the objects of the Anglo-Saxon population of Canada. The only drawback that
we can see to its action is, that it meets so soon after the recent determination
of the Imperial Government, to refuse preventing its people who obeyed the
law, from being forced to pay for the losses of those who resisted it. It is
possible that the Delegates may not have had time to make up their minds as
to the course they ought to pursue, and the length to which they ought to go in
the present altered state of affairs.

The state of parties within the colony has materially changed, since the
League began to be formed; the relative position of Canada to Great Britain
has been totally altered; and changes which might have been considered
sufficient then, are obviously far from being suflicient now. And it would be
matter of regret, if the Convention were to bring forward measures, which,
while meeting portions of the evils of Canada, would leave others unprovided
for, or which even for those seen and acknowledged might be but temporary.

We have every confidence in the general intelligence and patriotism of our
countrymen, and we feel satisfied that when they have had time to reflect,
they will make up their minds for the largest measure of change which the
Government of the Province ought to undergo, and which the British Govern-
ment ought to be asked to concede. We trust that they may be prepared for this
change, although we shall not be disappointed to find that they are not quite
so yet.

The questions involved are great and various, the interests heavy and con-
flicting; it cannot, therefore, be expected that the convention at its first sitting
will be ready to come to a decisive opinion upon all the points which must
necessarily be brought before so august 9. body. Nor ought the Anglo-Saxon
Parliament of Canada—as the Convention may well be called under the present
aspect of alTairs—to proceed with premature haste in pledging their constituents
to a course of action, which hereafter they may find it necessary to modify.

We wish to see everything done with calmness, with deliberation, with
wisdom, and an enlighted regard to the future permzmcnt condition and interest
of our country.

Resolutions which are formed with caution can be maintained with deter
mination. A crisis has arrived in the alffairs of the Colony, is there intellect
and prudence enough among us to meet it? We believe there is.

1

that required such supports was not Worth keeping, a similar sentiment he
expressed in his place in the House of Assembly last session of Parliament,
notwithstanding he has sent a number of the Montreal Gazette containing a
supposed libel on the would—be Scotchman. William Wallace, of the Township
of Ramsay, (facts prove that the said figure has no claim to the former, and

1 Cl.\}_Jp)I1g cut.

396 . ELG’IN~GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

public notoriety asserts that he has less to the latter, but Willis, instead of
Wallace, and the letter accompanying said Gazette, purporting that he, the said
Malcolm had put himself in possession of the best law advice in Montreal with
respect to libel cases, and on the strength of said advice, advises the said
wight to enter a Libel action against the Gazette forthwith. 0 Dear! I’m siokl
Goodmight, Mr. Editor.
Yours truly,
JOHN MCWEINNIE.

RAMSAY, 28th June, 1849.

“Is it possible”? This is the heading of an article in the “Mom‘tem-
Canadian” of yesterday, written to inform his countrymen of the change which
has come across the feelings of the Ex—Loyalists of Canada, He seems to know
something of the honesty of the English character, and expresses readily his
belief in the sincerity of the new movement. He is mistaken, however, in one
particular. He uniformly couples Canadian Independence with Annexation to
the United States; and because he advocates the latter, he thinks that the
English are going to do so too.

In this consists his error. There are many things to settle before the
Canadian English can entertain the proposal of Annexation. A fair division
of the Province must be made even for Independence, by which hostile collision
between the two races may be aver’ted,——a matter of humanity and civilisation
to be accomplished by separating the English portion of the Lower Province
comprising a. great part of the district of Montreal and the Townships, from
the French portion below, and erecting a French Province with Quebec its
capital as a free port.

After some such arrangement has been made to prevent quarrels and contests
in time to come, it will be time to calculate whether we are to gain or lose by
Annexation. Our own opinion is that we should not gain.

Our revenue is £500,000, and our debt nearly £5,000,000. Why should we
give up the one, without being relieved from the other?

Then again Canada could never ask Great Britain, to authorise us to
annex ourselves to a foreign and a powerful rival nation. It must be the wish
of all who look for a change, to part from Great Britain in peace, and with good
feeling. She desires it, and Canada cannot but desire it. But this could not
he done if we ask for annexation. The pride of a thousand years would forbid
it. And there are other considerations, which we have neither time nor space to
enter upon to—day.

We wish to cultivate 2. good understanding with Le M cmitewr and I/Avem’r,
and those who think with them, as to the necessity of an advance for Canada,
independent of tra/mmels of any kind, either from Priest or King, and we advise
them to point out to their readers the difficulties in the way of petitions for
Annexation, compared with those for Independence. ‘

‘…… «—-

ELGI N -GREY PAPERS 397
[Enclosure]

The only difiiculty that can arise as to Independence within the Colony, is
the division of the Province, but by mutual concessions that may be peaceably
arranged. But the English must rule above, while the French may rule below’.

No. 2
MONTREAL HERALD.

SATURDAY Moaumo, July 7, 1849

The Indemnity Bill has now gone through all the stages which can render it
an accomplished fact. In the Colony it has passed the two branches of the
Legislature, and has been assented to by the Governor General. In England
Her Majesty’s ministers have given to it that ultimate sanction which their
previous conduct had led all men to expect. Their conduct has been approved
in the Commons, in the only constitutional way by which that House can
express its opinion on the performance of a duty, which the constitution con-
fides to the Crown. In the Lords, the Peers have given their support, though
by a very small majority, to the principles avowed by the Commons. The Bill
is really and truly law; and, however distasteful, must be respected as such
by every good citizen. That is the condition upon which all governments,
monnrchial or constitutional, can alone be carried on;~—the principle which
will never grow out of date, whether we remain a nominal dependency, a prac-
tically independent State, or Whether our destiny shall lead us to. another political
connection. That must be the law in all communities till “chaos be come
again,”——til’l anarchy reigns, instead of civil order. But, it is no less the rule
of practical Wisdom than of civil government, to forget the past and irrevocable,
or to remember it only as a warning, and to look forward to the duties, which
the revolution of time is constantly renewing for every intelligent being.
Enough mischief has been done, God knows,—~enough argument, and objurga-
tion, and contention have taken place during the period which has elapsed since
the introduction of the Bill to our publication this day, which announces its
last stage. Jam sat superque. Let us think of what we have to do, rather than
what has been done, whether with our consent, or against it. David ceased to
lament when he knew that his child was dead. Under whatever figure we may
describe the opposition to the indemnity bill, it is dead sure enough, and the
sooner it is buried the better. Nor will it be amiss, if, with the defunct—follow-
ing the ancient Scandinavian method~—we inter his warlike arms and acoutre-
ments, which have been so well battered in the contest, that we doubt their
capacity to be of much service on future occasions. We would desire in plainer
language, that the asperities and ill will, the hard joking, and hard language
which were inseparable from the late struggle, should have their end with it.
In whatever State there is discussion, there will also be division; nor is it possible
that in a State like ours, composed of such discordant elements, irritated by such
bitter recollections, often animated by such contrary interests and motives,
our divisions, should fail to be sometimes disastrous, and if persevered
in ruinous. When communities become indifferent to politics, they soon

398 ELGIN—GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]

cease to possess political power; but there is a point beyond which conten-
tion cannot be pushed without being equally destructive to liberty, and
far more destructive to all the other interests that men hold dear.
This point is surely reached when men tire even of prolonged complaint.
The English law exonerates every man from the guilt of treason who obeys an
usurper, after he has attained the power of a de facto king, for our social duties
attach themselves to the present, not to the past and society can bear any thing
rather than confusion and violence.

Among our most pressing ‘political duties, it has now become evident, that
the one of chief importance is the consideration of the question of annexation,
and we are anxious that our countrymen of all classes, should approach it, in a
spirit as little as possible biased by former disputes, as much as possible, pre-
pared to discuss it as an independent subject. There are so many obvious
advantages, and so many plain evils to be hoped on the one hand and expected
on the other that thinking men ‘may well remain in doubt as to the part which
it becomes them to pursue.——- But what is most necessary is that we should get
rid of all improper motives that will not only blind us in endeavouring to see
our path; but will, if encouraged, infallibly prevent us from arriving at any
decision that will be satisfactory or permanent. In balancing the pros and cons
of the question, We must look simply to the effects, which annexation would
produce. For our own part we should repudiate the idea that the recent course
of the British Government furnished a good cause for a desire on our parts to
become a state of the Union. All that we desire to say on that subject is, that
the tie of honour, which forced Britons to consider themselves as the advanced
guard of Great Britain in Canada, has been dissolved, by the action of the
British Government; and that as members of an independent nation they are
now at liberty to act for themselves. But we neither hate Great Britain, nor
monarchy ; nor have we any dilettanti admiration for the Americans, or for a
republic; since we have known many intelligent men, who have been equally
good citizens and equally well satisfied under her Majesty’s Government, or
under that of the P1‘csident.—~We love Great Britain because we are British by
birth or descent, and we shall continue to love her, though a new form of political
existence may oblige our duty to another state.—To pretend that the passage
of the indemnity bill has changed the afifections of our lives, would be an afl’ec—
tation, that could gain no belief. If we would now attempt to carry a measure
which we would lately have opposed, it is only because we find ourselves released
from a partnership, perhaps inconsistent with our interests, but to which we
were honorably engaged. Neither should we be inclined to make our opposition
to the present ministers, nor our dislike to the conduct of Lord Elgin, a cause
for the formation of an annexationist party. Still less should we commit the
absurdity, if we determine to go for annexation, of making the “putting down
of the French,” or the reform of any particular civil, or ecclesiastical abuse
arising out of the French element of our society, a reason for our choice. It
must be evident, by this time, to all the world, that no party can succeed in
Uruted Canada, without a genuine union of both elements—-not based upon the

E’LG‘IN—GRE Y PAPERS 399

[Enclosure]

names of ancient leaders, who have deserted their friends, but on some common
principle, or at least on some common object. This is especially true of such a
movement as that, which we are considering. If it is to be any thing but a
party cry on the one hand. or a mere flash, to be followed by disgraceful, ridicu-
lous failure on the other, it must be a very unanimous movement. Without that
it can neither be successful in the colony, in England, nor in the United States.

Instead of motives alike unworthy and deceptive, we would put these simple
and intelligible ones; that in passing to the United States, we should come within
the bounds of a system of trade, from which we are now excluded; but which
would be far more valuable than that to which We belong.—This in itself would
largely increase the prosperity of the country; but in its train would come an
accession of emigration, not of the miserable and starving from Europe; but of
intelligent and monied manufacturers and merchants from the South. Capital
would come too, because those capitalists who are most near to us, would possess
that patriotic interest in our welfare which arises from the claim of a common
country; while monied men would not be deterred from investments in Canadian
securities from that fear of violent change, which will always be our bane, so
long as annexation remains in reversion, the threat of every dissatisfied party,
the frequent object, perhaps, of turbulence and violence. We may also hope
that the political distractions, which have hitherto done so much to injure and
retard us, would be, at least, alleviated, by a change, which would so completely
nullify the old grounds of quarrel. It would neither establish a French nation-
ality; nor would it destroy the political influence exercised by the French portion
of our population. But it would make all men seeking public distinction look
to the ideas, which find most favour in American circles, as those upon which
alone they could hope for success. They would not consider so much what
would be approved by the dominant party in Montreal; but what would be
most effective with those who possessed the ascendancy at Washington. Thus,
Canadian ideas would be Americanized: in other words they would be Anglieizcd
to the extent to which English ideas could be suited to citizens of the United
States. Then we should gain all that we desire from the French part of our
population, not by force, but by their own efforts to fit themselves to act in the
new sphere in which they would have to move.

In approaching a subject so comparatively new as this, it is probable that
there may be great diversity of opinions on minor points. We can hardly hope,
in endeavouring to discuss it, to meet all the views of those who, in the main,
will agree with us. Many different causes will lead difI”ercnt parties to the same
common result ; but it will be clearly necessary to put the general movement, on
so broad a basis, and with so simple an object, that whatever may induce the
wish, all who wish alike may be able to act together.

400 ELGI N -GREY PAPERS

[Enclosure]
No. 3
MONTREAL TRANSCRIPT AND COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER

SATURDAY, JULY 7, 18449

We direct the particular attention of our readers to a letter which we give
below, signed “An Old Colonist,” and which we extract from the Courier‘ news-
paper. On reading that letter we were led to refer to the debates in the House
of Commons on the 14th and 15th ult., which have been published at some length
in the newspapers. The result of that reference has been to satisfy us that the
view taken by an “Old Colonist” is substantially correct, and that far from
having to complain of the British Government, we have received from that Gov~
ernment all that we can reasonably ask for. We undertake to prove this in a
way that can admit of no doubt. We defy any reasonable man to read the
extracts we will lay before him, and then assert that the British Ministry has
wantonly insulted the feelings of its loyal subjects in Canada. They have not
disallowed the bill, it is true, but neither have they sanctioned it. They have
taken a course which ought to satisfy us, and which leaves no victory to our
opponents. We are only surprised that any public writer should be found bold
enough to challenge this truth. We say that it is pitiable that the public mind
should be abused as it has been. We blush when we think of the insults that
have been lavished on the British Ministry——of the cool threats of annexation——
of the base renunciation of allegiance: and for What? Let any man sit down
and quietly read the debates in the British Parliament, and then tell us for
what cause these threats have been used. Have the complaints of the loyalists
been unattended to?—-have their great apprehensions been disregarded‘?—have
their respectful petitions been ignomin